2019 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Su...
Page #ChapterSectionFact NameSupporting Reference(s)Main CommentSubmission typeDate Submitted
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134BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structureN/AHeterochromatin --> column 2 --> Barr bodies (INACTIVATED X chromosomes) - Not inactivate X chromosomesSpelling/formatting01/01/19 11:34 AM
234BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structureNot needed, mnemonicHistone Deacetylation Deactivates DNAMnemonic06/10/19 7:10 PM
335BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesFA 2019 Page 35Why (-1 ring ) is colored in red?Spelling/formatting01/06/19 5:33 AM
435BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesaaaPurines (A, G); 2 rings -- PURe As Gold; Exchange 2 gold Rings in a weddingMnemonic03/01/19 5:26 AM
535BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesSelf-created.I have created a helping mneumonic for the major deamination reactions. C U At Home Get Xtra 5 Toppings. It allows one to remember the order of the deamination reactions and which reactions are paired.Mnemonic05/21/19 8:09 AM
636BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesishttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/proguanil https://www.uptodate.com/contents/antimalarial-drugs-an-overview#H14Add proguanil (anti-malarial) to list list of medications that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 12:52 AM
736BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesisFA 2019 page 416 Orotic aciduriaIn main pyrimidine base production diagram i think it would be better if you add (UMP synthase) enzyme on arrow from Orotic acid to UMP as it's clinically high yield.Clarification to current text04/18/19 2:43 AM
837BiochemistryMolecularGenetic code featureshttps://www.ugg.com/men-footwear/Add mnemonic "when you wear your UGG, you Tryp (trip; for Tryptophan)" to remember that UGG codes for tryptophan and that it is an exception to the Degenerate/Redundant feature of the genetic codeMnemonic02/08/19 10:45 AM
937BiochemistryMolecularGenetic code featuresPersonal MnemonicThe 4 genetic code features are: Unambiguous, Degenerate, Commaless, and Universal. Take the first letters of these 4 features and you can spell "CUUD." The mnemonic would be: Genetic "CUUD" features.Mnemonic04/28/19 11:58 AM
1037BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficiencieshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/elitek-rasburicase-342255#90Rasburicase is colored as an enzyme with green. Please color it like a drug so as we don't get confused.Clarification to current text04/27/19 1:33 PM
1137BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficiencieshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/elitek-rasburicase-342255#10 link2: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Mechanism-of-action-rasburicase-and-allopurinol-Depicted-is-the-pathway-of-purine_fig1_11995629uric acid is the normal end of metabolism in human body. If rasburicase(urate oxidase) is taken as MEDICATION then it transform uric acid to allantoinMajor erratum05/13/19 10:33 AM
1238BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonic"2 'sides' to every 1 coin ['can']" hint for Etoposide/teniposide inhibit TOP II and irinotecan/topotecan inhibit TOP I. This can also be placed on page 434Mnemonic01/09/19 6:30 AM
1338BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicFlUORoquinolones inhibit TOP IV(4).Mnemonic01/12/19 7:15 AM
1438BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicTo remember that DNA Polymerase reads DNA 3’ to 5’ and DNA is synthesized 5’ to 3’ write out the words “reads” and “synthesized” but replace every letter “E” with the number “3” and every “S” with the number “5”. This works both for prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and synthesis. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 8:28 PM
1538BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMneumonicDNA polymerase III (III, red color) proofreads with 3' (3, red color) --> 5' exonuclease. DNA I (I, red color) degrades RNA primer (prime, red color)Mnemonic02/19/19 12:51 AM
1638BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15137905Regarding Bloom Syndrome it would be better if add more information about it like it's autosomal recessive. clinical manifestations include : growth retardation, facial anomalies, photosensitive skin rash, and immunodeficiency.High-yield addition to next year04/18/19 3:46 AM
1739BiochemistryMolecularMutations in DNAN/AIn the image provided for "Mutations in DNA", the silent mutation coding DNA (GAA) is the same as the mRNA codon (GAA). This would be a correct translation... not a silent mutation.Minor erratum02/16/19 2:53 PM
1840BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238440Fanconi Anemia is given as example under "homologous recombination", it is actually an example of "Non-Homologous End Joining" repair mechanism.Minor erratum01/16/19 9:09 AM
1940BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-homologous_end_joiningNHEJ is also defective in many forms of SCID.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 6:06 PM
2041BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationhttps://www.genscript.com/molecular-biology-glossary/12074/ATG-or-AUGThis submission is referring to a video associated with page 41 -- not an errata in the text. The title of the video / section is "Functional organization of a eukaryotic gene." I believe the error is spoken starting at time 1:09 -- "Also recall, the start codon is AUG when referring to DNA, and ATG when referring to RNA."Minor erratum05/29/19 8:53 PM
2141BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic geneUworld Question #2033Poly-A tail is NOT AAAAAA its AAUAAAMinor erratum07/25/19 8:46 PM
2241BiochemistryMolecularProtein synthesisMnemonicThe directionality of protein synthesis proceeds from the amino (N) terminus to the carboxy (C) terminus. This can be remembered by “proteiNs are Created N → C terminus"Mnemonic03/01/19 7:43 AM
2341BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymeraseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22085/RNA polymerase 2 synthesizes 5' to 3'; it does not read 5' to 3'Major erratum05/12/19 1:50 PM
2442BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesIt's MnemonicActinomycin *D* (also known as *D*actinomycin) inhibits RNA polymerase in *D*ual (both) prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Mnemonic01/12/19 8:13 AM
2542BiochemistryGeneticsSplicing of pre-mRNAmnemonic for existing material in bookGULAG - A mnemonic for the sequences at either end of an intron: FU at 3' end and AG at 5' end. The L stands for Lariat/Loop.Mnemonic02/07/19 8:25 AM
2644BiochemistryMoleculartRNAhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6236/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848691/ ;and also UWorldIn the diagram explaining the structure of a tRNA, the acceptor stem is incorrectly labeled; it should include the whole length of the vertical 3' end attached to the T arm (so basically the CCA end is only part of the acceptor stem)Minor erratum03/08/19 5:45 PM
2744BiochemistryMoleculartRNAhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D_arm#cite_note-hardt1993-1The D-arm is a portion of the tRNA molecule that acts as a recognition site for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase; wording is unclear "D-arm detects the tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase."Clarification to current text03/29/19 5:49 AM
2846BiochemistryCellularCell cycle phaseshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2443.1996.d01-234.xEPO is Non-receptor tyrosine kinase, while insulin, PDGF, EGF are receptor tyrosine kinase of the family tyrosine kinases.Minor erratum02/06/19 6:26 AM
2946BiochemistryCellularCell cycle phasesmnemonic, FA 19 p. 46*P*hosphorylated Rb allows cell cycle to *P*roceedMnemonic05/07/19 5:00 PM
3046BiochemistryCellularCell cycle phaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC23451/hypophosphorylation (activation) of Rb should be hyperphosphorylation (activation) of RbMinor erratum05/30/19 9:17 PM
3146BiochemistryCellularCell cycle phasesnot neededCyclin-dependent kinases is Constitutive and inactive (in absence of cyclin)High-yield addition to next year08/06/19 1:02 PM
3246BiochemistryCellularRough endoplasmic reticulumaaaN-glycosylation occurs in the eNdoplasmic reticulum; O-glycosylation occurs in the gOlgi apparatusMnemonic03/02/19 2:34 AM
3347BiochemistryCellularCell traffickinghttps://www.uniprot.org/locations/SL-0075COPI transports from Golgi -> Endoplasmic Reticulum (currently says from Golgi -> Golgi)Minor erratum01/11/19 11:19 AM
3447BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingN/AI-cell disease: “I” is a part of the alphabet, so we start there. Ignoring A through E, we start with F to recall the clinical features of I-cell disease: Facial features coarse/ Gingival hyperplasia/ Hand deformity “claw”/ “I’s” (eyes) corneal clouding/ Joints/ Kyphoscoliosis/ Lysosomal enzymes ↑↑Mnemonic08/15/19 2:38 PM
3547BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomenot neededZellweger syndrome: Renee Zellweger has WEAK PEX (hypotonia; PEX gene mutation) and SEIZES (seizures) big livers (hepatomegaly); Refsum disease: ALPHA (alpha-oxidation disorder) males are PHYTAN A LOT (buildup of phytanic acid) because the REF's SON (Refsum) made the team but is CLUMSY (ataxia) and CAN'T SEE (cataracts/night blindness); Adrenoleukodystrophy: ß-A-L-D for ß-oxidationMnemonic01/02/19 1:06 PM
3647BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/peroxisomal-disorders ,,,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22240/we can use VLCFAS as mnemonic for zellweger syndrome , V--> vision problem , L --> liver enlargement, C --> copper high , F --> fe high , A --> abnormal muscle tone, S--> seizure,,,,,, we can also use PEX in PEroXisome for PEX geneMnemonic08/31/19 7:23 AM
3747BiochemistryCellularPeroxisome-ABCD gene ---> (A)drenoluekodystrophy, (B)-oxidation, (C)o long/so long chain fatty acid, DefectMnemonic09/06/19 1:01 PM
3848BiochemistryCellularCytoskeletal elementshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2064177/In 2006 a new systematic nomenclature for mammalian keratins was created, and the proteins previously called "cytokeratins" are simply called keratinsMinor erratum08/07/19 7:17 AM
3948BiochemistryCellularMicrotubulenature.com/subjects/dyneinTie-Dye is retro: Tie-Dye (dynein) in Retro(grade)Mnemonic02/24/19 3:41 PM
4049BiochemistryCellularSodium-potassium pumphttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949520/The cardiac glycosides activate the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger which results in the exit of 3 Na+ ions and the entry of 1 Ca2+ ionMinor erratum03/09/19 5:26 PM
4149BiochemistryCellularSodium-potassium pumphttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/7858183 Na out(3 letters) , 2 K in (2 letters)Mnemonic08/31/19 7:29 AM
4250BiochemistryCellularCollagenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/360747As Type 1 collagen is important for late wound repair, Type 3 collagen is also important for EARLY WOUND HEALINGClarification to current text04/20/19 12:58 PM
4350BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurenone neededHosts Give Partygoers Champagne at their SOIREE. Each of the four first words corresponds with the step in collagen synthesis that has an associated deficiency/syndrome. SOIREE corresponds with the first letter in the associated problem. Hosts (hydroxylation) Give (glycosylation) Partygoers (proteolytic processing) Champagne (cross-linking) at their SOIREE (scurvy, osteogenesis imperfecta, SKIP step 4 (R), Ehlers-Danlos, Ehlers-Danlos and Menkes)Mnemonic03/10/19 5:23 PM
4450BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093059/Clarify on the sentence: Glycine content best reflects collagen synthesis. For example, If i have two tissue samples, one of which is primarily made up of collagen (i.e, Bone or cartilage) and another one is devoid of collagen or containg negligible amount of collagen (i.e, synovial fluid). In this case, using glycine content reflects the amount of collagen present in these tissues. However, if i have two tissue samples, both made up of more or less collagen (let's say skin and ligaments). In this case, I can not use glycine to reflect the collagen amount present in these tissues as glycine though not abundant as much as in collagen, is still present in various other protiens such as elastin. Therefore, measuring glycine content could give me false results. In these cases, measuring hydroxylated proline (i.e, hydroxyproline) would be the best choice since it is very specific for collagen only.Clarification to current text03/17/19 7:21 AM
4550BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structureNAVitamin C deficiency leads to a problem with Hydrox"C"lation.Mnemonic03/17/19 3:52 PM
4650BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structureself-madeI have created a helpful mnemonic for memorizing that lysine is involved in the collagen cross-linking process. "Do not lie or you will be cross-examined."Mnemonic05/21/19 8:13 AM
4750BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurenot needed"formation of procollagen to hydrogen and disulfide bonds " is better to be mentioned as independent stepClarification to current text08/07/19 1:34 PM
4851BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseIt's MnemonicMenkes protein (ATP7A ,vs ATP7B in Wilson) --->M precedes W and A precedes B alphabetically ,so " Menkes =ATP7A ,,Wilson =ATP7B".Mnemonic01/12/19 8:36 AM
4951BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseasenot requiredPlease see attachment: W=copper goes up, M=copper goes downMnemonic02/04/19 9:06 PM
5051BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseDoesn't need one (just a mnemonic)Tip for remembering ATP7A (Menkes Disease) v. ATP7B (Wilson's Disease): The B stands for Bronze, whose main ingredient is CopperMnemonic07/10/19 3:08 PM
5151BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseN/AATP7A --> A for absorption. Contrast with Wilson disease, ATP7B --> B for bile.Mnemonic09/06/19 8:13 PM
5252BiochemistryCellularElastinMneuomnicPeople with Marfans are so tall you have to look up to see them. Thus the subluxation of the lens is upward (and temporal)Mnemonic05/10/19 4:07 PM
5352BiochemistryCellularElastinmnemonicMarfan syndrome lens subluxation is upward: look up to see Mars vs homocysteinuria lens subluxation which is downward: look down to see urineMnemonic07/23/19 5:30 AM
5455BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesFluorescence in situ hybridizationN/ASecond to last line states "(two blue arrows...)" but the arrows are not blue. Irrelevant wording.Spelling/formatting01/22/19 8:22 PM
5555BiochemistryGeneticsMolecular cloningWebster-Miriam DictionaryStep two should say Add "reverse" transcriptase, not Add "reserve" transcriptaseSpelling/formatting02/14/19 2:06 AM
5656BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/li-fraumeni-syndrome?search=li%20fraumeni&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~40&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Li-Fraumenia syndrome is listed as an example of loss of heterozygosity but more often functions as a dominant negative mutation as having one mutant allele creates 1/16th functional proteins in the final tetramer.Minor erratum01/08/19 9:02 AM
5757BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termswww.Uworld.comHeteroplasmy definition: It says ".....resulting in variable expression in mitochondrially inherited disease"............. UWorld says "Variable Expression is not a feature of Mitochondrial diseases" in QID: 596 Choice D, last line.Major erratum01/12/19 8:06 PM
5857BiochemistryGeneticsMutations in DNAN/AMcCune-Albright Syndrome =3 "P"s: "P" recocious puberty, "P"igmentation, "P"olyostotic fibrous dysplasiaMnemonic01/28/19 3:50 PM
5958BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingMneumonicAngelMan has no Mama. The M in AngelMan helps think of deletion in the allele of the Mother VMnemonic01/24/19 11:13 AM
6058BiochemistryGeneticsTypes of errors in morphogenesisFA2019Mnemonic for AngelMan syndrome: "Mom’s little Angel (Maternal deletion)". The M's are red/boldMnemonic05/22/19 7:53 AM
6159BiochemistryGeneticsFragile X syndromeFact Sheet 54| FRAGILE X SYNDROME This fact sheet ... PDFwww.genetics.edu.au › fact-sheet-54-frag...According to Harrison'' Principles of Internal Medicine -20th edition page 3363, Fragile X syndrome is classified as X linked Recessive, Robbins Pathology latest edition also says it as X linked Recessive. Wikipedia says XD but both these books says XR. I am not sure about the errorMinor erratum02/07/19 6:15 AM
6259BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mitochondrial-myopathies-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=gomori&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~20&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Better classification of Mitocondrial diseases: add Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and Leigh syndrome, and also the stain often used for diagnosis : GOMORI THRICOME STAINHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/19 9:50 PM
6359BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inheritance-patterns-of-monogenic-disorders-mendelian-and-non-mendelian?search=autosomal%20recessive&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Both autosomal recessive and x-linked recessive inheritance skips generations: ''RECEssive (autosomal and x-linked) inheritance takes a RECEss from family (no past family history of the disease)''.Mnemonic07/29/19 3:05 PM
6459BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/922305-overviewX-Linked Dominant diseases: A-mericas F-unniest X V-ideos (A: Alport , F: Fragile X , V: Vitamin D resistant rickets)Mnemonic09/01/19 7:37 PM
6560BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB08820Indication for Ivacaftor - not approved for patients with a Phe508 deletion UNLESS it's given in combination with lumacaftor. Indicated as monotherapy for other CF mutations, most notably, G551D, where the number of CFTRs is fine, but they just don't open enough.Clarification to current text12/27/18 6:39 PM
6660BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosisFound on update here: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cystic-fibrosis-assessment-and-management-of-pancreatic-insufficiency?search=cystic%20fibrosis%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=6~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=6#H9 and tested on in multiple UWorld questionsTreatment for Cystic Fibrosis includes pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) to correct for pancreatic insufficiency.High-yield addition to next year01/30/19 5:14 AM
6760BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosissimple illustration attached"defect in CFTR gene on chromosome 7"; Write CFTR as "C7TF" (where 7 is a laterally inverted image of F)Mnemonic03/02/19 5:07 PM
6861BiochemistryGeneticsMuscular dystrophieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25348330book says that duchenne muscular dystrophy has truncated protein when in fact it should be beckersMajor erratum05/16/19 9:08 AM
6962BiochemistryGeneticsRett syndromemnemonic from my brainStereotyped hand-wringing (Rett-ers cramp)Mnemonic01/19/19 9:06 AM
7062BiochemistryGeneticsTrinucleotide repeat expansion diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943776-overview#a1Fragile X is an X-linked recessive disorder according to Harrisons for Internal Medicine. In the 2019 version of first aid it states it is x linked dominant. If it was dominant you would not see carriers but there are carriers present.Major erratum06/18/19 8:22 AM
7163BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesGenetics: Glossary of terms - UpToDateNondisjunction in meiosis illustration: Replacing the words "Trisomy" with "Heterodisomy" and "Isodisomy" as specified in the attachment.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:41 AM
7263BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412855<2% of cases of Down Syndrome are due to mosaicism.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 5:24 PM
7363BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1684265/. Also UWorld question 8328please add that the majority of cases of Down syndrome result from nondisjunction in Meiosis I specificallyHigh-yield addition to next year03/16/19 5:40 PM
7463BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesUsmle World question ID 1824 , (choices C and E) explanationsMyelomeningocele is also associated with Edward Syndrome (Trisomy 18)Clarification to current text04/23/19 7:43 AM
7563BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/943463-clinical#b4In Trisomy 18, the image is not accurate since the patients have "clenched hands with the index finger overriding the middle finger and the fifth finger overriding the fourth finger "Minor erratum07/20/19 4:04 AM
7663BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/quad-screen/about/pac-20394911mnemonic for quad screen test in down (see file attachment)Mnemonic08/31/19 7:47 AM
7763BiochemistryPathologyGenetic termsUworld"DITCH" down syndrome for all the GI abnormalities listed in Uworld for trisomy 21 (D)Deuodenal atresia (most common) (I)Imperforate anus, (T)Transeophageal fistula ,(C)Celiacs Disease, (H)Hischsprungs diseaseMnemonic02/06/19 3:23 PM
7864BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromeIt's Mnemonic*Cri du* - CHat =*5 letters * - CHromosome 5Mnemonic01/11/19 10:58 AM
7964BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromemnemonicCats are born with closed eyes (think epicanthal folds), have so cute paws like 5 fingers (think chromosome 5), your heart melts (VSD)Mnemonic03/02/19 5:17 PM
8064BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic disorders by chromosomeMnemonicChromosome 3: Von-Hippel-Lindau Gene, associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma -Both VHL and RCC have 3 letters Chromosome 5: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) -APC gene mutation Read as: "Five-APC" or "FAPC" Chromosome 6: Hemochromatosis - associated w/ HLA A3 Read as: "HA3mochromatoSIX" Chromosome 11: Wilms tumor -Read as "W11ms tumor" Chromosome 13: Wilson Disease -Wilson Disease has 13 letters in total (same with Patau Syndrome, chromosome 13)Mnemonic03/15/19 3:53 PM
8164BiochemistryGeneticsWilliams syndromeIt’s just a movie quote mnemonic but helpful to remember the chromosome.Current mnemonic says “think Will Ferrell in Elf”. You can add the chromosome to the mnemonic by adding his famous line “First, I went through the 7 levels of the candy cane forrest.” For chromosome 7.Mnemonic05/02/19 10:51 AM
8265BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: water solubleMy brainProposed mnemonic for sorting B vitamins in order. TRN-PPB-FC "The RN - Placed Patient Bobs - Foley Catheter" Where there is a dash, the number skips. This covered B1-12 in order. I made this and have found it useful to keep the numbers straight with the names of the B vitamins.Mnemonic01/05/19 11:56 AM
8365BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: water solublehttps://reference.medscape.com/drugs/vitamins-water-solubleThierry (Thiamin) Robben (Riboflavin) aNd (Niacin) Petr (Pentothenic) Played (Pyridoxine) Ball (Biotin) For (Folate) Chelsea (Cobalamin)Mnemonic05/15/19 3:37 AM
8466BiochemistryNutritionVitamin AMnemonicChronic toxicity from PHAAD diets: pseudotumor cerebri, hepatoxicity/megaly, alopecia, arthralgias, dry skinMnemonic03/15/19 4:37 PM
8566BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B1N/A"ATP BReakdown" for the four enzymes. Combination of 2018 and 2019 since Be APT is awkward. A=Alpha-ketoglutarate, T=Transketolase, P=Pyruvate, BR=BRanched-chain ketoacid (also reminds you of glucose BReakdown). All together reminds you that it is a loss of ATP due to impaired glucose breakdown.Mnemonic01/23/19 4:36 PM
8667BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-gout?search=podagra&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Podagra is not an excess of vitamin B3. Podagra is a manifestation of gout, literally meaning "painful toe." The book implies that an excess of B3 is called podagra, in parallel to how a deficiency of B3 causes pellagra. Rather, an excess of B3 can increase the risk of podagra (gout).Clarification to current text12/24/18 12:41 PM
8767BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3https://www-uptodate-com.library.iau.edu.sa/contents/overview-of-water-soluble-vitamins?search=vitamin%20b3%20b6%20and%20b2&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Vitamin B3 synthesis requires B6 and B2. 6 divided by 2 gives you 3Mnemonic05/08/19 5:02 PM
8867BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3n/aRequires Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B2  [B6/B2 = B3]Mnemonic07/10/19 8:44 PM
8967BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B5noneI remember that Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid because it sounds like "pento-thenic acid" and pento means 5Mnemonic03/04/19 12:24 PM
9068BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B7n/a"Please Always Put Biofuel in Car" First P is for Pyruvate, A is for Acetyl-CoA, second P is for Propionyl CoA, Bio=Biotin, Car=CarboxylaseMnemonic05/28/19 8:12 AM
9168BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B9https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957651Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is characterized by overproduction of *K9* (vitamins K, B9)... K9 to be highlighted in redMnemonic04/24/19 2:51 PM
9269BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Cn/aBold the 'C' in 'Vitamin C', and also bold/capitalize the 'C' in sCurvy.Mnemonic01/28/19 3:56 AM
9369BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CMnemonicTo remember which charged state of iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+) can and cannot be readily absorbed, use your fingers to represent each charge. Fe2+ = two fingers = peace sign = good; Fe2+ is readily absorbed. Fe3+ = three fingers = “read between the lines” = bad; Fe3+ cannot be absorbed.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:29 PM
9469BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CMnemonicFe3+ can be reduced by Vitamin C, the 3rd letter in the alphabet. Color coded image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:34 PM
9570BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonic*E*xcess of Vitamin *E* increases risk of *E*nterocolitis in *E*nfants (infants).\ Highlight in red letter "E".Mnemonic01/11/19 7:50 AM
9670BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonicvitamin *E* ---> High-dose supplementation may alter metabolism of vitamin K : *E*nhanced anticoagulant effects of warfarin.Mnemonic01/11/19 7:58 AM
9770BiochemistryNutritionVitamin En/aExcess Vit E = Enterocolitis = Enfants “High dose Vit E goes into WAR with Vit K” = Enhances anticoagulant effect of WARfarin by altering the metabolism of Vit K.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:49 PM
9872BiochemistryMetabolismEthanol metabolismhttps://step1.medbullets.com/biochemistry/102041/ethanol-metabolismIn ethanol metabolism under point number 2 it reads - “ 2) Fasting hypoglycaemia - decreases gluconeogenesis due to increased OAA—> malate. The correction is a decrease in OAA.Alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis by depleting the pool of cytoplasmic NAD+. Depletion of cytoplasmic NAD+ by alcohol metabolism affects the re-oxidation of cytoplasmic malate to oxaloacetate by the cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, inhibiting gluconeogenesis. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis in response to alcohol ingestion results in alcohol-induced hypoglycemiaSpelling/formatting02/07/19 10:39 PM
9972BiochemistryMetabolismEthanol metabolismOn the same page, next to the diagram, it says " Fasting hypoglycemia - decreased gluconeogenesis due to INCREASED OAA --> malate', which is correctThe DIAGRAM doesn't match with the caption. The diagram shows "decreased" OAA but it should be shown as "increased" OAAMinor erratum03/03/19 3:05 PM
10073BiochemistryMetabolismEnzyme terminologyMarks' Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach Fifth, North American EditionSynthase does not use ATP while synthetase requires ATP.Minor erratum06/11/19 2:43 PM
10173BiochemistryMetabolismRate-determining enzymes of metabolic processesLippinicott Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry 6th ed, page 121 "Regulation by intracellular energy levels".Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is also stimulated by high ATP levels. It should say "+Citrate +ATP".Minor erratum03/21/19 2:04 AM
10274BiochemistryMetabolismSummary of pathwayshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-maple-syrup-urine-disease#H3Metabolism of "Odd-chain Fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, methionine, and threonine" to Propionyl-CoA is incorrect. NOT all branched-chain amino acids can be catabolized to propionyl-CoA;Major erratum07/02/19 1:37 PM
10374BiochemistryMetabolismSummary of pathwaysFirst Aid Page 77To complete the list of all enzyme deficients, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency should be added in the parentheses next to the PDH enzyme name (#10 in the list), similar to how other enzyme deficiencies/conditions are listed. This can also be repeated for OTC deficiency.Minor erratum07/11/19 6:49 PM
10474BiochemistryMetabolismSummary of pathwayshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25037503Enzyme No. 6 Transketolase should have a bidirectional arrow as it is also possible to to yield Ribulose-5-Phosphate from Fructose-6-Phosphate.Minor erratum08/11/19 4:35 AM
10574BiochemistryMetabolismSummary of pathwayshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA_lyaseI suggest to add 24th enzyme "HMG-CoA lyase" , which is needed for ketogenesis, to the list and to the scheme.Clarification to current text09/04/19 11:50 AM
10675BiochemistryMetabolismHexokinase vs glucokinaseN/AIn the chart, when it is reported the Km of the enzymes, while the arrows are correctly directionated, it is written the opposite: lower with upward arrow for hexokinase and higher with downward arrow for glucokinase.Minor erratum09/11/19 10:12 AM
10776BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexYou know thisI have a better way for remembering the 5 cofactors (please see the attached picture). “The FAmous Nerds Like CoenzymeA” goes in order (B1 thiamine pyrophosphate, B2 FAD riboflavin, B3 NAD niacin, Lipoic acid (and the L can be seen in part of the strokes for the number “4”), B5 CoA pantothenic acidMnemonic01/12/19 1:27 PM
10876BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexN/ARecommend red-bolding of "Ar"senic and G"ar"lic breath. This clinical finding is often mentioned in question stems and could help us quickly differentiate from Cyanide poisoning with Almond breath.Mnemonic03/15/19 1:23 PM
10976BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexUp to Date: Arsenic exposure and poisoning Author:Rose H Goldman, MD, MPH Section Editor:Michele M Burns, MD, MPH Deputy Editor:Lisa Kunins, MD Contributor Disclosures All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. Literature review current through: Apr 2019. | This topic last updated: Jan 07, 2019.Please consider adding "peripheral neuropathy" to the list of symptoms of arsenic poisoning. It is a symptom NBME expects students to recognize in identifying arsenic poisoning and is mentioned in UWorld and Amboss.High-yield addition to next year05/20/19 12:05 PM
11076BiochemistryMetabolismRegulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphateUW QID 1031FBPase 2 it's same as fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase and it's written on the text fructose bisphosphotase 2 without 6 number on it. and FBPase 1 it's same thing as fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase , So it would be better for good understanding..Clarification to current text04/26/19 11:38 AM
11176BiochemistryMetabolismRegulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphaten/auctose bisPHOSPHATASE-2 removes phosphate when FASTING  GLUCONEOGENESIS. PhosphofructoKINASE-2 adds phosphate while FED  GLYCOLYSIS.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:50 PM
11277BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsI dont have oneThis is mnemonic for differentiation between keto a gluco essential amino acid : I saw (isoleucine) phen (phenylalanine) fixing three(threonine) tires(tyrosine) with kit glue ( ketogenic and glucogenicMnemonic05/13/19 10:10 AM
11377BiochemistryMetabolismTCA cyclehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/citric-acid-cycleOn page 77 of the 2019 edition, it is noted that "[T]he TCA cycle produces 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 GTP per acetyl-CoA = 10 ATP/acetyl-CoA (2x everything per glucose)." This is, in fact, incorrect. The TCA cycle amounts to 12* ATP/acetyl-CoA. The "10" should be changed to "12."Clarification to current text06/03/19 3:33 PM
11478BiochemistryMetabolismATP productionnot indicated or refer to wikiThere is disaggrement in the net ATP production in page 74 and page 78, on Page 78, NADH produces 2.5ATP and FADH2 produces 1.5 ATP, but the calculation here is based on the newer estimates that NADH produces 3 ATP and FADH2 produces 2ATP. So in order to avoid confusion, I suggest either page 74 or page 78 be corrected. If we correct page 74, then it should be 27 net ATP via malate aspartate shuttle or 25 ATP via glycerol -3 P shuttleMajor erratum04/09/19 4:17 AM
11578BiochemistryMetabolismATP productionhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/atp-synthaseATP synthase inhibitors decrease proton gradientMajor erratum05/10/19 9:27 AM
11678BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's Mnemonicthermogenin in b*r*own fat (has mo*r*e mitochondria than white fat).Mnemonic01/11/19 8:09 AM
11778BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's MnemonicN*O* ATP is produced because electron transport st*O*ps ----> *O*ligomycinMnemonic01/11/19 8:15 AM
11878BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16676004Cytochrome c is found in the intermembrane space. But on page 78, cytochromc c is illutrated as overlaping with the inner mitochondrial membrane which causes confusion. Please consider moving cytochome c to the intermembrane space in the next edition of FA.Minor erratum06/12/19 8:41 PM
11978BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cycleIt is a mneomonicOrnithine went by the car (carbomyl phosphate) to the city (citrulin) she met aspartae (added aspartate )they spended money (added ATP) they argued successively (arginine succinate)fume went out (fumerate product) the arguing (arginine) ended by drinking water (added water)and passing urine (urea product) and ornithine went back home (cycle completion)Mnemonic05/13/19 10:04 AM
12080BiochemistryMetabolismDisorders of galactose metabolismhttp://www.jbc.org/content/280/7/5510.fullThe metabolic pathway for galactose has an incorrect abbreviation for UDP-Glu when referencing glucose bound to UDP. The abbreviation for glucose is Glc, not Glu (glutamate), so the correct term to use is UDP-Glc.Minor erratum03/03/19 9:15 AM
12181BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketogenic_amino_acidThere are 5 Glucogenic/ketogenic amino acid: Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Threonine (some don't recognize it as ketogenic)Major erratum02/14/19 1:49 AM
12281BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TryptophanEssential Amino acids PVT TIM HaLL Phenylalanine Valine Tyrosine Threonine Isoleucine Methionine Histidine Leucine Lysine.Tyrosine is not an essential amino acid, it has to be replaced with TryptophanMajor erratum03/28/19 1:22 PM
12381BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucogenic_amino_acidTyrosine is also both glucogenic and ketogenic; change mnemonic to "PITTT"High-yield addition to next year04/01/19 1:07 AM
12481BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htmAn addition to PV TIM HaLL: Van Halen says MILK FTW. Glucogenic AAs are V, H and M. Ketogenic AAs are L and K. I was thinking the letters could be highlighted in a different color. I have provided an image for student's enjoyment.Mnemonic04/30/19 3:07 PM
12581BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://www.diapedia.org/metabolism-and-hormones/5105758814/amino-acid-metabolismTRY (tryptophan) ISOLating (isoleucine) KGs (ketogenic/glucogenic) THRough (threonin) funnels (phenylalenin)..Mnemonic07/19/19 6:20 PM
12681BiochemistryMetabolismSorbitolMnemonicUpdate mnemonic to "Sorbitol LuRKS around" --> adding "around" makes mnemonic make more sense/be more applicable/easy to remember. "Sorbitol LuRKS around" means sorbitol stays around/accumulates since LuRKS lack Sorbitol Dehydrogenase and/or have low levels of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (Lens).Mnemonic05/03/19 5:50 PM
12782BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cyclehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allosteric_regulation#Essential_activatorsN-acetylglutamate is an OBLIGATE/ ESSENTIAL allosteric activator of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. Unlike allosteric activators, which induce enzymatic activity, obligate activators are required for enzymatic activity.Clarification to current text03/11/19 2:51 AM
12882BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cyclehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513323/N-acetylglutamate is an OBLIGATE allosteric activator. Currently, it is written that it is an allosteric activator which implies that the enzyme can still work without N-acetylglutamate (just works better in the presence of it), however this is not the case. The enzyme cannot work without N-acetylglutamate, which makes it an obligate activator.Major erratum04/29/19 6:36 AM
12982BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cycleMnemonic FA2019 (p. 82)"NAG ("nag" as in bother/pester) CPS-1 to start the urea cycle." (N-acetylglutamate is the allosteric activator of CPS-I, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in urea cycle.)Mnemonic05/03/19 5:55 PM
13082BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cycleN/AUrea cycle, Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ONE, think "I have to use number 1(pee)"Mnemonic05/28/19 4:16 PM
13183BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acid derivativeshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9326301a small bidirectional arrow next to tyrosine hydroxylase would be really nice, especially because this reaction is what let's us use certain dopaminergic drugsSpelling/formatting03/30/19 7:17 PM
13283BiochemistryMetabolismCatecholamine synthesis/tyrosine catabolismN/AA mnemonic for remembering the order of catecholamine synthesis I use is "tldr". Tyrosine --> L-dopa --> Dopamine --> noRepinephrine. You can also expand it if you want: "Please TLDR Ever" = Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> L-dopa --> Dopamine --> noRepinephrine --> EpinephrineMnemonic03/04/19 12:58 PM
13384BiochemistryMetabolismAlkaptonuriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/941530-overview#a5first aid says: "Congenital deficiency of homogentisate oxidase in the degradative pathway of tyrosine to fumarate".Major erratum01/25/19 6:02 AM
13484BiochemistryMetabolismAlkaptonuriaNot neededUse "All Caps" (Alkaptonuria) when Typing (tyrosine) Furiously (fumarate) -- to remember that problem converting tyrosine to fumarate in alkaptonuriaMnemonic05/17/19 12:05 PM
13584BiochemistryMetabolismHomocystinuriaPage 84 of First Aid 2019 - In homocystinuria, lens sublexes "down and in."You look "down and in" (lens sublexes) when you PEE (homocystinURIA); vs MarFAN Syndrome ("FANS up and out").Mnemonic04/16/19 11:05 AM
13685BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen regulation by insulin and glucagon/epinephrinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5195864/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase_kinaseGlycogen phosphorylase kinase has calmodulin as one of its subunits. Therefore calcium binds directly to the enzyme and activates it. Furthermore, calcium is released from the endoplasmic reticulum in both muscle contraction and a1 receptor stimulation. This relationship can be summarized with the following arrows: Muscle contraction or a1 receptor stimulation -> Ca2+ (from endoplasmic reticulum) -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase (has calmodulin subunit). In the current graph in the book, the following sequence of arrows “calcium released from the endoplasmic reticulum -> Ca2+-calmodulin complex -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase” is conceptually wrong and unnecessary, as it is already shown with an arrow that calcium directly activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase.Major erratum01/07/19 1:45 AM
13786BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiGlycogen debrancher is an enzyme with two catalytic activities (as already stated in the text). Cori disease is caused by congenital deficiency of glycogen debrancher, therefore none of these catalytic activities would occur. Thus, both steps 5 & 6 are inhibited (not only step 6).Major erratum01/07/19 1:51 AM
13886BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dextrin. "Depolymerization of glycogen by phosphorylase halts when glycogen branches have been reduced to two to four linked glucose molecules (limit dextrins). Glycogen debrancher enzyme has two catalytic activities. One is the cleavage of a dextrin branch from the remaining glycogen molecule (amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity). The other is the transfer of the dextrin to the free end of a dextran polymer (oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase activity). The transferred dextrin may then be further depolymerized by phosphorylase." 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiLimit dextrin refers to 2-4 residues, not 1-4. The smallest form of a dextrin is a disaccharide.Major erratum01/07/19 1:55 AM
13987BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. Already mentioned in the book on page 86, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiCori disease is caused by glycogen debrancher deficiency, which has two catalytic activites (not only a-1,6-glucosidase).Minor erratum01/07/19 1:59 AM
14087BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7864/glycogen-storage-disease-type-1a, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucose-6-phosphatase-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-i-von-gierke-disease, 3. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PEDS%2F54417Von Gierke disease refers to the most common subtype of glycogen storage disease type 1, termed 1A, that is caused by glucose-6-phoshatase deficiency. Type 1B is caused by G6P transporter deficiency and is NOT termed Von Gierke disease.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:01 AM
14187BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-branching-enzyme-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iv-andersen-diseaseDifferentiate Cori disease (GSD 3) from Andersen disease (GSD 4). A-B/C-D. Andersen- Branching enzyme/ Cori- Debranching enzymeMnemonic03/02/19 8:14 AM
14287BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseasesMade up.Mcardle disease: Myo/Muscle Pains, Pees and Palpitations (Pains=Muscle cramps, Pees=Myoglobinuria, Palpitations=Arrhythmia)Mnemonic03/29/19 10:57 PM
14387BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseasesMy mind'There are 2 glycogen storage diseases that are always difficult to remember and often we use to forget it, so a easy way to remember (type III and IV glycogen storage disease) is with the next mnemonic: DCBA, (D) for debranching enzyme and the name of the disease is Cori/type III (C) and Branching enzyme with the name Andersen/type IV, so Debranching-Cori/Branching-Andersen so you only have to remember the leters DCBA.Mnemonic09/22/19 7:41 PM
14488BiochemistryMiscellaneousLysosomal storage diseasesN/ATay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick both have 2 parts in their names just like Cherry-Red which is present in both of themMnemonic01/04/19 3:26 AM
14588BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesFirst Aid 2019What is deficient and accumulated in Gaucher Disease? Gaucher = Groucher and needs sugar (glucose/glucocerebrosidase and glucocerebroside) What is deficient and accumulated in Krabbe disease? The krab is part of astrology/celestial galaxy signs, thus (galactocerebrosidae and galactocerebroside)Mnemonic03/12/19 12:37 PM
14688BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesN/AFABry disease (F-fingers [episodic peripheral neuropathy]; A-angiokeratomas; you always look FABulous since you barely sweat)Mnemonic05/07/19 4:16 AM
14788BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesAlana GhanimHow to remember the deficient enzyme in Hunter syndrome vs. Hurler syndrome. Hunter= iduronate which sounds like "I'd rather date" so think "I'd rather date a Hunter than a Hurler"Mnemonic06/27/19 10:05 PM
14888BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesn/aA blind (destruction of oligodendrocytes - optic neuropathy) KRAB with regression is lost in the GALAXY (Galacto-).Mnemonic07/10/19 8:55 PM
14988BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesnot applicablehun(two)er deficient enzyme: iduronate 2;sulfatase, Hur(L)er: a-L-iduronidaseMnemonic07/13/19 7:35 AM
15089BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismFirst Aid 2019 pg 73.The rate determining enzyme for Fatty acid synthesis is Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (which is listed on pg 73). However it is not listed in the diagrams on page 89 and 74 despite its cofactor Biotin being listed.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 3:15 PM
15189BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismhttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/primary-carnitine-deficiency#genesSystemic carnitine deficiency is a defect in the transport of carnitine (not LCFA) into the mitochondriaMajor erratum03/25/19 12:08 PM
15289BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismhttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency#inheritanceMCAD deficiency has an autosomal recessive inheritance patternHigh-yield addition to next year03/30/19 5:14 PM
15391BiochemistryMetabolismMetabolic fuel usepneumonic, link n/acarb/whey have 4 kcal (which is already there).... new submission: alcohol (how many letters in ALCOHOL=7; 7/kcal... fats how many kcal, 9/kcal (the FAT CAT has 9 lives)Mnemonic06/25/19 9:17 PM
15492BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiashttp://nlaresourcecenter.lipidjournal.com/Content/PDFs/Tables/1.pdfIn type III-- dysbetalipoproteinemia, if Apo E is defective, there should be increased chylomicrons and IDL, not VLDLMinor erratum04/01/19 9:43 AM
15593BiochemistryMetabolismKey enzymes in lipid transportper figure in page 92Hepatic lipase; degrades TGs remaining in IDL and "Chylomicron remnants"High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:36 PM
15693BiochemistryMetabolismKey enzymes in lipid transporthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pcsk9-inhibitors-pharmacology-adverse-effects-and-use?search=pcsk9&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~33&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3046621671 LINK 1 - First paragraph of Mechanism of Action section. LINK 2 - Genetic Considerations < Mutations in the PCSK9 Gene https://www.uptodate.com/contents/familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-adults-overview?search=ldl%20receptor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1It is listed that the end result of PCSK9 is the decrease of serum LDL. This should say increase of serum LDL. The pathway in First Aid lists that the increase in LDL Receptor recycling is what leads to a decrease in serum LDL. In fact, when PCSK9 exerts its actions, the LDL Receptor is not recycled to the cell surface, but rather sent to lysosomes to be degraded. This would lead to less LDL uptake, and higher serum LDL levels. Therefore. PCSK9 does NOT lead to decreased serum LDL. I believe this may have been a mix up with the PCSK9 Inhibitor section, which would lead to decreased serum LDL. I've attached two different Uptodate links that state the MOA & effects. Thanks!Major erratum09/07/19 1:43 PM
15793ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associationsFirst Aid 2017 MaterialPara-Aortic Lymph Nodes - "you have a PAIR OF(para) testes, ovaries, kidneys"Mnemonic02/07/19 3:49 PM
15893BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.rosalindfranklin.edu/contents/image?imageKey=PC%2F112742&topicKey=PC%2F4560&search=hdl&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150Currently, it is listed that the B-100 apolipoprotein is only on particles originating from the liver. However, HDL is synthesized in the liver and doesn’t contain B-100 which would contradict this statement.Clarification to current text01/16/19 4:27 PM
15994BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasn/aType thrEE has defective ApoEMnemonic08/21/19 3:37 PM
16094BiochemistryMetabolismLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/effects-of-exercise-on-lipoproteins-and-hemostatic-factors?search=HDL%20exercise&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H472188367Effects of exercise on lipoproteins and hemostatic factors: Exercise training programs produce favorable changes in the lipoprotein profile in patients who already have CHD. Most studies have shown a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in serum triglycerides. Exercise training also may have a modest lowering effect on serum LDL-cholesterol. The mechanism of benefit may derive from positive changes in the proteins, and in particular the enzymes that regulate lipid metabolism. Exercise training may influence the functionality of lipoproteins as well as the levels of lipoproteins. Exercise may alter hemostatic risk factor by reducing the risk of acute thrombus formation, improving blood viscosity, and positively influencing rate of progression of atherosclerotic lesions.High-yield addition to next year07/31/19 8:24 PM
16196ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodeNot neededReplace the term "Postcapillary venule" with "High endothelial venule" in the lymph node schematic. High endothelial venules are mentioned in the text but not in the schematic. This can lead to confusion.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:08 AM
16296ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1892634/Medulla consists of medullary cords (closely packed lymphocytes and plasma cells) must be changed to (closely packed B lymphocytes and plasma cells)Minor erratum01/07/19 1:56 PM
16396ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-peripheral-lymphadenopathy-in-adults?csi=fe144795-2d9e-4501-a120-17fd294659e2&source=contentShareLymphadenopathy (LAD) : Painful LAD is seen with acute inflammation (e.g., Strep). Painless LAD is seen with chronic inflammation (e.g. autoimmune disease), metastatic carcinoma, or lymphoma . Abnormal lymph nodes if - firm/hard -immobile - >2cm -systemic symptoms (fever, night sweats, weight loss)High-yield addition to next year05/16/19 12:05 PM
16497ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associationsUpToDate, USMLE World.In the lymphatic drainage table, under "Area of body drained" column for Superficial Inguinal nodes, skin of "Glans Penis" (which drains into the deep inguinal nodes along with the popliteal nodes) can be added as another exception along with popliteal area.High-yield addition to next year08/14/19 8:12 AM
16598ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresSpleenMyself9 10 11, keep the spleen livinMnemonic02/22/19 7:36 AM
16698ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresThymushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121185text says; Medulla is pale with Mature T cells and Hassall corpuscles. I recommend adding "Hassall Corpuscles have lymphopoietin important for maturing T cells". And to add mnemonic "Thymus Medulla goes through the hassle (Hassall) to "Mature T cells utilizing lymphopoietin"High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 7:11 PM
16798ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresThymusN/AUnder "Thymoma", it says "Good syndrome" where it is likely mean "Goodpasture syndrome"Minor erratum07/05/19 9:38 PM
168100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis (there is a s*C*ale lession) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/05/19 2:53 PM
169100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29072309In psoriasis, add the specific HLA-C allele that is strongly associated with the disease. All people have HLA-C in their genome. The specific allele that is associated with psoriasis is HLA-Cw6.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:13 AM
170100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis(Psoriati*C*) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:18 PM
171100ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHLA subtypes associated with diseasesToxicity of NRTIs - First Aid 2019 Pg-203; Its good to have this fact together with the other HLA associated disorders.HLA-B*5701 - Increased risk of Hypersensitivity with Abacavir (Anti RetroViral)High-yield addition to next year01/26/19 9:52 PM
172100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra0808284?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3DpubmedT1DM also has a strong association with HLA DQ2 and DQ8. This is the reason patient with T1DM are at high risk for developing celiac disease (which is also associated with HLA DQ2 and 8) and the ADA recommends screening all patients T1DM for celiac disease once.High-yield addition to next year02/14/19 10:33 PM
173100ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHLA subtypes associated with diseasesn/aA better Mnemonic for DR2 associated disease is "DRive 2 multiple hay pastures."Mnemonic03/01/19 7:45 AM
174100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesMnemonicHLA-C for Psoriasis hint: Pronounce "C-riasis"Mnemonic03/24/19 12:17 PM
175100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesMade up"C"oriasisMnemonic05/13/19 2:24 PM
176100ImmunologyLymphocytesHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-leukocyte-antigens-hla-a-roadmapmnemonic for DR2 ---> DRs get GOOD scores in 2nd year studying Histo MULTIPLE time SYSTEMatically( good--> good pasture, Histo-->Hay fever, MULTIPLE--> MULTIPLE sclerosis, SYSTEMatically--> SLE)Mnemonic08/31/19 8:05 AM
177100ImmunologyLymphocytesMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-structure-and-functionwe can use X in eXogenously as indicator for 2(ii) in MHC 2Mnemonic08/31/19 7:57 AM
178101ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsAs per information on p. 102Minor change to diagram. For Th17: add inhibited by IFN-gamma and IL-4. For Treg: add inhibited by IL-6.Spelling/formatting01/20/19 5:57 PM
179101ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsMnemonicTo remember which section of the thymus (cortex or medulla) is involved in positive vs negative T cell selection, think of the letter “t” as a plus sign (+) and the letter “l” as a minus sign (-). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/10/19 9:39 AM
180101ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsNone neededAdd in the down-regulators of Th17 cells and Treg cells as indicated on page 102. That is, add a red -IL4 and IFN-gamma for Th17 cells and a red -IL-6 for Tre cells onto the diagram.Mnemonic08/06/19 11:33 AM
181101ImmunologyLymphocytesDifferentiation of T cellsfirst aidwe can use O in pOsitive selection as indicator for cOrtex ,, and E in nEgative selection as indicator for mEdullaMnemonic08/31/19 8:09 AM
182101ImmunologyCellularImportant cytokinesFirst Aid Usmle Step 1 2019, page 102I suggest to add new column "Cytokines" into the table "Differentiation of T-cells" for visual perception of the information located on the next page (102).Clarification to current text09/04/19 11:09 AM
183102ImmunologyCellularCytotoxic T cellshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2010/764542/They also fight against intracellular ListeriaHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 7:13 PM
184102ImmunologyLymphocytesMacrophage-lymphocyte interactionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7751026Macrophages, dendritic cells, and other APCs release IL-12, which stimulates T cells to differentiate into Th1 subtype. Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which enhances the ability of monocytes and macrophages to kill microbes they ingest. This function is also enhanced by interaction of T cell CD40L with CD40 on macrophage. (This also explains how macrophages favour differentiation into Th1)Clarification to current text01/27/19 2:38 AM
185102ImmunologyCellularT cell subsetsUSMLE WORLD QBANK FOR STEP 1, QUESTION ID 762As TH1 cells secrets interferon gamma and interleukin 2 it also secretes Lymphotoxin BMinor erratum04/01/19 2:55 PM
186102ImmunologyCellularT cellsFA 2019 page 102 & 108Mnemonics to help keep straight the cytokines/interferons secreted by Th cellsMnemonic05/06/19 9:28 PM
187105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-humoral-immune-responseMaternal IgG starts to wane by birth and is almost completely gone by 6 months of age. It does not "start to wane after 6 months". As it is stated on page 110, the half-life of preformed antibodies is around 3 weeks.Major erratum01/07/19 2:17 AM
188105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesNADMature, naive B-cells express only IgM and IgD prior to activation. Mature, naive B-cells are "Mature" and "Dumb" (M and D)Mnemonic06/08/19 1:50 AM
189106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplement-C5b activates MAC mnemonic: Big-MAC; B from Big is to remember it's C5b not C5aMnemonic01/20/19 4:47 PM
190106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplementhttps://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.www.libproxy.wvu.edu/pubmed/11257302C1-Like Complex should be clarified in the image to be "MBL Complex". This is important, because MBL deficiencies have been described and are testable items for STEP (see next errata)Minor erratum08/18/19 8:25 PM
191107ImmunologyPhysiologyComplement disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC15187/"decay-acclerating factor" should be replaced with "decay-accelerating factor"Spelling/formatting12/23/18 10:07 PM
192107ImmunologyPharmacologyComplement disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=kallikrein%20inhibitor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~22&usage_type=default&display_rank=4 - https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=kallikrein%20inhibitor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~22&usage_type=default&display_rank=4Benefit in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema: ECALLANTIDE : recombinant protein that inhibits plasma kallikrein.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:06 PM
193107ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplement disorderswas in a Uworld answer explanation but can also be read here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2952982/early complement disorders: add that it's not any recurrent infection but it's again especially the "encapsulated" bacteria!High-yield addition to next year06/07/19 9:54 AM
194107ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplement disordershttps://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.www.libproxy.wvu.edu/pmc/articles/PMC2952982/ or https://www.uptodate.com/contents/inherited-disorders-of-the-complement-system?search=Complement%20system%20disorders&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1There are several complement disorders not listed here that have been described in the literature, but the high-yield ones not included in the book (according to Boards and Beyond as well as Pathoma) are MBL deficiencies (MBL gene affected; susceptible to meningitis caused by Neiserria meningitidis), C3 deficiencies (susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated bacteria & type III hypersensitivity syndromes), C3 Nephritic Factor (autoantibody), and hypocomplementemia. Others have been described in the attached article, but aren't considered high-yield to other STEP resources yet.Major erratum08/18/19 8:42 PM
195108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokineshttps://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.www.libproxy.wvu.edu/gene/3576IL-8 is now commonly referred to as CXCL8. Questions sometimes refer to IL-8 as CXCL8 without acknowledgement that it was formerly called IL-8.Minor erratum08/18/19 8:14 PM
196109ImmunologyImmune ResponsesRespiratory burst (oxidative burst)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-granulomatous-disease-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=chronic%20granulomatous%20disease&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~117&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under respiratory burst diagram it states that "phagocytes of patients with CGD can utilize H2O2" when it should be cannot utilize H2O2.Minor erratum01/25/19 4:28 PM
197110ImmunologyImmune ResponsesCell surface proteinsn/aNK cells are KILLER at 16 yrs (CD 16) and caught at 56 yrs (CD 56 - suggestive marker)Mnemonic07/10/19 9:00 PM
198111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationIt's Mnemonic*in*activated vaccine = typhoid (V*i* polysaccharide, *in*tramuscular).Mnemonic01/05/19 3:28 PM
199111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationPlotkin SA, Cam NB. A New Typhoid Vaccine Composed of the Vi Capsular Polysaccharide. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(21):2293–2299. doi:10.1001/archinte.1995.00430210041007The Vi typhoid vaccine is a subunit vaccine NOT an inactivated vaccine. Since it is composed of a capsular polysaccharide antigen and not the whole inactivated bacterium, it is by definition a subunit vaccine (similar to strep pneumo and H. influenza).Minor erratum02/07/19 10:52 AM
200111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationhttps://www.vaccines.gov/basics/typesI’ve always had a hard time remembering the live versus killed vaccines. I came up with two “stories” to help remember them. Live attenuated vaccine Mnemonic – The small, type A, yellow chicken named Sabin received his flu mist and MMR before rotating at BCG. Meaning – small (smallpox), type (typhoid oral) A (adenovirus), yellow (yellow fever) chicken (varicella – chicken pox), Sabin (Polio oral), flu mist (influenza), MMR (MMR), rotating (rotavirus), BCG (BCG) Killed or inactivated vaccine Mnemonic – A hippo named Salk contracted rabies from the flu shot. Meaning – A hippo (hepatitis A), Salk (Polio IM), rabies (rabies), flu shot (influenza IM) *The only one missing from this is typhoid Vi, but assuming one understands there is a typhoid oral and IM (Vi polysaccharide) vaccine, it should be fine.Mnemonic06/04/19 1:29 PM
201111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prevention-of-enteric-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever#H14On page 111, the Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is given as an example of a killed/inactivated vaccine. It is actually a subunit vaccineMajor erratum09/24/19 11:30 AM
202113ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-antiretroviral-agents-used-to-treat-hiv?search=HLAB57%20ABACAVIR&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~70&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 AND UWORLDType IV hypersensitivity reaction EXAMPLES: 1- TOUCH Contact dermatitis (poison,ivy,sumac,latex,nickel) 2- TRANSPLANT: graft vs host disease 3- TESTS : PPD (tuberculosis infection) ; IGRAS (Interferon gamma release assay); Abacavir HLAB57 hypersensitivity (100%NPV); Patch test (cause of contact dermatitis),T CELL FUNCTION: Candida extract (T cell inmune function)High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:41 PM
203113ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typesnoneSuspect type IV hypersensitivity due to poison ivy when there's: 1. recent outdoor activity. 2. linear/ streaky pattern rash.Clarification to current text05/14/19 1:06 PM
204114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206885-overview https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?csi=e6afcaee-c28c-4e19-ab8d-320cbfd6a359&source=contentShare&imageKey=HEME%2F94399 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/immunologic-transfusion-reactions?csi=cf86246a-4478-4dfa-8128-e266eefc2666&source=contentShareAllergic/anaphylactic transfusion reactions do NOT present with fever, contrary to what the "clinical presentation" column says.Minor erratum01/10/19 4:42 PM
205114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction often present as DIC; as intravascular hemolysis is one of the causes of DIC.High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 2:27 PM
206114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2265/#ch3.1.3In the "clinical presentation" column of "Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions" it states: hemoglobinuria (intravascular), jaundice (extravascular). BUT: jaundice occurs mainly at the intravascular hemolysis and only rarely occurs for extravascular hemolysis. This makes sense as hemolysis occurs at a much faster rate if it happens intravascular.Minor erratum05/08/19 7:43 AM
207115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-hashimotos-thyroiditis-chronic-autoimmune-thyroiditisIn Hashimoto thyroiditis, antimicrosomal & antithyroid peroxidase refer to the same antibody. Put one of them in a parenthesis next to the other one so this becomes clear. The way it is currently written can lead somebody to falsely believe that they are different antibodies.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:19 AM
208115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-adultsIn celiac disease, anti-tissue transglutaminase could also be IgG. This is useful because the IgG autoantibodies are used for the diagnosis of celiac disease in selective IgA deficiency.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:21 AM
209115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodiesUworld, Becker Q bank, USMLE First AidShould add to the list: Autoantibody: "Anti-myelin antibodies"; Associated Disorder: "Multiple Sclerosis"High-yield addition to next year01/26/19 2:18 PM
210115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/176036-overview, as well as FA 2019 page 373 (to be consistent throughout the text)The associated disorder listed for "antiparietal cell, anti-intrinsic factor" autoantibodies is currently "pernicious anemia". Consider clarifying it to "pernicious anemia (autoimmune gastritis)" or "pernicious anemia, autoimmune gastritis" since autoimmune gastritis is a separate entity/condition that is associated with the listed autoantibodies and does increase the risk of pernicious anemia.Clarification to current text05/04/19 3:47 PM
211116IndexIndex22q11 deletion syndromesN/ADiGeorge syndrome is not listed in the index. Thymic aplasia is there but many people will be looking for DiGeorge.Minor erratum02/19/19 2:14 PM
212116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesUSMLE-Rx (QID: 3718.10); https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1050956-treatmentTreatment: IVIG; bone marrow transplant is not curative (differentiation of B cells would still not occur).High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 5:32 PM
213116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesnot neededHighlight 22 in "22q11" to match mnemonic "CATCH-22".Spelling/formatting01/05/19 3:34 PM
214116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencies1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-diseases-specific-defects, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357480/I suggest renaming the IL-12 deficiency entry to Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD, mentioned on page 102 as well). IL-12 is the most common cause of MSMD (>50% of cases). Also list some other defects, especially INF-gamma receptor deficiency (seen it MULTIPLE times on different NBMEs and in UWorld).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:24 AM
215116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencies1. https://www21.ucsg.edu.ec:2065/contents/common-variable-immunodeficiency-in-children?search=common%20variable%20immunodeficiency&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~102&usage_type=default&display_rank=4#H10572287 ''Most patients with CVID present after puberty, and the disorder is usually diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. However, about 25 percent of all CVID patients present in childhood or adolescence, and there is an earlier peak of diagnosis at approximately eight years of age'' 2. https://www21.ucsg.edu.ec:2065/contents/clinical-manifestations-epidemiology-and-diagnosis-of-common-variable-immunodeficiency-in-adults?search=common%20variable%20immunodeficiency&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~102&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the commom variable immunodeficiency column, the part: ''Usually presents after 2 years and may be considered delayed''; could be changed to: ''Mainly diagnosed after 20 years old, with 25% of all patients detected before puberty, peaking at age 8''. Even though there is not an unanimous consensus on the age on onset, the way it's presented in the current text could be misleading and not helpful for the diagnosis of the disease.Major erratum08/28/19 11:44 AM
216117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/137015-overviewWiskott-Aldrich syndrome: Mutation in WAS gene - should be WASpSpelling/formatting02/12/19 2:32 PM
217117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ataxia-telangiectasia?search=radiation%20ataxia%20telangiectasia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Hypersensitivity to radiation cause multiple Double strand DNA breaks . Instead of what is in the book , just to clarify .High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:27 PM
218117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/137015-overviewThe mnemonic WATER is already used for the symptoms of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. It is useful to point out that the A and E in it can also be used to memorize that IgA and IgE are increased in this disease.Mnemonic03/03/19 6:01 AM
219117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesi saw this mneomonic on a YouTube channelLeukocyte adhesion deficiency (type 1) there is a really good way to sum up the condition which is by the name of the condition itself: L A D L: Late separation of the cord. A: Absence of the pus. D: Dysfunctional Neutrophil.Mnemonic04/18/19 3:24 PM
220117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesNot applicableMnemonic for decreased TRECS in SCID: "SCIDDING (skidding) because there are no TRECS (tracks)!"Mnemonic06/10/19 7:24 PM
221119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionN/AGVHD row, last column, line 9, the word "transfusion" is miss-spelled.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:12 AM
222119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionhttp://tpis.upmc.com/tpislibrary/kidney/KHAcuRej.html, also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrinoid_necrosisto add "Fibrinoid" necrosis under the hyperacute rejectionHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:54 PM
223120ImmunologyPharmacologyImmunosuppressantsSelf-made mnemonicBasiliximab mnemonic: The basilisk is in the 2nd Harry Potter movie (IL-2), when it bites someone they get scared (hypertension), swell up (edema), and shake in fear (tremor).Mnemonic02/11/19 1:44 PM
224120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantsminor missing detail in 2019 First Aid TextMissing Daclizumab on page/column with Basiliximab. It is in previous versions but was left out in 2019 version. Despite this it is still found in the Index and refers to page 120.Minor erratum02/22/19 5:21 PM
225121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical usesIt's MnemonicIFN-*β* --->Multiple sclerosis(demyelination of CNS (*B*rain and spinal cord)).\Highlight "β and letter B in Brain".Mnemonic01/02/19 2:08 PM
226121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical useshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-applications-of-thrombopoietic-growth-factors?search=oprelvekin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~38&usage_type=default&display_rank=1INTERLEUKIN - 11: AGENT: Oprelvekin MECANISM: stimulates megakaryocyte growth in vitro and increases platelet production in vivo CLINICAL USES: ly reduced the extent of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia and the need for platelet transfusions ADVERSE EFFECTS: luid retention with dilutional anemia, peripheral edema, pleural effusions, and atrial arrhythmiasHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:57 PM
227122EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://resident360.nejm.org/content_items/degludec-versus-glargine-in-type-2-diabetes, https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1615692should probably include degludec under the injectables given the big splash it's made in the last year through NEJMHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 11:13 AM
228122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5713267/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649440Agent: Secukinumab, Ixekizumab. Target: IL-17A. Clinical Use: Psoriasis, Psoriatic ArthritisHigh-yield addition to next year03/26/19 11:14 PM
229122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodiesIt's MnemonicE is the 5th letter alphabetically -->Eculizumab Complement protein C*5* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:14 PM
230122ImmunologyPharmacologyTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25823918if you can add these drugs with targeted receptor to therapeutic antibodies table: anti programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy ( eg, pembrolizumab,nivolumab) or programmed cell death ligand PD-L1 (eg,Atezolizumab) are currently used in advanced melanoma, certain types of lung cancer and renal cell carcinomaMajor erratum03/27/19 7:03 AM
231122Neurology and Special SensesImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100258/aimovig-erenumab-aooe-certolizumab pegol is another clinically relevant TNF alpha antibodyHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 11:00 AM
232122Neurology and Special SensesImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100325/cimzia-certolizumab-pegol-certolizumab pegol is another clinically relevant TNF alpha antibodyHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 11:00 AM
233122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100325/cimzia-certolizumab-pegol-certolizumab pegol is another clinically relevant TNF alpha antibodyHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 11:04 AM
234122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://alexion.com/products/Soliris/Soliris-Generalized-Myasthenia-GravisEculizumab approved for Myasthena Gravis, Oct 2017High-yield addition to next year05/15/19 11:09 AM
235122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.cdc.gov/meningococcal/clinical/eculizumab.html https://alexion.com/products/Soliris/Soliris-Generalized-Myasthenia-GravisEculizumab has black box warning for meningococcemia - Link with "Terminal complement deficiency (C5-C9)" on pg 107High-yield addition to next year05/15/19 11:13 AM
236122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodiesN/AAbciximab GP IIb/IIIa mnemonic: AbSIXimab; II (2) x III (3) = 6Mnemonic06/06/19 9:11 PM
237124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structuresNot needed.Last sentence in the second column which reads ‘Lipoteichoic acid (gram positive) only extend from membrane to exterior.’ should read ‘’Lipoteichoic acids (gram positive only) extend from membrane to exterior.’Spelling/formatting01/01/19 8:14 AM
238124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structureshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1595480/Gram-positive bacteria also has periplasm (book says: gram-negative only). In gram-positive, periplasm between peptidoglycan and plasma membrane.Major erratum08/25/19 10:29 AM
239125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPleomorphic bacteriaMy brainCREAM does not have a shapeMnemonic01/12/19 6:50 PM
240125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPleomorphic bacterian/a“Ana, Rick and Mike from US Climbed Everest and said: NO WALL!” Anaplasma, Rickettsiae, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Chlamydia, Ehrlichia No Peptidoglycan CELL WALL.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:31 PM
241125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyStainsNAPrimarily Intracellular Organisms Mnemonic: REAL intra-Cellular Body i.e. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, BartonellaMnemonic01/22/19 2:25 AM
242125MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocoliticahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7798/My comment is regarding Yersinia pestis, on page 125 in microbiology section under clinical bacteriology on the gram negative lab algorithm it states that Yersinia pestis is a gram negative bacilli. Upon further research and studying it has come to my attention that it in fact is a coccobacilli rather then just bacilli. During a question on my uworld i had gotten the question wrong because of this misleading information. It kept describing in the vignette a gram negative coccobacilli but looking at first aid gram negative lab algorithm it was classified as bacilli. Hopefully this error could be fixed for the next edition. Also is attached a supporting reference stating on a medical journal it is in fact a coccobacilli.High-yield addition to next year08/20/19 3:23 PM
243126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmenmonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Charcoa*L* for *L*egione*ll*aMnemonic01/04/19 8:39 AM
244126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmnemonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Thayer-Marti*N*for *N*eisseria.Mnemonic01/04/19 8:40 AM
245127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBordetella pertussishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264864/Bordetella Pertussis has a capsule and should be added to the Encapsulated bacteriaClarification to current text03/10/19 9:49 PM
246128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsI made this mnemonic.SHE PLANS BC (of her) Cat... that is a mnemonic that is more helpful for the catalase + organisms because all the letters (SHE PLANS BC) are bacteria. The current one is okay and relates to cats but everyone I know says it is hard to remember and this one is easier.Mnemonic01/10/19 1:09 PM
247128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC380547/Klebsiella is a catalase positive organismHigh-yield addition to next year08/29/19 1:20 PM
248129MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyType III secretion systemBent, Z. W., Branda, S. S., & Young, G. M. (2013). The Yersinia enterocolitica Ysa type III secretion system is expressed during infections both in vitro and in vivo. MicrobiologyOpen, 2(6), 962–975. doi:10.1002/mbo3.136Mnemonic: Third borns are always PESSY (Third for Type III secretion system; PESSY for Pseudomonas, E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitis.Mnemonic06/08/19 1:21 PM
249129MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyType III secretion systempersonalInitials of every bacteria can be found on the subject itself: ''Type III SEcrEtion SYStem'' (pSEudomona, E coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella).Mnemonic08/29/19 9:02 AM
250131MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyMain features of exotoxins and endotoxinsN/Aunder "Chemistry" of "Exotoxins", edit it to become: "Polypeptide with A and B components. A (active) component produces toxic effects and B (binding) components binds to cell surfaces."High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 12:47 PM
251132MicrobiologyMolecularBacteria with exotoxinshttps://iai.asm.org/content/73/5/2698Text indicates "Pertussis Toxin Overactivates adenylate cyclase (t cAMP) by disabling C;, impairing phagocytosis to permit surviva l of microbe". However, it is misguiding as "Pertusis Toxin (PT) is an AB5 toxin that is uniquely produced by B. pertussis. It comprises an enzymatically active A subunit (S1) that ADP ribosylates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric Gi proteins in mammalian cells, and a B heteropentamer that binds unidentified glycoconjugate receptors on cells. ADP ribosylation of G proteins by PT causes a wide range of effects on signaling pathways in mammalian cells and is responsible for the systemic symptoms of pertussis disease, such as lymphocytosis, insulinemia, and histamine sensitivity. PT is an important colonization factor for B. pertussis lower respiratory tract infection and that PT plays an early role in this host-pathogen interaction, including delaying the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. PT acts as a soluble factor that can enhance B. pertussis respiratory tract colonization. PT also suppresses serum antibody responses to B. pertussis after respiratory tract infection and may play multiple immunosuppressive roles in the host-pathogen interaction. "Major erratum01/21/19 3:07 PM
252132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinsN/Aunder mechanism of Diphteria toxin and Exotoxin A, edit it to: "Inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) by ADP-ribosylation"High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 12:48 PM
253132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4041834/increased fluid secretion: B. anthracis it states that that toxin is edema factor, which is incorrect. The toxin is Edema toxin ( protective antigen plus Edema factor) (AB toxin) , in which Edema factor is the A component that causes the increase in cAMP, and the B component is protective antigen, which mediates the adhesion to host cells. Individually they are non toxic and must be in a pair to form a virulence factor.Major erratum06/13/19 7:27 PM
254132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinsfirst aidwe can use mnemonic: she has cold blood not eating protein but fake corn (she --> shigella, cold blood--> hemorrhagic E coli, not eating protein--> inhibit protein synthesis, fake--->pseudo in pseudomonas, corn--> corynebacterium)Mnemonic08/31/19 8:18 AM
255132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinsfirst aidwe can use mnemonic: VIP in Rio 2020 pass the cold water( vip rio--> vibrio , pass--> bacillus, the cold--> toxigenic E coli , water --> fluid secretion)Mnemonic08/31/19 8:21 AM
256132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxins-Bacteria that causes diarrhea via increase in c(A)MP ---> (A)ctively secrets Cl into the lumen, While cGMP only prevents absorptionMnemonic09/08/19 10:43 AM
257133MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyEndotoxinn/aLipopolysaccharide is made of Lipid A + O antigen + polysaccharide. Lip + O + polysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide) --> Lipid A + O antigen + polysaccharideMnemonic02/21/19 12:30 PM
258133MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyEndotoxinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187311/adding TLR4 to the abbreviations at the end. TLR4 stand for Toll-Like Receptor 4Spelling/formatting05/13/19 9:29 PM
259134MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-positive lab algorithmhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24451174 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-listeria-monocytogenes-infectionListeria is facultative anaerobic bacilliMinor erratum06/22/19 11:31 AM
260134MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStaphylococcus saprophyticusnot applicableI think the mnemonic: no stress is confusing, one can easily confuse StRESs Saprophyticus Resistant Epidermidis Sensitive with: stRESS Resistant Epidermidis Sensitive Saprophyticus. I suggest changing it with: In the hospital staff (staphylococcus) none voted (novobiocin) for ESR (Epidermidis Sensitive Saprophyticus Resistant)Mnemonic03/23/19 6:28 PM
261135MicrobiologyClinical Bacteriologyα-hemolytic bacteriahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-gram-stain-and-culture-results-in-the-microbiology-laboratoryAlpha hemolysis is a partial hemolysis where hemoglobin is oxidized (not reduced) to methemoglobin and turns green.Minor erratum05/05/19 10:45 AM
262136MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStreptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci)https://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticMajor criteria for rheumatic fever: J-Joint involvement ♥-Carditis N-Nodules, subcutaneous E-Erythema marginatum S-Syndenham chorea Minor criteria for rheumatic fever: H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 5:56 PM
263136MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyViridans group streptococciN/AStrep "M"utans and Strep "M"itis --> "M"outh --> dental cariesMnemonic03/01/19 9:05 AM
264137MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus anthracis1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-pathogenesis-and-epidemiology-of-anthrax, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4041834/Multiple newer sources state that the anthrax toxin is not a single exotoxin composed of three molecules. Bacillus anthracis produces two anthrax toxins (exotoxins), edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT), each of which consists of two subunits. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the edema factor (EF), it gives rise to the edema toxin. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the lethal factor (LF) it gives rise to the lethal toxin. So to summarize: LT = LF + PA, ET = EF + PA. Please correct this on page 132 (footnote) as well.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:39 AM
265138MicrobiologyToxicities and Side EffectsClostridiahttps://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093458?casa_token=ga1wCncZq4UAAAAA:6rU4x_nmFz-dAJ9q_iqIZOS1Ka0ezH43uV1IczlQ2Rihc7gqh_9WTsxvAaNCzuukflE2qSqiQDxygpJ-Toxin A was initially considered Enterotoxin and Toxin B as cytotoxin. However, consensus has changed in last 2-3 years. Both Toxin A as well as Toxin B have enterotoxicity.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:17 AM
266138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2015/694247/I think it would be better if you add Closttridum Septicum to clostridia table and the difference between C.perfringen in Gas gangren causes as C.septicum not preced by trauma(atrumatic myonecrosis). Moreover C.septicum is underlying by colonic malignancyHigh-yield addition to next year05/13/19 10:32 PM
267138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridia--"spas" in "tetanospasmin" should be highlighted to correspond to the highlight in "spastic" paralysisSpelling/formatting05/14/19 4:26 AM
268138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.jwatch.org/na43536/2017/03/02/vancomycin-vs-metronidazole-clostridium-difficileI believe it should be highlighted that oral vancomycin is now the preferred treatment over metronidazole. This came up numerous times for me in question banks.Clarification to current text05/21/19 8:17 AM
269138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/primary-focal-hyperhidrosis?search=hyperhidrosis%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The text says "Local botox injections used to treat focal dystonia, achalasia, and muscle spasms. Also used for cosmetic reduction of facial wrinkles." It can be added it is also used to treat local hyperhidrosis, because in spite of sweat glands being activated by sympathetic system their post-sypnaptic neurons release Ach.Clarification to current text07/27/19 4:12 PM
270139MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNocardia vs Actinomyceshttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1020&sectionid=56968770Nocardia lives in soil but longs for oxygen and looks for it infecting lung. Actinomyces is normal flora but hates oxygen hiding from it on an abscess.Mnemonic05/23/19 3:24 PM
271140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overviewMycobacterium tuberculosis DOES NOT stain with a gram stain. First Aid states that it is gram positive, this is falseMinor erratum01/09/19 2:35 AM
272140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/tuberculosis-transmission-and-control-in-health-care-settingsMode of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis --> airborneHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 9:49 AM
273140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacterian/aCORD factor activates maCORDphageMnemonic05/06/19 11:58 AM
274140MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—CNS infectionshttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Toxoplasma_gondiiwhat if you add Crescent shape organism on the diagnosis section of Toxoplasma gondii.Clarification to current text05/15/19 4:23 PM
275141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1551&sectionid=94106931Enterobacteriaceae(E. coli, serrate, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter) are oxidate test negative. Of the bacilli given in table on page 141, only 'P'seudomonas is oxidase 'P'ositive.(both starting with P)High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 12:35 PM
276141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1829097/ & https://www.uptodate.com/contents/vibrio-vulnificus-infections?search=vibiro%20vulnificus&topicRef=7646&source=see_link#H11Vibrio Vulnificus - motile, comma-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, The organism is isolated in high concentrations from shellfish (especially oysters), High iron levels appear to be a marked predictor of the severity of infection with Vibrio vulnificus. Laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio vulnificus infection can be performed by using stool, blood, or lesion cultures. The Gram stain shows a mildly pleomorphic, slightly curved gram-negative bacillus. It grows well in peptone water enrichment broth and can then be subcultured on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar, which exhibits green colonies. Causes Rapidly Spreading cellulitis which is difficult to treat.High-yield addition to next year03/19/19 4:15 AM
277141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLeprosyhttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-015-1768-6The lepromin skin test is used to determine the type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy the test is positive and lepromatous leprosy the test is negative.Clarification to current text07/19/19 10:10 PM
278142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaeUWorld question id: 963 explanation; Koneman's Color Alas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology 6th ed, pg 446Haemophilus Influenzae can also be grown with S aureus, which provides factor V DIRECTLY, and provides FACTOR X via RBC hemolysis.Major erratum01/16/19 7:58 AM
279142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaehttps://www.cdc.gov/hi-disease/about/causes-transmission.htmlRespiratory droplet transmission, not aerosol.Clarification to current text09/03/19 9:01 AM
280142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNeisseriahttps://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/lab/nmen.htmNeisseria are oxdiase + yet it is not mentioned as important information in their classification or in the diagram made for Gram negative bacteria in the previous pageMinor erratum02/24/19 11:23 PM
281144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLactose-fermenting enteric bacteriasee diagram on p.141Add that Citrobacter is also a weak fermenter.Clarification to current text01/20/19 5:53 PM
282144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySalmonella vs Shigellahttps://ard.bmj.com/content/64/4/594Shigella flexeri is associated with Reactive ArthritisClarification to current text05/13/19 9:41 PM
283144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySalmonella vs Shigellaown mnemonicIn shigella order: you can write in order with mnemonic: Dye> Flexing> Biceps> soon:: Dysenteriae>flexneri>boydii>sonneiMnemonic09/15/19 5:39 PM
284144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocoliticahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-infectionsI found this to be mentioned alot in USMLE stem questions ""Conditions associated with iron-overload such as chronic liver disease, hemochromatosis, and thalassemias have been associated with an increased risk of invasive yersiniosisHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 5:42 AM
285144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocolitica1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-infections 2. Uworld ID 15407 choice B explanationYersinia is NOT a rod, it is coccobacillus.Minor erratum02/22/19 11:53 PM
286145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyKlebsiellahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8035/adding urease positive (+) to the Klebsiella paragraph.Clarification to current text05/13/19 9:36 PM
287146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacterial taxonomyUWorldV vulnificus has some interesting properties that would be beneficial to have in First Aid: Vibrio vulnificus grows in brackish coastal water and marine environments. transmission primarily occurs due to consumption of raw seafood or wound contamination. Manifestations are often mild but individuals with liver disease or iron overload are at very high risk of severe, fulminant infection (eg sepsis, necrotizing faciitis). Free iron acts as an exponential growth catalyst for the bacteriumHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:06 AM
288146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLyme diseasen/aChange the E for the FACE mnemonic to : Erythema migrans/EncephalopathyMnemonic01/20/19 5:52 PM
289146ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100362/rituxan-rituximabAlso for the treatment of pemphigusHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 12:42 PM
290146ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100362/rituxan-rituximabrituximab is also for the treatment of pemphigusHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 12:42 PM
291146ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodieshttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/100253/ilumya-tildrakizumab-asmntildrakizumab also blocks IL23 and is also used to treat psoriasisHigh-yield addition to next year04/16/19 12:44 PM
292147MicrobiologyMiscellaneousSyphilishttps://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/tests/vdrl-testVDRL False -ve possible in Syphilis less than 3 months. VDRL False +ve possible in Lyme disease, SLE, HIV, Malaria, Tuberculosis, certain types of pneumonia, and IV drug users.High-yield addition to next year01/22/19 2:46 AM
293147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilisN/ATertiary syphilis mnemonic: PARESIS: P: Personality change A: affective personality R: reflexes are hyperactive E: eyes are Argyll Robertson S: sensorial defects I: intellect is low S: speech is decreasedMnemonic05/12/19 9:04 AM
294147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537782/ https://fmc-reg.onecount.net/onecount/login/loginlogout.cgi?gid=36971,36971&return=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdedge.com%2Fdermatology%2Farticle%2F67306%2Fhair-nails%2Falopecia-association-sexually-transmitted-disease-review&brand=edge3&sid=anbmbhn3jeed8qd0qjdqbgsld6it would be better if you add picture of patient had alopecia, as it is associated with secondary syphilis.High-yield addition to next year05/14/19 5:22 PM
295147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilisfirst aidwe can use mnemonic: sits on a table eating gum argylrobertson attack rome with strong stroke leaving the city as charcoal during 3rd world war( table--> tabes dorsalis, gum--> gummas, attack--> ataxia, rome-->romberg + , charcoal--> charcot joint, war--> aortitis)Mnemonic08/31/19 8:28 AM
296148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVDRL false positiveshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312652/ and https://www.ama-assn.org/residents-students/usmle/heres-most-missed-usmle-test-prep-question-and-right-answer"Drugs" here is referring to specific types of drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, procainamide) or to IV drug users? I've found reference to both of them, I just need some clarificationClarification to current text12/27/18 10:49 PM
297148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVDRL false positiveshttps://openurologyandnephrologyjournal.com/VOLUME/8/PAGE/2/FULLTEXT/antiphospholipid syndrome can present with a false-positive VDRL. Could keep same mnemonic, just add antiphospholid syndrome between parentheses after lupus. Has showed up multiple times in qbanks.High-yield addition to next year07/24/19 7:45 AM
298149MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyZoonotic bacterian/a“Lousy BORing RECURRing Fever” BORrelia RECURRentis – Relapsing Fever – Louse “Rickettsia tyFLEA” Rickettsia typhi – Endemic typhus – FLEAsMnemonic07/10/19 8:33 PM
299151MicrobiologyMycologySystemic mycosesmy own ideabecause Coccidioidomycosis is common in California what if you highlight the C letter in red color on both word.Mnemonic05/13/19 9:58 PM
300151MicrobiologyMycologySystemic mycosesn/aBLASTOMYCOSIS: “GRANd Beast from the EAST is Vicious” EASTern US Blastomycosis, Broad Based Buds Verrucous skin lesions GRANulomatous nodulesMnemonic07/10/19 8:35 PM
301153MicrobiologyPharmacologyOpportunistic fungal infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-oropharyngeal-and-esophageal-candidiasis?search=nystatin%20swish%20and%20swallow&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the Candida section, it makes the treatment of esophageal candida ambiguous. It implies that nystatin can be used to treat esophageal candida. systemic therapy with fluconazole is required for esophageal candidasis, not topical therapy with nystatin.Minor erratum01/31/19 12:45 AM
302156MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—CNS infectionshttps://www.cdc.gov/parasites/sleepingsickness/health_professionals/index.htmlCDC recommends T. b. gambiense be treated with Pentamidine and Eflornithine. Only the treatments for T. b. rhodesiense are listed, and these are usually not used for the other subspecies.Major erratum09/11/19 6:16 PM
303156MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—othershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/african-trypanosomiasis-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-treatment#H2334707Winterbottom's sign. Winterbottom's sign is seen in the early phase of African trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by the parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense which is more commonly known as African sleeping sickness.Clarification to current text07/31/19 7:38 PM
304158MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—othersUWorld qid 15448Rod-shaped kinetoplasts can be found on biopsyHigh-yield addition to next year03/11/19 10:45 PM
305158MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—othersmnemonicTRYPomastigote (flagellated) are found in TRYPanosoma cruzi and brucei (page 156)Mnemonic09/12/19 9:07 AM
306159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxocariasis-visceral-and-ocular-larva-migrans 2. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30331-6/fulltextMost pts w/ Visceral larva migrans (T. canis) are asymptomatic. MC occurs in children and results in hepatitis and pneumonitis (if symptomatic). Hepatic sx - hepatomegaly or nodular lesions. Lung sx - dyspnea, wheezing, and a chronic nonproductive cough in 20-80% of pts. Ocular larva migrans is common. CNS and cardiac involvement are rare but are potentially life-threatening complications. So the text should be corrected as "Most often asymptomatic. If symptoms arise (particularly in children), most commonly occur in lung (pneumonitis), eye (visual impairment, blindness - "Ocular larva migrans"), liver (hepatomegaly, nodular lesions). Disease can rarely affect heart (myocarditis) and CNS (seizures, coma)"Clarification to current text01/04/19 4:21 AM
307159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/loiasis/treatment.htmlLoa loa infection refractory to diethylcarbamazine may be treated with albendazole.High-yield addition to next year01/09/19 3:50 PM
308159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)First aid 2018, UpToDate strongyloidiasis pageRe-formatting from last years text has gotten rid of the symptoms associated with strongyloides infection (epigastrc pain, pulmonary symptoms, and cutaneous manifestations)High-yield addition to next year05/05/19 3:15 PM
309160MicrobiologyParasitologyParasite hintshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2Q3TMtg4r8Easy way to remember Shistosoma Haematobium is associated with the bladder, It looks like a bladder with a urethra as the terminal spine.Mnemonic09/08/19 9:04 AM
310161MicrobiologyParasitologyEctoparasiteshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/scabies-management?search=scabies%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~88&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Sarcoptes scabiei: Treatment: Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin are the most common first-line treatmentsHigh-yield addition to next year02/06/19 1:39 PM
311163MicrobiologyVirologyNaked viral genome infectivitypage 167There are no naked -ssRNA, they all are enveloped according to table page 167Major erratum03/01/19 6:48 PM
312163MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viral genomesn/aFor RNA viral genomes, change mnemonic to: "I went to a positively retro (retrovirus), toga (togavirus) party, where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippie (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus), man."Mnemonic01/20/19 5:49 PM
313163MicrobiologyVirologyViral envelopesBeats "CPR to a naked Hippie"Enveloped RNA viruses: RHCP (Red Hot Chili Peppers)Mnemonic09/06/19 9:02 PM
314164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesMyselfAdenovirus medical importance mnemonic "FAM Gets Pneumonia with Conjunctivitis" i.e. Febrile pharyngitis, Acute hemorrhagic cystitis, Myocarditis, Gastroenteritis, Pneumonia, ConjunctivitisMnemonic01/31/19 4:46 PM
315164MicrobiologySystemsRed rashes of childhoodNot needed.For Parvovirus B19, you slap with the five fingers of your hand (fifth disease - "slapped cheek" appearance)Mnemonic05/12/19 6:05 AM
316165MicrobiologyVirologyHerpesviruseshttps://pmj.bmj.com/content/postgradmedj/61/722/1089.full.pdfCytomegalovirus: Presence of both intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within infected cells. Mnemonic: "C (M)ore (V)odies"High-yield addition to next year05/15/19 11:36 AM
317165MicrobiologyVirologyHerpesviruseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/279269-overviewadd is associated with oral hairy leukoplakiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/31/19 11:43 AM
318166MicrobiologyVirologyViral structure—general featureshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC112152/It is stated that CMV interacts with integrins such as heparan sulfate, but I believe this should be RSV. It has been recognized that the RSV G protein attaches to heparan sulfate on host cells.Minor erratum01/11/19 12:51 PM
319167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesn/aAll (+) RNA viruses are icosahedral, except for Corona. All (-) RNA viruses are helical, except for Delta.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 6:44 PM
320167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://web.stanford.edu/group/virus/rhabdo/2004bischoffchang/Rhabdo.htmAccording to RNA viruse table p167 Rhabdovirus has capsid symmetry "Helical" but it's actually is Bullet shape "characteristic" to it which is mention correctly in p171Major erratum04/02/19 4:17 PM
321168MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/clinical.htmlPlease add that Rotaviruses are 'wheel-shaped' (this was a key feature in recognizing the virus in a NBME question). CDC also states that 'The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin word rota, meaning “wheel.”'High-yield addition to next year02/15/19 5:19 PM
322169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza viruseswww2.usmle-rx.comGenetic "S"hift is more "S"erious than Genetic driftMnemonic02/18/19 6:45 PM
323169MicrobiologyVirologyParamyxoviruseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21171875 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100768 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739493: I think because Respiratory Syncial Virus(RSV) is an important virus causing bronchiolitis in children less than 2 years, so it would be better if you write about it in details in a separate paragraph. Common guys you should give some respect to RSV.!Clarification to current text05/15/19 4:46 PM
324169MicrobiologyVirologyRubella virushttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/966220-clinicalstates maculopapular rash that starts on face and spreads CENTRIFUALLY; however, it should state CENTRIPETAL spreadMajor erratum03/29/19 11:00 AM
325169MicrobiologyVirologyRubella virushttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/968523-clinicalThe text for Rubella virus currently lists "postauricular and other lymphadenopathy" as symptoms. Possibly clarify/correct "other lymphadenopathy" to "occipital lymphadenopathy".Clarification to current text05/08/19 2:20 PM
326170MicrobiologyVirologyMeasles (rubeola) virushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/measles-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention?search=koplik%20spots&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~6&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Koplik spots are better described as white-blue spots with an erythematous base rather than red spots with a white centerMinor erratum08/08/19 4:47 AM
327170MicrobiologyVirologyMeasles (rubeola) virushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/measles-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention5 C's of measles: Cough; Coryza; Conjunctivits; "C"oplik spots; Cutaneous rashMnemonic09/19/19 4:52 AM
328170MicrobiologyVirologyMeasles (rubeola) virusFA19 p.170 & 1835 C's of measles: Cough; Coryza; Conjunctivitis; "C"oplik spots; Confluent rashMnemonic09/24/19 9:32 AM
329172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-adults-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=hepatitis%20A&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3024115574Hepatitis A is NOT usually asymptomatic (only in children <6yo). In fact, 70% of cases in adults have symptoms that usually begin with abrupt onset of nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fever, malaise, and abdominal pain. Within a few days to a week, dark urine (bilirubinuria) appears; pale stools (lacking bilirubin pigment) may also be observed. These are followed by jaundice and pruritus (40 to 70 percent of cases). The early signs and symptoms usually diminish when jaundice appears, and jaundice typically peaks within two weeks. Physical findings include fever, jaundice, scleral icterus, hepatomegaly (80 percent of cases), and right upper quadrant tenderness to palpationMajor erratum03/21/19 1:49 AM
330172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesRobbins Pathologic Basis of Disease 9th Ed, pg 839hepatitis E is Endemic in Equatorial regions and frequently Epidemic (highlight E’s)Clarification to current text03/21/19 4:59 AM
331172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesN/Afor Hep E, to remeber preganacy, I would say PregnancEEMnemonic05/01/19 9:45 AM
332172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesn/aABCDEFG of Hep B. A: Arthralgia, B: Blood/baby/B, C: Cytotoxic T Cells/Carrier, D: DNA/Duration long, E: Eosinophilic, F: Fever/Full resolution, G: Granular, H: HepadnavirusMnemonic05/22/19 10:22 AM
333172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesmyselfHAV and HEV are fEcAl (fecal - oral transmission)Mnemonic09/23/19 8:02 PM
334175MicrobiologyVirologyHIVpg 175 FAgp "(F)orty" for (F)usionMnemonic03/09/19 8:14 AM
335175MicrobiologyVirologyHIVn/aHow to remember which receptor is used for early vs. late infection in HIV: ‘Early’ has 5 letters = CCR5 ; ‘Late’ has 4 letters = CXCR4Mnemonic03/24/19 4:27 PM
336177MicrobiologyVirologyCommon diseases of HIV-positive adultshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-infections-in-persons-with-hivMycobacterium Avium Intracellulare/complex mostly occurs in HIV patients with CD4 count less than 50cells/mm3. as mention in the table for sure it is less than 100 but to be more specific it would be better if you classify both organisms under less than 50 cells/mm3.High-yield addition to next year05/20/19 6:02 PM
337177MicrobiologyVirologyCommon diseases of HIV-positive adultsn/aAssuming CD 4+ count as DOLLAR$$$.  CD4+ cell <500/mm3 (< 500 million $)  You CAN Buy 2-Houses CANdida albicans, EBV, HHV-8, HPV  CD4+ cell <200/mm3 (< 200 $)  CAP, Hat, JoCkey and PyJama CANdida albicans, EBV, HHV-8, HPV  CD4+ cell <100/mm3 (< 100 $)  You CAN Go To A BAR and Buy yourself a CRaft beer and C-Mo:Mo CANdida albicans, Toxoplasm Gondii, Aspergillus fumigatus, BARtonella spp, EBV, CRyptosporidium spp, CRytococcus neoformans, CMV, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulareMnemonic07/10/19 8:39 PM
338178MicrobiologySystemsBugs causing food-borne illnesshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/vibrio-parahaemolyticusV parahaemolyticus and V vulnificus . source of infection contaminated or raw seafood. adding the word raw to the textClarification to current text05/13/19 10:05 PM
339181MicrobiologySystemsCommon vaginal infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PC%2F68759&topicKey=OBGYN%2F5477&search=common%20vaginal%20infections&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150 and https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=OBGYN%2F81449&topicKey=OBGYN%2F5477&search=common%20vaginal%20infections&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150This might be an overkill for Step 1, but I've made this table with data from UpToDate that adds a lot of value in diagnostic and differentials between these common vaginal infections, looking at their Si/Sx.High-yield addition to next year03/21/19 2:31 AM
340181MicrobiologySystemsCommon vaginal infectionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042815 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648432Bacterial vaginosis it is Off white discharge, lab findings: positive whiff test(amine odor with KOH). Trichomonas vaginitis is THIN foul smelling discharge. Candida Vulvovaginitis : ph normal (3.8-4.5) for the treatment Azoles (eg,Fluconazole)Clarification to current text05/14/19 10:09 AM
341181MicrobiologySystemsUrinary tract infectionsMy brainUsual pathogens- KEEPS = Klebsiella, E.coli, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staph. Saprophyticus, SerratiaMnemonic02/01/19 12:24 PM
342182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionsFA p. 182Go to IT to fix your PC (Intraventricular calcifications with Toxoplasmosis; Periventricular calcifications with Cytomegalovirus)Mnemonic12/28/18 11:11 AM
343182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionsFA19 p.182*CALL* *IT* to fix your *PC* (Intracranial *CALL*cifications with *T*oxoplasma, *P*eriventricular with *C*ytomegalovirus)Mnemonic03/28/19 4:59 PM
344182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionsmnemonic, p. 182 FACALl IT for your PC. CALcifications: Intracranial/Toxo, Periventricular/CmvMnemonic04/16/19 2:12 PM
345182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19697432Pulmonary Artery stenosis is associated with congenital rubella syndrome.Clarification to current text05/13/19 10:14 PM
346183MicrobiologySystemsRed rashes of childhoodi have no hyperlinks, i came up with thatafter a Rad Party, CHug Milk and Sleep Vell ( Rubella virus , Parvovirus B19, Coxsackievirus type A, HHV-8, Measles virus, Strep. pyogenes, Vzv)Mnemonic12/25/18 1:44 PM
347183MicrobiologySystemsRed rashes of childhoodhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpanginain Coxsackievirus type A ulcer in oral mucosa, what if you add (Herpangina) after oral mucosaClarification to current text05/14/19 10:15 AM
348184MicrobiologySystemsSexually transmitted infectionsN/AGranuloma inguinale --> The character "A" which cites the picture, has a different font compared to elsewhere in the book.Spelling/formatting12/29/18 3:32 AM
349187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457410/mecA gene originally identified in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) encodes a PBP of 668 amino acid residues which is responsible for beta-lactam resistanceHigh-yield addition to next year02/27/19 8:34 AM
350187PharmacologyPharmacologyAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nitrofurantoin-drug-information?search=nitrofurantoin&topicRef=8065&source=see_link#F201984Nitrofurantoin - first line therapy in Acute uncomplicated cystitis >or= 12 years of age and chronic recurrent UTIs. It is a High risk medication in Geriatric patients (>or = 65 years) as it is included in Beers criteria. Contraindications: Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] <60 mL/minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) or previous history of cholestatic jaundice or hepatic dysfunction associated with prior nitrofurantoinHigh-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:46 AM
351187MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nitrofurantoin-drug-information?search=nitrofurantoin&topicRef=8065&source=see_link#F201984Nitrofurantoin - first line therapy in Acute uncomplicated cystitis >or= 12 years of age and chronic recurrent UTIs. It is a High risk medication in Geriatric patients (>or = 65 years) as it is included in Beers criteria. Contraindications: Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] <60 mL/minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) or previous history of cholestatic jaundice or hepatic dysfunction associated with prior nitrofurantoinHigh-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:53 AM
352188MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsPenicillinase-resistant penicillinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517843/Kindly add methicillin to the list of penicillase-resistant penicillinsHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 3:11 AM
353189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases?search=Ceftolozane&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~12&usage_type=default&display_rank=3Add "Ceftolozane" in 3rd generation as it has enhanced activity against Pseudomonase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobactericeae. Used with tazobactamHigh-yield addition to next year02/07/19 6:16 PM
354189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cephalosporinsInside 2nd generation cephalosporins, add "Used in the prophylaxis and therapy of anaerobic contamination from the GI tract in the abdominal and pelvic cavities". Below the entry "2nd gen - HENS PEck" add ⇒ Anaerobic coverage (specifically Cefotetan and Cefoxitin)High-yield addition to next year03/21/19 1:57 AM
355189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsβ-lactamase inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/combination-beta-lactamase-inhibitors-carbapenems-and-monobactams?search=vaborbactam&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~6&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Add "vaborbactam" to the list as used in Meropenem-vaborbactam for KPCHigh-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:36 PM
356190MicrobiologyPharmacologyClostridiaUworldFidaxomicin is a macrocytic antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase and is bactericidal to C. difficile.High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 1:09 PM
357190MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsVancomycinn/a“Red Man NOT wearing a DRESS singing DA-DA inside his VAN” Red Man Syndrome Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Thrombophlebitis DRESS syndrome Binds D-A-D-A portion of cell wall precursors VANcomycin.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:41 PM
358191MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAminoglycosideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aminoglycosides?search=aminoglycosides&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Add "Plazomicin" as a novel aminoglycoside used for KPC and ESBL-producing EnterobacteriaceaeHigh-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:42 PM
359191MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAminoglycosideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aminoglycosidesThe figure shows that aminoglycosides inhibit initiation complex formation. The following is from Uptodate: "The aminoglycosides primarily act by binding to the aminoacyl site of 16S ribosomal RNA within the 30S ribosomal subunit, leading to misreading of the genetic code and inhibition of translocation [3,4]. The initial steps required for peptide synthesis, such as binding of mRNA and the association of the 50S ribosomal subunit, are uninterrupted, but elongation fails to occur due to disruption of the mechanisms for ensuring translational accuracy".Major erratum03/13/19 4:34 AM
360191MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsProtein synthesis inhibitorshttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/lincomycinLincomycin drug it binds also to 50s sub unit.what if you added to the mnemonics CCEL at 50 to be CCELL. extra L for lincomycinClarification to current text05/13/19 6:26 PM
361192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNot needed.For mechanism of resistance: Tetracyclines are treated as Trash by bacteria. You dont want to bring Trash inside (reduced uptake) you want to throw it out (increased efflux)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:51 AM
362192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNoneTo remember that Tetracyclines are contraindicated in pregnancy you can use the mnemonic "tetrogen" or "tetragen" (teratogen)Mnemonic03/05/19 3:57 PM
363193MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsMacrolideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/azithromycin-clarithromycin-and-telithromycin?search=macrolides&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H12On aminoglycosides, it is mentioned that they can cause neuromuscular blockade and are contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis. Telithromycin, a macrolide, can also cause exarcebation and it is contraindicated for MG patients.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:59 PM
364195MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntimicrobial therapyNot neededWrite Daptomycin as "DaptomySKIN to remember that this antibiotic is used to treat skin infections.Mnemonic07/01/19 2:06 PM
365196MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsRifamycinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rifamycins-rifampin-rifabutin-rifapentine/printCurrent text claims "Rifampin ramps up cytochrome P-450, but rifabutin does not." This is not true, as rifabutin is considered an inducer of CYP-450, although to a lesser extent than rifampin. I suggest the following rewrite: "Rifampin RAMPS up cytochrome P-450. So does Rifabutin, BUT less so."Minor erratum01/10/19 1:38 PM
366196MicrobiologyPharmacologyRifamycinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rifaximin-drug-information?search=rifaximin&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~37&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Rifaximin, sold under the trade name Xifaxan among others, is an antibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, cl difficile infection (off label), and hepatic encephalopathy. It has poor absorption when taken by mouthHigh-yield addition to next year07/31/19 8:10 PM
367197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsEthambutolhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethambutol-an-overviewReplace "may be reversible" with "usually reversible". Optic neuritis is reversible in most patients.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:43 AM
368198MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTreatment of highly resistant bacteriahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5204005/For drugs that treat MRSA: “There’s a line (linezolid) to dab (daptomycin) in the clean (clindamycin-according to Sketchy Pharm) van (vancomycin).” Also-“Tiger (tigecycline) and dog (doxycycline) covered in TonS (TMP-SMX according to Sketchy Pharm) of tar (ceftaroline).”Mnemonic06/07/19 1:34 PM
369199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAmphotericin B1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacology-of-amphotericin-b, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis-in-hiv-infected-patientsReplace "Intrathecally for fungal meningitis" with "Intrathecally for coccidioidal meningitis". Intrathecal administration is not used for cryptococcal meningitis.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:45 AM
370199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyUWorld, UpToDateAzoles specifically blocks 14-alpha-demethylase (the cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol)High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 6:33 PM
371199PharmacologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyFirst Aid for the USMLE STEP 1 2019PHARMACOLOGY (ANTIFUNGALS): Fact (p.199): Nystatin for the treatment for oral Candidiasis Mneumonic: NY State Candidates I voted for (orally) Fact (p.199): Flucytosine for the treatment of meningitis by Cryptococcus Mneumonic: FLU got you feeling CRYPTO Fact (p.199): Azoles inhibit cytochrome P-450 Mneumonic: That azole is so inhibited Fact (p.199): Terbanafine for the treatment of fungal nail infections. Mneumonic: TER (her) FINE nails Fact (p.200): Echinocandins for cell wall inhibition includes caspofungin Mneumonic: CASPER the friendly ghost goes through WALLS PHARMACOLOGY (ANTIMICROBIALS): P.204: Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy: MCAT M- Metronidazole C- Chloramphenicol A- Aminoglycosides T- TetracyclinesMnemonic05/15/19 2:22 AM
372199MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntifungal therapy(my brain)For Flucytosine - "FU-cytosine" - since it involves 5-FUMnemonic05/16/19 1:09 PM
373199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAzolesfirst aidsee attachmentMnemonic08/31/19 8:50 AM
374200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAnti-mite/louse therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pediculosis-capitis?search=lice%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~86&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H88337; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lindane-drug-information?search=Lindane&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~13&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Include topical ivermectin as treatment. Remove Lindane or clarify Lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane lotion has been discontinued in the US for more than 1 year. Only use lindane in patients who cannot tolerate or have failed first-line treatment.Clarification to current text02/06/19 1:51 PM
375201MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDrug namesUpToDate Docosanol: Drug informationDocosanol is a topical agent that prevents viral entry and replication at the cellular level. It is used for orolabial herpesHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 6:00 PM
376203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot neededFor abacavir association with HLA-B*57:01, highlight AB in abacavir red and highlight the A-B in HLA-B*57:01 red for memory aidMnemonic12/22/18 1:52 PM
377203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot needed"miraviroCXX"; (CXX is roman numerals for 120, gp120)Mnemonic12/28/18 8:48 AM
378203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773846/Maraviroc is not a fusion inhibitor. It is a co-receptor binding inhibitor. Both fusion inhibitors and co-receptor binding inhibitors are considered ENTRY inhibitors. I recommend changing "Fusion inhibitors" with "Entry inhibitors". This also applies to the chart on page 201.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:47 AM
379203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapymyselfNRTI mnemonic: TESLA DZ Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Stavudine, Lamivudine, Didanosine, ZidovudineMnemonic01/29/19 7:47 AM
380203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16302461Enfuvirtide is NOT effective against HIV-2, but at the top of the page it says only NNRTIs are not effective against HIV-2Minor erratum05/14/19 2:59 PM
381203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapyFrom the DHHS: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/21/52/when-to-start-antiretroviral-therapyART is now started for ALL HIV patients as soon as possible.High-yield addition to next year05/16/19 3:46 AM
382203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapy(my brain)Current mnemonic: "EnFUvirtude - FUsion inhibitor"; Suggestion: "EnFUvirtude - FUsion inhibitor - gp FUrty-one"Mnemonic05/16/19 3:48 AM
383203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapyNo reference needed.Staph Aureus Dies Tomorrow as wELL. Staph-> stavudine. Aureus-> Abacavir. Dies-> Didanosine. Tomorrow-> Tenofovir. wELl-> Emtricitabine and LamivudineMnemonic06/27/19 4:46 PM
384203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapyNo reference needed. mnemonicNNRTIs Mnemonic: Elves Never Die. Elves-> Efavirenz. Never-> Nevirapine. Die-> Delavirdine.Mnemonic06/27/19 4:49 PM
385203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyNone MnemonicNucleos(t)ides LimiT HIV DiAZESs (Diseases) Competitively DEN (than) Non-nucleosides.Mnemonic07/05/19 1:50 PM
386203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyNone"DIDanosine can lead to PancreaDIDis". An easy way to remember this small and very testable fact.Mnemonic08/03/19 6:59 PM
387203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot neededMnemonic for remembering the seven antiretrovirals in the NRTIsMnemonic08/26/19 9:05 PM
388204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/simeprevir-drug-informationAdverse effects of Grazoprevir and Simeprevir are switchedMinor erratum05/06/19 10:20 AM
389204MicrobiologyPharmacologyHepatitis C therapyhttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.hsc.unt.edu/contents/treatment-regimens-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-adults?search=hepatitis%20c%20treatment&topicRef=3673&source=see_link#H16319566Mnemonic/"general rule" to help remember drug treatment combinations for Hep CMnemonic05/06/19 9:33 PM
390204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-regimens-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection-in-adults?search=ledipasvir&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~28&usage_type=default&display_rank=3#H253485860Capitalizing the letter A in ledipAsvir and ombitAsvir make it easier to remember they are ns5*A* inhibitors. Same thing for letter B in sofosBuvir and dasaBuvir as they are ns5*B* inhibitors. Additionally, some of the hepatitis C therapies are not in the index.Mnemonic05/07/19 7:09 PM
391204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206157/On page 204 under NS3/4A inhibitors under toxicity; should read: Simeprevir: Photosensitivity reactions, rash, headache, fatigue, nausea. Grazoprevir: headache and fatigue. Here is a quote from this article 'The main side effects of Simeprevir include headache, fatigue, nausea, photosensitivity and skin rash’Minor erratum06/03/19 11:09 PM
392204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/177792-treatment#d11Ribavirin is a guanosine nucleoSide inhibitor as it is a nucleoside analogue. The statement that it inhibits 'synthesis of guanine nucleotides' is true as well but I find it clearer to say that it is a nucleoside inhibitor rather than it 'inhibits the synthesis of nucleotides.'Clarification to current text06/30/19 1:43 PM
393204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsInterferonsn/a(2018 edition) In Clinical Use row, "Chronic HBV and HVC" should be changed to "Chronic HBV and HCV" (HCV has letters transposed)Spelling/formatting05/18/19 10:40 PM
394206PathologyPathologyBarrett esophagushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459330/Barrett’s esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagusHigh-yield addition to next year08/23/19 11:24 AM
395206PathologyPathologyCell injuryhttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr287Desmoplasia:the proliferation of non-neoplastic fibrous tissueHigh-yield addition to next year05/14/19 8:36 PM
396206PathologyPathologyCellular adaptationshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia; https://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/overview-of-benign-breast-diseaseAdd "BPH" as an exception to neoplastic potential of hyperplasia, and add "apocrine metaplasia of the breast" as an exception to neoplastic potential of metaplasia.High-yield addition to next year01/12/19 11:30 AM
397206PathologyCellularCellular adaptationsn/aTo remember the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia: the LARGEST cells will win a TROPHY (larger cells in hyperTROPHY). A cell wants MORE cell friends to PLAY with (make more cells in hyperPLAYsia).Mnemonic02/19/19 11:29 AM
398209PathologyCellularNecrosishttps://journals.aace.com/doi/pdf/10.4158/EP15935.CRFat Necrosis as complication of Trauma on Obese Patient, also a complication in patient with extensive weight loss after adrenalectomy. Fat Necrosis could be a major complication in obese patients after a postsurgical treatment, so this can be published as a high yield example of Fat Necrosis Complication after surgery on obese patients.High-yield addition to next year04/29/19 11:22 AM
399210PathologyCellularIschemiaNoticedIn the ischemia section, the subendocardium (LV) of the heart is labeled with "A" for the image, but this is already referred to below by red infarct "A" showing an image of the lung.Minor erratum04/04/19 8:27 PM
400211PathologyPathologyTypes of calcificationmyself, FA2019Dystrophic calcification mnemonic: CCATTTS Liq Fat In Psam Room i.e. CREST syndrome, Congenital cmv, Atherosclerosis, Toxoplasmosis, Thrombi, TB, Schistosomiasis, Liquefactive necrosis of chronic abscess, Fat necrosis, Infarcts, Psammoma body, RubellaMnemonic03/26/19 6:32 AM
401212PathologyPathologyAmyloidosishttps://watermark.silverchair.com/ajcpath108-0289.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAk0wggJJBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggI6MIICNgIBADCCAi8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMtlki02qZntdM7fHhAgEQgIICAKb0OCRLIttoA307SWFQyMWGFQoZqVdeyp0SkLJU_bBGQ1LsNYjblQkqprShv4Anu-BVtNaDFDb0rEbYMNMZXBtWrQDaA4M7c8yJnnw4foUc-bvHtLPYWVSVIC2Qh3PfD5EnrmDoXIXvTfGPHMM_J4sveANlPRx7tbznKpmhJR5k8_DeWhB77aU5zJVYBMbfbAxb-pC0mvK8IE68J81KaqBL6sUdXVfkrA29G3hFdi2LSLFJnrBw9IJ5eXtkcohaY7iCO5_U6tHizycQ6nPjk8FJIf13nexfkb_HL1YQ-MnPcpsgf5gwegWZQC59iJ6v9c8IVGi7q1dM9OGG7ePZJ09fVPlmJksMiE9Bz-dShJMh7FyzmJhUMd7HSwfkoB9X2_t1QjxJUKldo25HIUJrGbUvOMuoex97_F-_ZbBnv2GODQUnm-5J3_QwlCZLvQVulEJx9KiqvZrMn3ekybkZS0o9nNG8FNmOP62QnYUKeDCI2FTbQ9AUgIDjBeT5fhkRG0khUNeZo14hhMQqJAFMxni6KhS-W_Go6faMIsX6q6BTpOQDjbb4NTuNCtHgPC9KHPiWxV2izvxCKogPXbgAfa1V4sHICtoOHFr3DXWutRT4GFi5hVMjVIC7KY24T88bnaokEKP4xwWuKkIuhsd2B9fR-UZfh3JKoIpcBqK_HmtqCalcitonin amyloid is known as 'ACal' (There should be no space between 'A' and 'Cal')Spelling/formatting12/23/18 3:47 AM
402213ImmunologyInflammationAcute inflammationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17625373Procalcitonin is one of the main diagnostic markers for infections.High-yield addition to next year03/26/19 11:47 AM
403213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsNext to Fibrinogen, the addition of an "upwards" arrow before ESR would clarify the result of increased fibrinogen.Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:22 AM
404213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsThe addition of an arrow pointing upwards and ESR (*increases ESR*) would be helpful if placed next to "Positive (Upregulated)". Otherwise, it would be helpful if "*upwards arrow* Acute Phase Reactants" was placed on Page 214 next to Inflammation under "increased ESR".Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:25 AM
405213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23172263adding procalcitonin to Acut pahse reactant but it is unique because it has positive and negative properties. it is level rise in bacterial toxins and fall in response to viral infections.High-yield addition to next year05/18/19 6:47 PM
406213PathologyInflammationInflammationhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1048887-overview#a3 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=bradykinin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H4335305Cardinal signs of inflammation: Tumor (swelling): ADD bradykininHigh-yield addition to next year01/21/19 6:21 AM
407213PathologyInflammationInflammationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-patient-with-neutrophilia?search=Leukemoid%20reaction&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H23&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~48&display_rank=1#H23Leukemoid reaction refers to a white blood cell (WBC) count >50,000/microL from causes other than leukemia. The majority of cells are mature neutrophils, often accompanied by a prominent left shift.High-yield addition to next year03/21/19 2:15 AM
408215PathologyPathologyAcute inflammationMyself, FA2019Leukocyte Extravasation step mnemonic: Leukocyte go to Margin Rolling And Transmitting Chemicals i.e. Margination, Rolling, Adhesion, Transmigration, ChemoattractionMnemonic03/26/19 7:31 AM
409216PathologyInflammationLeukocyte extravasationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3037658/VLA-4 integrin. VLA stand for Very Late Antigen, i think it would be better if you add this to the abbreviations and symbols at the end of the book.Spelling/formatting04/26/19 3:44 PM
410216PathologyInflammationLeukocyte extravasationself-madeTo remember the order: "MR. please ACT out the leukocyte extravasation" where M-margination, R-rolling, A-adhesion, C-crawling, T-transmigration.Mnemonic05/15/19 7:01 AM
411216PathologyInflammationLeukocyte extravasationSelf CreatedTo remember that Sialyl Lewis X partners up with selectins for Leukocyte Extravasation. Si-Le-Xtins bind selectins during Leukocyte Extravasation. Si - Sialyl. Le - Lewis. Xtins - XMnemonic09/08/19 1:21 PM
412221PathologyNeoplasiaTumor nomenclaturehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834696/Melanocytes are NOT derived from mesenchyme; they come from neural crest cells. (this has important implications considering metastasis of malignant melanocyte tumors, since the -misleading- association that mesenchymal-derived cells spread hematogenously).Major erratum07/14/19 8:04 PM
413222PathologyNeoplasiaHallmarks of canceruWorld and pathomaTissue invasion by metastatic cells is described in Uworld and Pathoma with cell attachment to the basement membrane happening before its degradation by metalloproteinases.Minor erratum05/07/19 9:32 AM
414222PathologyNeoplasiaHallmarks of cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179891/"Seed and Soil" hypothesis, certain tumor cells (the seeds) can only successfully colonize selective organs (the soil) that have suitable growth environments. The current text leads to a different meaning of Seed and Soil theory [ first encountered capillary bed is the often site of mets ] while the theory actually implies something elseMinor erratum07/19/19 6:12 AM
415224PathologyPathologyBone formationhttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bone-metastasis/symptoms-causes/syc-20370191the pneumonic painful bones kill the lungs should be painful breasts kill the lungs instead.Mnemonic02/16/19 5:33 AM
416224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesFA 2019 Page 224remove highlight from these letters "ungs" in the word "Lungs" in the mnemonic(Painful Bones Kill The Lungs) , keep just "L" in red color.Spelling/formatting01/05/19 1:17 PM
417224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesGojan RRShould say "most carcinomas INITIALLY spread via lymphatics" and can give example of colorectal carcinoma commonly metastasizing to liver.Clarification to current text04/03/19 8:54 AM
418224PathologyNeoplasiaProstatic adenocarcinomaUWorld Question ID: 11747. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16960456. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16915183.Metastasis of carcinomas are via lymphatics with the exception of 4 carcinomas that spread hematogenously stated in the First Aid 2019: 1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2. Renal Cell Carcinoma, 3. Choriocarcinoma, 4. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma. However, as per UWorld question (ID: 11747), prostatic adenocarcinoma spreads to the vertebral column by the prostatic venous plexus, hence hematogenously and not by lymphatics, making prostatic adenocarcinoma spread to the vertebral column a hematogenous metastasis which should be added to the exceptions described anteriorly by the First Aid or should be stated on this page.Clarification to current text06/01/19 3:18 PM
419225PathologyNeoplasiaImportant immunohistochemical stainshttps://www.nature.com/articles/nrc3893S-100: is stated to be a target of Neural Crest cells in the table even though they can be seen to target more general Mesodermal tissue. You even specified on page 426 under the Islet Langerhans cells of Histiocytosis- t being mesodermal in origin in brackets. My supporting evidence is it staining breast cancer tissue as well!Clarification to current text02/26/19 11:40 AM
420225PathologyNeoplasiaNeoplasia and neoplastic progressionhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24310-5Neurofibromin (Ras GTPase activating protein) and in neurology section p 513 NF1 ((encodes neurofibromin, a negative RAS regulator )Clarification to current text02/14/19 5:20 AM
421225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19462461JAK2 is a "Non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. This is clarified in case of BCR-ABL - that it is a "non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. However, JAK2 does not have this clarificationClarification to current text12/23/18 3:29 AM
422225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23059849/RET associated neoplasm is familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Many students think medullary carcinoma alone which is excluded here but a clarification to familial would helpHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 9:51 PM
423225PathologyPathologyOncogeneshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1744824-overviewAssociated Neoplasm with RET oncogene says MEN2A, and 2B and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Should say Medullary thyroid carcinoma although Papillary thyroid carcinoma is also associated with RET/PTC proteins with constitutive RET kinase activation due to chromosomal rearrangements generating a fusion gene.Major erratum07/24/19 2:23 AM
424225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogenesMy own brainHow to remember the proteins for TSC1 (hamartin) and TSC2 (tuberin) - which one codes which? TSC2 = "Two"berin!Mnemonic09/12/19 9:17 AM
425225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesN/AFor Li Fraumeni syndrome, a better mnemonic than SBLA would be "Check your LABS: Leukemia, Adrenal gland, Breast, Sarcoma"Mnemonic02/22/19 8:56 AM
426225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesInfo taken directly from table on p. 225 of FA 2019mnemonic for cancers arising from PTEN mutations: "PTEN" (P - prostate, T - teat [breast], EN - endometrial)Mnemonic03/26/19 9:22 AM
427225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesFA 2019Loss of function of PTEN causes Prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. “PTEN = Prostate, Tatas, and ENdometrium”Mnemonic05/05/19 1:21 PM
428225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesNo reference needed.TSC2 ; think "two"berinMnemonic07/02/19 2:31 PM
429225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesNoneTo learn easily gene product of tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2: TSC1-lamartin, TSC2berin.Mnemonic07/20/19 7:55 PM
430225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesnot neededPTEN Associated with (Prostate, Tits{breast}, ENdometrial cancer)Mnemonic07/23/19 4:29 AM
431226PathologyNeoplasiaCarcinogensN/A"Ionizing radiation" row --> please add "Blood" under organ column for "Leukemias"Clarification to current text01/09/19 8:07 AM
432227PathologyNeoplasiaSerum tumor markershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-paget-disease-of-bone?search=Paget%27s%20disease%20of%20bone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~56&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 https://academic.oup.com/ajcp/article-abstract/83/5/594/1819719?redirectedFrom=PDFPaget Disease of Bone is listed as a cancer, but the disease itself isn't itself neoplastic. Perhaps it therefore doesn't belong on this list, just as other non-neoplastic causes of increased ALP are not on the list (even though they too have an increased risk for cancers, like primary sclerosing cholangitis)..Minor erratum08/12/19 8:43 PM
433227PathologyNeoplasiaSerum tumor markersN/ACA 125 for Ovarian Cancer: “These ovaries are open for business from 1-to(2)-5.”Mnemonic08/13/19 10:54 AM
434228PathologyNeoplasiaImportant immunohistochemical stainsUWorld QID: 926, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24893135, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-unknown-primary-site?search=pheochromocytoma%20synaptophysin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Chromogranin, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase also identify pheochromocytomas, due to their neuroendocrine cell lineage. "Page 336 --> pheochromocytoma --> etiology/findings" should also be updated to include this.High-yield addition to next year05/24/19 10:37 AM
435228PathologyNeoplasiaP-glycoproteinUW ID: 1819; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762612/There should be clarification to the current text to explicitly state that P-glycoproteins are ATP-dependent efflux pumps with a specificity for hydrophobic compounds. UW states: "The human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene codes for P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane ATP-dependent efflux pump protein that has a broad specificity for hydrophobic compounds. This protein can both reduce the influx of drugs into the cytosol and can increase efflux from the cytosol, thereby preventing the action of chemotherapeutic agents (eg, anthracyclines)."High-yield addition to next year06/17/19 4:33 PM
436229PathologyNeoplasiaHematopoiesishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237866Approximately 95% of patients with polycythemia have a V617F mutation involving the JAK gene. This mutation replaces valine with phenylalanine at the 617 position, rendering hematopoietic cells more sensitive to growth factors such as EPO and TPO. So PV is not only about increased level of EPO, but about increased sensitivity to EPOHigh-yield addition to next year02/01/19 5:35 PM
437229PathologyNeoplasiaParaneoplastic syndromesN/AThymomas are Pure and GoodMnemonic05/16/19 6:45 PM
438232PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticsnot neededunder the Lineweaver section I recommend modifying the text to " The closer to zero on Y axis, the higher the Vmax, the closer to zero on X axis the higher Km" and high Km means low affinity. More convenient to rememberClarification to current text03/01/19 6:37 PM
439232PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticshttp://www.biology-pages.info/E/EnzymeKinetics.htmlMichaelis-Menten curve, the BLUE CURVE which express the effect of "Non-competitive inhibitor" is NOT ACCURATE at all, actually it shows that Km will increase....please replace the blue curve which represents, the addition of Noncompetitive inhebitor with an accurate and correct one.Major erratum05/04/19 11:34 PM
440234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEfficacy vs potencyhttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharmUnder noncompetitive antagonist, it says that potency is decreased. Potency should remain unchanged.Major erratum01/30/19 9:43 PM
441234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsPharmacokineticsany basic pharmacologyPage 3 of the errata for page 234 says to change efficacy to "no change" -- this is wrong!! It should be potency.Major erratum05/04/19 2:05 PM
442234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindinghttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharmUnder agonist with noncompetitive antagonist it states that this would lead to a decrease in potency and efficacy. However, the ED50 would be equal for agonist alone or agonist with noncompetitive antagonist therefore the potency should be unchanged.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:32 PM
443234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingN/ANoncompetitive antagonist should not change potency.Major erratum01/21/19 10:35 AM
444234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingN/AI believe there is an error in the erratum: in the noncompetitive antagonist row, the potency column should be changed to "no change"; the efficacy column is correctMinor erratum03/09/19 4:37 PM
445234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingNot needed. Suggested errata spreadsheet supports this point.Your recently posted official errata is incorrect. The proposed change to the text should be: “in the noncompetitive antagonist row, change potency from down arrow to no change”. The errata says to change efficacy to no change, but that would be incorrect.Major erratum03/10/19 12:54 PM
446234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindinghttps://firstaidteam.files.wordpress.com/2019/03/errata-2019-first-aid-for-the-usmle-step-1-pub-3_1_19.pdfError in errata: Newest errata (01/03/19) states that the Efficacy column for Noncompetitive antagonist should say no change; however, it is the potency that would remain unchanged, not the efficacyMinor erratum03/27/19 11:54 PM
447234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindinghttps://derangedphysiology.com/main/cicm-primary-exam/required-reading/pharmacodynamics/Chapter%20418/competitive-and-non-competitive-antagonistsThe book has an error in potency column of non competitive antagonist which should be changed from decrease to no change but the errata for 2019 edition for this correction also has an error...it says to change the decrease sign of efficacy column to no change in same rowMinor erratum09/17/19 12:26 AM
448235PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug metabolismhttps://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/clinical-pharmacology/pharmacokinetics/drug-metabolismMost drugs are inactivated (not activated) by phase I metabolismMinor erratum08/31/19 7:23 PM
449235PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsUrine pH and drug eliminationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/enhanced-elimination-of-poisons#H8Acidifying urine is abandoned and a/w acidemia. UTD — Urinary acidification (urine pH below 5.5) with ammonium chloride or ascorbic acid was historically used to treat intoxications with weak bases such as amphetamines, quinidine, or phencyclidine. However, this practice has been abandoned, as efficacy has not been established and iatrogenic toxicity (from severe acidemia) can occur.Major erratum08/02/19 10:54 PM
450235PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsUrine pH and drug elimination763500885@qq.comAcidifying urine is abandoned and a/w acidemia. UTD — Urinary acidification (urine pH below 5.5) with ammonium chloride or ascorbic acid was historically used to treat intoxications with weak bases such as amphetamines, quinidine, or phencyclidine. However, this practice has been abandoned, as efficacy has not been established and iatrogenic toxicity (from severe acidemia) can occur.Major erratum08/10/19 7:18 AM
451236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEfficacy vs potencynone neededEfficacy: moves along the vErtical axis; pOtency: moves along the hOrizontal axisMnemonic03/21/19 3:11 PM
452236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsTherapeutic indexFA 2019 Page 251suggest making *The* in "Theophylline " and in the word "These" in mnemonic , in red color , like mnemonic in page 251.Mnemonic01/05/19 2:08 PM
453236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsTherapeutic indexBlumenthal DK. Pharmacodynamics: Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Action. In: Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 13th ed. McGraw-Hill Education / Medical; 2017:31-54.It is worth mentioning that this is a quantal dose-response curve (which differs from a graded dose-response) and then define quantal dose-response. ‘A quantal dose-respnse measures the proportion of the population which responds to a particular dose of a drug to produce a predefined/preset response (eg two fold increase in INR). The percentages of the responding population are plotted over progressively increasing doses of the drug as a cumulative frequency distribution (ogive). Quantal dose-response allows determining ED50, ET50 and the therapeutic index of the drug for a particular response’.High-yield addition to next year03/27/19 1:49 PM
454237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAcetylcholine receptorsUWorld Question ID 1360Nicotinic ACh receptors are ligand gated NA/K and "Ca" too. there was a question on that on UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:52 PM
455237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorshttps://web.archive.org/web/20060907231522/http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/cns/histo/systems/cranialnerves/main.htmon Diagram it is marked as Parasympathetic cell body located/ leave from "Medulla". Instead some paraSym nuclei originate from Midbrain (Edinger–Westphal nucleus) or in Pons (Super, inferior salivatory Nuclei). Suggest changing "Medulla" on Diagram to "Brainstem" to prevent confusion.Clarification to current text03/01/19 6:46 PM
456237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorsKatzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 14e, https://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.arktos.nyit.edu/content.aspx?bookid=2249&sectionid=175216108#1148433103Skeletal muscle uses a nicotinic receptor (Nn) not a muscarinic receptor as indicated by the "M" subscript in the figure (bottom right)Minor erratum03/03/19 9:35 AM
457238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-spontaneous-preterm-birthMention in the caption of the diagram in the bottom that Myosin light-chain kinase causes vascular smooth muscle contraction. Also in the diagram , next to myosin light-chain kinase(smooth muscle) , add an arrow that says "vasodilation of blood vessels".Clarification to current text01/02/19 1:52 PM
458238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersN/AFor H1 a1 V1 M1 M3: *HAV*e *1* *stiff* *M*&*M* boozy *smoothie* (emphasizes smooth muscle contraction). For M2 a2 D2: *I*’m (inhibit) *2 (too)* MAD and need to *relax* (emphasizes inhibition results in relaxation of smooth muscle).Mnemonic01/21/19 1:48 PM
459238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://www.cvpharmacology.com/vasoconstrictor/alpha-agonistThe major function of a1 receptors in FA (this year and last) says increase vascular smooth muscle contraction. Until Sketchy, I did not understand that that includes BOTH (a) arteriole/precapillary sphincter contraction w/ incr. MAP and (b) venous vasoconstriction & decreased capacitance / increased venous return. I wasn't aware of the veno-constriction effect from FA.Clarification to current text01/23/19 8:00 PM
460238PharmacologyPharmacologyG-protein–linked second messengerslippincott pharmacologybladder relaxation is done by beta 2 not Beta 3Minor erratum05/20/19 6:17 PM
461238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersn/aDAMiT – D2 , α2, M2 - Gi coupled – Two HAV 13 Mcq – H1, α1, V1, M1, M3 - Gq coupled letS All β Very Very Happy-2 Day – All β, V2, H2, D1 - Gs coupledMnemonic07/10/19 12:21 PM
462238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersn/aDAMiT – D2 , α2, M2 - Gi coupled – Two HAV 13 Mcq – H1, α1, V1, M1, M3 - Gq coupled letS All β Very Very Happy-2 Day – All β, V2, H2, D1 - Gs coupledMnemonic07/10/19 8:17 PM
463238PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockersCannavo A, Koch WJ. Targeting β3-Adrenergic Receptors in the Heart: Selective Agonism and β-Blockade. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2017;69(2):71–78. doi:10.1097/FJC.0000000000000444 Niu X, Watts VL, Cingolani OH, et al. Cardioprotective effect of beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonism: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jul 31;60(5):481]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(22):1979–1987. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.12.046B3 adrenergic receptors are present in the cardiovascular system, mainly in myocardium and endothelium, where they have a prominent role in modulating cardiac function and angiogenesis. B3 receptors are couple Gs primary in adipose tissue, otherwise in ventricular myocardium b3 receptors are coupled Gi proteins. Cause this property, b3 receptor in the heart are not subject to desensitization and downregulation, and in fact, their levels within human failing myocardium remain unchanged or become upregulated. Recommendation: Add Gi protein coupled in b3 receptors, and also add cardioprotective effect.High-yield addition to next year05/28/19 6:00 PM
464239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAnticholinesterase poisoningFA 2019 Index pg. 790 listed Vesamicol @ pg. 239.Vesamicol listed in index for page 239. It does not exist on this page. This must be from a previous edition and was not removed from the index.Minor erratum03/10/19 12:13 PM
465239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAntiarrhythmic Drug Classeshttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/intro_to_antiarrhythmicsTo remember which class of Antiarrhythmic is associated with each specific Channel, use the mnemonic "Nah Brother, Keep Calm." Type I's are Na+ Channel Blockers, Type II are B-Blockers, Type III are K+ Blockers, and Type IV are Ca2+ blockers!Mnemonic04/18/19 2:55 PM
466240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAnticholinesterase poisoningN/AAnticholinesterase poisoning: BE LESS DUMB: B: bradycardia E: emesis L: lacrimation E: excitation of skeletal muscle S: salivation S: sweating D: diarrhea U: urination M: miosis B: bronchospasmMnemonic05/12/19 9:07 AM
467240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAnticholinesterase poisoningNot applicablewith regard to muacarinim side effects, to reduce confusing them with anticholinergic side effects and other side effects, it is possible to make the connection: DUMBBELLSS for Muscularity, Muscularity refering to muscarinicMnemonic06/19/19 4:52 AM
468240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsCholinomimetic agentsMade it upGrandma don't remember --> galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmineMnemonic04/01/19 6:42 AM
469241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinenot neededDUMBBELSS in p240 is changed to DUMBBeLSS, I wonder if there is some story behind and suggest making it more clear.Mnemonic01/10/19 3:56 AM
470241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/anticholinergic-poisoning?csi=5f1accf7-931f-49fb-a327-fe153c4efcf2&source=contentShareThe "e" in the DUMBBELLSS mnemonic should be capitalized. In the 2017 Edition the "E" was correctly left uncapitalized since it was for "Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS" which is a nicotinic effect and is not blocked by Atropine. However in the 2019 edition the "E" is used for "Emesis" which is a muscarinic effect and is blocked by atropine.Minor erratum01/29/19 5:38 AM
471241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropineSketchyMedical - autonomic drugsunder atropine, add a "heart" subtitle and include the fact that it can reverse fatal bradycardia (increase HR)High-yield addition to next year03/17/19 10:46 AM
472241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropineFA 2019 page 241To the adverse effects section, add "Fast as a Fiddle" to represent tachycardiaMnemonic04/09/19 12:57 PM
473241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropineUWORLD;Add to Side Effects "Fast as a Fiddle" as a mnemonic for increased HR due to the decreased vagal tone of the SA nodeMnemonic04/15/19 12:16 PM
474241PharmacologyPharmacologyMuscarinic antagonistsIt would be better to say it treats bradycardia and ophthalmic on applications and mention mydriasis and cycloplegia on adverse effects.For atropine, putting the "Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia" on application side is somehow "misleading" since the applications for every other muscarinic antagonists are what the drugs are used for, but not what the elicit.Clarification to current text04/17/19 12:05 AM
475242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticsMnemonicMiraB3gron - B3 stops your peeMnemonic02/27/19 3:47 AM
476242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/phenylephrinePhenylephrine is a vasoconstrictor that causes increase in BP, not hypotension. It can cause reflexive bradycardia.Major erratum06/06/19 12:11 AM
477243PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsNorepinephrine vs isoproterenolrefer to page 242 and attached imagethe effects of epinephrine and isoprotenerol are mixed up at the top of the image. They should be Epinephrine (β > α) and Isoproterenol (α ≈ β)Minor erratum08/05/19 7:47 AM
478244PharmacologyPharmacologyα-blockershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2417047/Under ‘α2 selective’ please add Clonidine and Alpha Methyl dopa. These drugs cause a decrease in generalised sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Rebound hypertension is a concern with abrupt cessation. (The index of the book says these drugs can be found on page 240 and 244 but they are NOT there on these pages!)Clarification to current text12/31/18 5:46 AM
479244PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsα-blockersNo need itMirtazapine is an a2 selective blocker, in the FA 2019 edition you put the drug in the a blocker section as a sympatholytic. Mirtazapine is in effectum an a2 selective blocker, but due its mechanis of action, mirtazapine acts as an indirect symphatomimetic. You should move mirtazapine to indirect sympathomimetics drugs (page 242)Clarification to current text05/28/19 6:38 PM
480245PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsHeart failureImprovisedWhen I survive (decr. mortality) HF, Buy Me a Car! (BIsoprolol = BUY / MEtopropolol = ME / CARvedilol = Car)Mnemonic01/23/19 5:55 PM
481245PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-cardiovascular-complications-of-cocaine-abuse?search=cocaine%20toxicity&sectionRank=2&usage_type=default&anchor=H9004423&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H9004423Under adverse effects, it is stated that there is unsubstantiated concern for unopposed alpha stimulation after giving beta blockers for cocaine toxicity. Multiple other times in the book there are mentions of this affect. I do not believe unsubstantiated should be used, since there are studies showing the vasoconstriction seen in this setting.Minor erratum03/01/19 12:20 PM
482245PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockersFirst aid 2019 p. 507Add "Essential tremor" to list of applications for beta blockers in the top section of the table, as referenced on p. 507Clarification to current text05/11/19 3:57 PM
483245PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockersFA Page 245Create a new mnemonic for the two partial agonists - "P"inodolol and "A"cebutolol are both "P"artial "A"gonists - the first letters in partial agonist will tell the student the drugs that are partial agonists!Mnemonic07/28/19 6:32 PM
484246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsIngested seafood toxinsNot needed.Tetradotoxin Terminates sodium channel activity while ‘Siguatoxin’ Starts sodium channel activity.Mnemonic01/01/19 6:55 AM
485246PharmacologyPharmacologyIngested seafood toxinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-shellfish-and-pufferfish-poisoning?csi=109e1dce-e711-45db-8f40-b18da1147c4b&source=contentShareIt’s stated in the text that tetrodotoxin effects sodium channels in cardiac/nerve tissue. Tetrodotoxin does not effect sodium channels in cardiac tissue. The Na v 1.5 channels in cardiac tissue are not effected by this toxin.Major erratum01/30/19 1:37 PM
486246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsIngested seafood toxinsMy selfC in Ciguatoxin looks like an O for Open Na channels and the "do" in Tetrodotoxin can signify "No" depolarization (TetroNOtoxinMnemonic06/08/19 2:21 PM
487246PharmacologyPharmacologySeizuresFirst Aid, sketchyDrugs that induce/lower the threshold for seizures: FABRICATE: (F)Flumazenil, (A) Amphotericin B, (B) Bupropion, (R) Reye's syndrome (aspirin), (I) Isoniazid, (C) Cocaine, Carbepenams, (A) antipsychotics, (T) Tricyclic antidepressants, (E) EnfluraneMnemonic02/06/19 3:29 PM
488247PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsSpecific toxicity treatmentshttps://www-uptodate-com.elibrary.einstein.yu.edu/contents/beta-blocker-poisoning?search=remedy%20for%20beta%20blocker%20toxicity&source=search_result&selectedTitle=5~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=5#H14Mnemonic: Better unblock the GAS line (Better for beta blockers; GAS for Glucagon, Atropine and Saline)Mnemonic06/08/19 2:25 PM
489248PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductivehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2860825/adding Gynecomastia to the table. and drugs that causing it: Spironolactone, THC (Marjiuana), Alcohol chronic , Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Estrogen , Digoxin. the mnemonics will be " STACKED"Mnemonic05/13/19 6:53 PM
490248PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—gastrointestinalMyself, FA2019Drugs causing diarrhea mnemonic: MACroLiDeS causes diarrhea i.e. Macrolides (erythromycin), Acamprosate, Colchicine, Lipid-lowering agents (ezetimibe, orlistat), anti-Diabetes drugs (acarbose, metforming, pramlintide), SSRIsMnemonic03/26/19 5:43 PM
491248PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—gastrointestinalMyself, FA2019Hepatitis causing drugs mnemonic: Fibrates RIPS the liver i.e. Fibrates, Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, StatinsMnemonic03/26/19 5:53 PM
492248PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—gastrointestinalNoticedDoes not mention GLP-1 agonists as causal agents of pancreatitis (EX: Exenatide). Diuretics is listed as a cause of pancreatitis, but these effects are not mentioned in the Renal chapterClarification to current text04/06/19 5:03 PM
493249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicnot requiredDCP = Direct Coombs Positive = methylDopa Cephalosporins PenicillinMnemonic02/07/19 7:00 PM
494249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicFA 2019 Page 249Remove red color from the word "Coombs" , it's not needed.Spelling/formatting02/15/19 6:13 AM
495249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologichttps://www-uptodate-com.elibrary.einstein.yu.edu/contents/major-side-effects-of-class-i-antiarrhythmic-drugs?search=major%20side%20effects%20of%20class%20IA%20antiarrythmic%20drugs&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Mnemonic: Help! Very Low platelet glycoprotein 1a (H for Heparin, V for Vancomycin, L for Linezolid and 1A for class 1A antiarrythmics).Mnemonic06/08/19 1:35 PM
496249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/thiazolidinediones-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus#H22Add thiazolidinedione drugs to list of medications that can increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture (albeit the risk is small and only proven in postmenopausal women). This risk is mentioned in Endocrine Drugs.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 1:53 AM
497249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/drug-allergy-classification-and-clinical-features?search=drug%20hypersensitivity%20HLA&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2I've made a table with the high-yield associations of specific HLA subtypes and their respective drug reactionsHigh-yield addition to next year03/21/19 2:19 AM
498249PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissueMyself, FA2019Myopathy causing drugs mnemonic: ColD PenGuin FINS Had myopathy i.e. Colchicine, Daptomycin, Penicillamine, Glucocorticoids, Fibrates, Interferon alpha, Niacin, Statins, HydroxychloroquineMnemonic03/26/19 6:29 PM
499249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.hepatitisc.uw.edu/page/treatment/drugs/simeprevir-drugSimeprevir drug is Hepatits C virus protease inhibitor can cause photo sensitivity as well. So the New mnemonics would be SSAT For PhotoHigh-yield addition to next year05/13/19 7:04 PM
500249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/8474741_Drug-induced_lupus_erythematosusadding minocycline and quinidine for drug induced lupusHigh-yield addition to next year05/15/19 6:28 PM
501249PharmacologyPharmacologyFluoroquinolonesmnemonicDrug reaction: tendon and cartilage damage with Fluoroquinolones; add mnemonic "FLOORoquinolone makes you drop to the floor without tendons and cartilage"Mnemonic03/06/19 3:51 PM
502250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologichttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449853Under Visual Disturbances, Isoniazid does not cause "optic neuropathy/color vision changes." Only Ethambutol is known to do this.Clarification to current text01/06/19 12:05 AM
503250PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—neurologicmyself, FA2019Peripheral Neuropathy causing drugs mnemonic: VIPs in Platinum group have peripheral neuropathy i.e. Vincristine, Isoniazid, Phenytoin, Platinum agents (cisplatin)Mnemonic03/26/19 6:53 PM
504250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologichttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1179733-overview#a5Use of combined oral contraceptive pill is very common. Given how common its use is, it would be wise to note that it is known to be associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.High-yield addition to next year08/31/19 6:44 AM
505251PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)My brain"GRAMPPS CaN" -> See attachment for mnemonic breakdown. Everyone in my study group loves this mnemonic... People like mnemonics where every word means something!!!Mnemonic01/29/19 9:28 AM
506252PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesNot neededThe table is missing fluoroquinolones: -floxacin / fluoroquinolones/ ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:54 AM
507252PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesmy brainput the AR of -sARtan in red because it stands for Angiotensin-2 Receptor blockerMnemonic02/14/19 4:20 AM
508253PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesNot neededFor drugs ending in "-limus", the category is listed as mTOR inhibitor (sirolimus, everolimus). However, tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, also ends in "-limus". A more accurate description of the category would be to say that drugs ending in "-limus" bind to FK binding proteins.Minor erratum03/10/19 1:00 PM
509256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3159210/A recently released NBME Form had a question testing the concept of Intention to Treat, which I could not find in First Aid. It is a means of reducing errors in Trials, by which you include all study participants into the analysis regardless of study compliance.High-yield addition to next year05/03/19 12:58 PM
510256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studieshttps://www.nature.com/articles/6400454"Ecological studies" should be added to the list of observational studies. It came up in a UWorld question.High-yield addition to next year03/28/19 3:12 PM
511256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesboard and beyond videosin case-control study you can write O letter in word control as capital and highlight with red as well and highlight first O in Odds ratio sentence with red color too.Mnemonic05/02/19 11:14 AM
512256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesnoneDon't be CoI = Cohort = Incidence of DiseaseMnemonic05/26/19 8:36 AM
513257Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsLikelihood ratioMyself, FA2019Mnemonic to remember LR: LR = Disease/Healthy i.e. LR+ = Positve rate in Disease/Positive rate in Healthy; LR- = Negative rate in Disease/Negative rate in HealthyMnemonic03/27/19 5:37 AM
514257Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesnoneCross your P's = Cross-sectional Study looks at Prevalence of diseaseMnemonic05/26/19 8:33 AM
515258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskSainani KL, Schmajuk G, Liu V. A caution on interpreting odds ratios. Sleep. 2009;32(8):976.The example of Odds Ratio should be written as 'lung cancer patients have 8 times higher odds of having a history of smoking.' An OR is not directly interpreted as a change in likelihood, chance, risk, etc.Minor erratum02/12/19 11:51 PM
516258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://www.cdc.gov/training/SIC_CaseStudy/Interpreting_Odds_ptversion.pdfThe odd ratio is Odds of an exposure given a disease (i.e. a/c) Vs Odds of exposure in absence of disease (i.e. b/d). In Case control study, groups are divided based on disease presence or absence. Hence, disease odds are not calculated. We calculate the odds of exposure. (Current text says opposite) (Please check CDC reference)Major erratum03/27/19 5:49 AM
517258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431098/ ; Uworld ID 1205Odds ratio (OR) formula should be (a/b)/(c/d) = ad/bc, NOT (a/c)/(b/d) = ad/bcMinor erratum05/17/19 1:21 AM
518258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskn/aNNH = 1/AR – hARmMnemonic07/10/19 8:20 PM
519258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glossary-of-common-biostatistical-and-epidemiological-terms?search=Odds%20ratio&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Error: "If in a case-control study, 20/30 lung cancer patients and 5/25 healthy individuals report smoking, the OR is 8; so the lung cancer patients are 8 times more likely to have a history of smoking." Correction [ "If in a case-control study, 20/10* lung cancer patients and 5/20* healthy individuals report smoking, the OR is 8; so the lung cancer patients are 8 times more likely to have a history of smoking.Spelling/formatting03/15/19 12:11 PM
520259Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsIncidence vs prevalencehttps://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR175/12Chapter12.pdfTherapy initiation may increase prevalence depending on what the disease is (eg, Cancer, Diabetes, HIV) as it prolongs survival time. Current text says it decreases prevalence.High-yield addition to next year01/29/19 3:32 AM
521259Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsPrecision vs accuracyn/aRandom Error – Decrease Precision in a test Systematic Error – Decrease Accuracy in a test “REPtiles Deep in the SEA”.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:22 PM
522260Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evidence-based-approach-to-prevention?search=lead-time%20bias%20definition&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~19&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H20178015To differentiate between "lead-time bias" and "length-time bias," you can think "If a disease is detected early, you get a 'head start' on the treatment, and therefore take the 'lead.'" This draws comparison to a race.Mnemonic03/17/19 5:34 PM
523260Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorsn/a"HAWK"thorne bias - subjects being watched like a HAWK; "B"erkson bias - subjects get "B"etter careMnemonic05/06/19 11:52 AM
524261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_pyramidPopulation pyramids, their different kinds ( developing vs. developed countries) and calculating dependency ratio using the pyramids deserves a part in the book. developed countries show a "constrictive" and developing countries show an "expansive" pattern in the pyramids. The dependency ratio is calculated by adding the nonproductive population (less than 15 yrs and more than 65 yrs old) and dividing it by the productive workforce ( between 15 and 65 yrs of age).High-yield addition to next year05/12/19 7:48 AM
525261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionit"s a mnemonic"M"e"A"n= "M"ost "A"ffected by outliers ------ "M"o"D"e= "M"ost "D"efiant to outliersMnemonic05/18/19 8:30 AM
526261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionn/aIt's POSITIVE to be RIGHT but don't be MEAN. (POSITIVEly skewed distribution has RIGHT tail and the MEAN is the higher value)Mnemonic08/25/19 3:38 PM
527261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionhave attached file for referencefor positive skew mean> median> mode (go alphabetically and to the direction of the skew) and same with negative skewMnemonic09/10/19 8:19 AM
528264Public Health SciencesEthicsInformed consentn/aFor the informed consent requirements of disclosure, understanding, capacity, and voluntariness, you can remember "Don't Underestimate Core Values"Mnemonic05/29/19 8:03 PM
529266Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationshttps://www.deathwithdignity.org/terminology/The situation where a terminally ill patient requests physician assistance in ending his/her life is currently being referred to as "physician assisted suicide," which is widely viewed as a biased term, as "suicide" does not accurately describe a terminally ill patient wishing to hasten their death. It would be more appropriate to refer to it as "physician assisted death"High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 9:19 AM
530266Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationsNoticedAll of the examples are gender-neutral and describe the patient as him/her in the "appropriate response" (unless specified in stem/pregnant), except for the situation of the "family member asks you not to disclose the results of a test etc." For this one, the last sentence says, "[...] the patient might seriously harm himself"; it should read "himself/herself."Spelling/formatting04/04/19 3:12 PM
531266Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationshttps://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/ethics/physician-assisted-suicideAdd The AMA Code of Ethics: "Instead of engaging in assisted suicide, physicians must aggressively respond to the needs of patients at the end of life."Clarification to current text07/10/19 9:45 PM
532268Public Health SciencesThe Well PatientCar seats for childrenhttps://www.nhtsa.gov/equipment/car-seats-and-booster-seatsMissing text on page 268 regarding car seats for children, index reference still presentMajor erratum03/27/19 3:01 PM
533270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryCommon causes of death (US) by ageFirst aid 2019AIDSSpelling/formatting01/11/19 1:24 PM
534270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryCommon causes of death (US) by agehttps://www.cdc.gov/injury/images/lc-charts/leading_causes_of_death_by_age_group_2017_1100w850h.jpgThe CDC reports maternal complications as the third leading cause of death for individuals under 1 years of age, SIDS is the fourth leading cause. In First Aid 2019, SIDS is listed as the third leading cause. I have attached CDC table showing this.Major erratum03/23/19 2:00 PM
535270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryMedicare and MedicaidIt's MnemonicThe 4(fou*R*) parts of Medica*R*e ,not Medicaid.Mnemonic01/06/19 3:19 PM
536270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryMedicare and Medicaidhttps://www.hhs.gov/answers/medicare-and-medicaid/what-is-the-difference-between-medicare-medicaid/index.htmlYou CARE for the elderly and you give AID to the poor.Mnemonic03/30/19 1:55 PM
537273IndexIndexOrientationFA2019The page numbers in FA 2019 are still representative of FA 2018 on page 597 and do not align with page numbers in current editionSpelling/formatting02/03/19 10:28 AM
538277CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the hearthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiologic-and-pharmacologic-maneuvers-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-heart-murmurs-and-sounds?search=auscultation%20of%20heart%20sounds&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H2&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=4~150&display_rank=4#H2*I*nspiration increases intensity of r*I*ght heart sounds; *E*xpiration increases intensity of l*E*ft heart soundsMnemonic01/05/19 12:30 PM
539278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart embryologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107421/The posterior CARDINAL vein, and not "posterior vein", gives rise to the IVC.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:56 AM
540278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://www-uptodate-com.webproxy2.ouhsc.edu/contents/prenatal-assessment-of-gestational-age-date-of-delivery-and-fetal-weight?search=gestational%20age&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H12019 version states cardiac looping begins in week 4 of "gestation", but this should instead be week 4 of "development" or week 6 of gestation since gestational age is calculated from the date of last menstrual period (see page 619 of the 2019 First Aid)Minor erratum01/25/19 11:14 AM
541278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesisuworld question 202Cryptogenic stroke is evaluated by echoCG with "bubble study" to identify R->L heart shunt (PFO, ASD)High-yield addition to next year03/26/19 9:21 AM
542279CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893798-overviewIn the figure showing the spiraling of the aorticopulmonary septum, the spiral is drawn in the wrong direction. The aorta should be spiraling over the pulmonary trunk, not under it.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:25 PM
543280CardiovascularEmbryologyFetal circulationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants-management?search=ibuprofen%20ductus%20arteriosus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H230984984Ibuprofen is now used to close a PDA instead of indomethacin generallyHigh-yield addition to next year05/09/19 3:53 AM
544281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttp://www.vhlab.umn.edu/atlas/coronary-arteries/lad-left-anterior-descending-artery/index.shtmlLAD supplies the anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterior left ventricle, anterolateral papillary muscle, and provides collateral circulation to the Right ventricle. It is the most commonly occluded. The left circumflex (LCX) supplies anterior of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle, left atrium, and the posterior and lateral sides of the left ventricle.Major erratum12/27/18 5:58 PM
545281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartNot Needed. It's RepititiveLAD(arises from LCA) supplies anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle, and anterior surface of LV. Most commonly occluded.Clarification to current text01/26/19 7:30 PM
546281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartuworldaccording to UWORLD; Rt dominance is in 70%, Lt dominance in 10% and co-dominance in 20%Minor erratum03/01/19 6:23 PM
547281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/158064-overviewSA node is supplied by SA Nodal Artery which is perfused by branches of the RCA in ~60% of cases whereas in ~40% it is perfused by the LCX. This is in great contrast to the printed statement of, "RCA supplies SA node" in FA 2019. The parenthetical that follows "(blood supply independent of dominance)" remains a true statement and should be kept. This fact is supported by the eMedicine link as a supporting reference with the relevant information in the Etiology subsection titled "Childhood and familial diseases," italicized heading "SA nodal artery disease." An additional journal article has been included corroborating the same anatomical fact.Major erratum03/18/19 2:36 PM
548281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartpage 281 in first aid 2019. It seems to be just a minor typoUnder the "Coronary blood supply" section there are two mentions of LAD. The first one states "LAD and its branches supply anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle". I believe this is a duplication of the fact right below it. Could it be that the first LAD fact is actually supposed to say LCA? Because that would make more sense.Minor erratum05/09/19 10:34 PM
549281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534790/The posterior descending artery does not supply the AV node. The atrioventricular nodal branch supplies the AV node, which is usually a branch of the right coronary artery, but may in some cases be a branch of the left circumflex artery.Major erratum08/24/19 7:42 PM
550281CardiovascularAnatomyCardiac and vascular function curveswww.usmle-rx.comIn Coronary Blood supply, there's a repeat on content regarding LAD supply.Clarification to current text12/27/18 9:36 AM
551281CardiovascularAnatomyMyocardial infarction complicationsN/AUnder CORONARY BLOOD SUPPLY on page 281, Cardiovascular - Anatomy, there is a description of the structures supplied by the LAD, followed immediately by a second sentence repeating the same information. It would help save space in the 2020 edition if these two sentences were condensed.Clarification to current text01/10/19 6:10 PM
552282CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variableshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/surgical-management-of-heart-failure?search=laplace%27s%20law%20hypertrophy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1LV compensates for ↑afterload by thickenin (hypertrophy) in order to ↓wall tension; wall tension should be changed into wall stressMinor erratum01/06/19 2:58 AM
553283CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output equationshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jsr.12156COPD also causes arterial stiffness leading to increased pulse pressureHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:25 PM
554283RenalEmbryologyPotter sequence (syndrome)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potter_sequence#CausesI think the text should clarify that bilateral Renal agenesis leads to potter sequence, in the book it is stared under multi cystic dysplastic kidneyClarification to current text03/09/19 11:42 AM
555284CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cycleUworld question 1625right bottom of page: (6) Exercise, [chronic] AV shuntMajor erratum03/26/19 9:16 AM
556285CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac and vascular function curveseMedicine https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1894036-overview, Lilly's Pathophysiology of the Heart (Chapter 2), UWorld QID 1557,(Unable to enter "NEW FACT" in the box, but I would file this under "HEART SOUNDS") - Both S3 and S4 are heard best in the left lateral decubitus position. As written in the text, it suggests that only the S4 is heard best in this position. This may confuse readers to associate S4 only with that position, when in fact either S3 or S4 are associated with the left lateral decubitus position.Clarification to current text04/01/19 8:39 PM
557285CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac and vascular function curvesn/a“Kick in the end (S4) if it’s stiff and noncompliant” S4 = “atrial kick” against a stiff LV hypertrophy.Mnemonic07/08/19 1:12 PM
558285CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac and vascular function curvesn/a“a Curved aXe in the Vine Yard”Mnemonic07/08/19 1:14 PM
559285CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3305384/S3 is associated with systolic heart failure. 3 syllables in sys-tol-ic. S4 is associated with diastolic heart failure. 4 syllables in di-a-stol-icMnemonic04/20/19 10:20 AM
560285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253755/In the ventricular volume curve of the second graph, it is shown that during the atrial systole the ventricular volume increases gradually and then decreases to the level that it was prior to the atrial systole. This is wrong. The ventricular volume increases and remains at that volume (isovolumetric contraction) until the aortic valve opens.Major erratum01/07/19 3:01 AM
561285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/auscultation-of-heart-soundsIt states that S4 should be considered abnormal, regardless of patient age. According to uptodate and UWorld, S4 is normal in healthy older adults.Major erratum03/17/19 1:05 AM
562285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclefa2019x descent - atrial relaXationMnemonic03/26/19 9:36 AM
563285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK342/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK344/S3 - add that it is a "ventricular gallop" and for S4 - "atrial gallop"Minor erratum03/26/19 9:39 AM
564285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cycleCostanzo PhysiologyOn the pressure-volume loop diagram, it displays a contractility increase as only affecting volume. There should also be an increase in left ventricular pressure as a consequence of the increased contractile force. Supporting reference is costanzo. Costanzo states "when contractility increases, the ventricle can develop greater tensiona dn pressure during systole and eject a larger volume of blood than normal.Major erratum08/22/19 5:21 PM
565285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cycle-change in (P)ressure = valves o(P)en. Change in vo(L)ume= Valves c(L)oseMnemonic09/09/19 3:28 AM
566286CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursSelf made mnemonicThe mnemonic BEAR for aortic regurgitation causes: Bicuspid aortic valve, Endocarditis, Aortic Root dilation, Rheumatic Fever (you can even put the R^2 for both the Root in Aortic Root and Rhuematic feverMnemonic03/01/19 1:43 AM
567286CardiovascularPhysiologyPhysiologic changes in valvular diseaseUWorld QID: 227 & supported by online articles on googleIn the pressure tracing diagram of aortic regurg: the dicrotic notch is exaggerated. With an incompetent aortic valve there is back flow resulting in loss of pressure in the aorta and disappearance/reduction of the dicrotic notchMinor erratum06/05/19 5:44 PM
568286CardiovascularPhysiologyPhysiologic changes in valvular diseaseUworld Question ID 227In aortic regurgitation there is loss of the dicrotic notch as there is immediate back flow of blood into the LV, resulting in loss of pressure in the aorta and disappearance of the dicrotic notch (figure needs to be corrected).Minor erratum06/24/19 3:32 AM
569288CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartnot neededI recommend adding 3 rules to help understand how different bedside maneuvers affects heart murmurs; 1) Increase in Preload leads to increase intensity of all murmurs (except HCM and MVP; later click); Same for the opposite. 2) Increase in Afterload leads to increase intensity of Regurgitant murmurs and decrease intensity of stenotic murmurs (again except for HCM and MVP); Same for opposite. 3) HCM and MVP murmurs intensity always go opposite to Preload and afterload. This can be applied to all murmurs and will work!High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:32 PM
570288CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartno needIn the picture, its written "left sternal border: Diastolic murmur.." ,, Diastolic murmur and systolic murmur should be in bold to be as the same as others.Spelling/formatting07/20/19 11:04 AM
571288CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartBoards and beyondInspiration - increases with rIght (bold i in inspiration and right) and expiration - increases left. ( bold e in expiration and left)Mnemonic09/22/19 10:36 AM
572288CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyCardiac and vascular function curvesIndexValsalva maneuver is listed as page 293 in the index.This is wrong. It should be listed as page 288.Minor erratum06/09/19 7:12 PM
573289CardiovascularPhysiologyCongenital cardiac defect associationsNot applicableRomano-Ward syndrome can have an associated pneumonic of "RomaNO-ward syndrome", as in NO deafness.Mnemonic02/25/19 9:47 PM
574290CardiovascularPhysiologyMyocardial action potentialRX express videosAdd in the image of the cardiac mm cell with the receptors that is used in the express videos. Makes easier to visualize and break down.High-yield addition to next year02/15/19 7:44 AM
575290CardiovascularPhysiologyOther antiarrhythmicshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516287/"Funny TaLK": The order of channels opening in pacemaker cells is “Funny”(If channel) – Phase 4, “TaL” Calcium T channel and then Calcium L channel – Phase 0, “K” Potassium channel – Phase 3Mnemonic04/20/19 10:13 AM
576290CardiovascularPhysiologyPacemaker action potentialBoyett MR. Sophisticated architecture is required for the Sinoatrial node to perform its normal pacemaker function. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003In Phase 0 there is a slow Na/Ca inward current (Type T Ca channels open at -50). Theres a decrease in K efflux as K channels close. In the book you have: "there's a slow Na/K inward current" which makes it confusing. Should remove the K from that sentence and maybe add closure of repolarizing K channels .Clarification to current text03/11/19 11:28 AM
577291CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramhttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Arrhythmias/A003Speed of conduction is incorrect, it is listed in the text as: Purkinje >atria > ventricles> bundle of His >AV node. It should be His-Purkinje > atria > ventricles > AV nodeMinor erratum02/16/19 5:55 AM
578291CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramUWorldAV node blood supply comes from PDA (mostly from RCA), but in Left dominant hearts, AV node blood supply would come from LCAClarification to current text03/01/19 6:27 PM
579291CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramFirst Aid 2019 page 291Add mneumonic for speed of conduction: "Park AT VENTure HIgh AVenue" listed from fastest to slowest: Perkinje > ATria > VENTricles > bundle of HIs > AV nodeMnemonic04/28/19 12:51 PM
580292CardiovascularPhysiologyBrugada syndromefirst aidhurghada Renowned for Scuba Diving(hurghada-->brugada, Renowned-->Right bundle block, Scuba -->St elevation, Diving--> Dominant)Mnemonic08/31/19 11:39 AM
581292CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramhttps://step2.medbullets.com/cardiovascular/120019/supraventricular-tachycardiaParoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Specifically atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia was refrenced in Boards and Beyond and was tested on Uworld. High yield to know slow pathway of AV node is used also that there is slow conduction of AV node and prolongs AV node refractory period.High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 10:00 AM
582292CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157826-overview#a3The QT interval predisposes to the Torsades de point (FA2019). It would be good idea to add the normal value/range of QT interval as a reference to this information. Usually cQT interval <0.44 msec in males and <0.046 msec in females is considered normal.High-yield addition to next year02/28/19 2:10 PM
583292CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/contents/acquired-long-qt-syndrome-definitions-causes-and-pathophysiology?search=fluoroquinolones%20torsades&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2For the ABCDE mneumonic, it mentions that Antibiotics (eg, macrolides) are a cause of drug-induced QT. In the Microbiology Pharmacology section of First Aid (and UpToDate), it lists both macrolides and fluoroquinolones as capable of prolonging the QT interval.High-yield addition to next year03/26/19 3:02 PM
584292CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/congenital-long-qt-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-genetics#H973343666It should be included that the "vast majority" of congenital long QT syndromes are caused by mutations leading to dysfunctional potassium channels. This is a commonly tested concept because potassium channels are a major contributor to the physiology regarding the QT length in the cardiac cycle.High-yield addition to next year05/01/19 10:07 AM
585292CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474834/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3461497/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668779A decrease in function mutation affecting the KCNH2 gene is one of the most common causes of congenital long QT syndrome .High-yield addition to next year06/16/19 2:29 AM
586292CardiovascularPhysiologyWolff-Parkinson-White syndromen/aWolff-Parkinson-White syndrome remember the initials "WPW": W - for delta Wave, P - for PR interval shortened, W - for Widened QRS complexMnemonic05/01/19 7:24 PM
587293CardiovascularPhysiologyECG tracingshttps://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.00031.2009Under atrial fibrillation, I recently came across a question asking about a specific anatomic location for the trigger of the aberrant electrical activity. "With prior atrial remodeling from a variety of factors, ectopic activity originating from the pulmonary veins (more likely) can occur, leading to longer episodes of afib."High-yield addition to next year04/17/19 10:08 AM
588294CardiovascularPhysiologyBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsmnemoniccarotid Sinus vs. carotid bO2dy: Carotid SinuS: measures preSSure. Carotid bO2dy measures O2Mnemonic07/30/19 1:34 PM
589295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangeNot needed.Used as an example of a great number of facts that are not listed correctly in the index. Page numbers are off by quite a bit.Clarification to current text01/12/19 9:17 AM
590295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangeMnemonicHydrostatic pressure pushes fluid out of a compartment/vessel = arrows pointing out from the tips of the "H". Oncotic pressure pulls fluid in to a compartment/vessel = arrows pointing in to the center of the "O" (like spokes on a wheel). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 9:17 PM
591295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157452-overviewMnemonic to remember order of net fluid flow equation= Kf [(Pc-Pi)- sigma(πc-πi)] Mnemonic: CiCi's Pizza π. Subtract Interstitial pressure (i in CiCi) from Capillary pressure (CiCi) P comes first (Pizza) and then π comes second in the equation.Mnemonic09/11/19 11:54 AM
592296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/tricuspid-valve-tv-atresiaTricuspid atresia needs both an ASD and a VSD/PDA to survive (in patients without a VSD, a PDA is needed to get blood into the lungsMinor erratum02/27/19 7:13 PM
593296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesnot neededIsolated Ebstein anomaly is not associated with any type of shunting, so I suggest putting it under the "other anomalies" along with the coarcation of Aorta on page 297Major erratum03/01/19 6:31 PM
594296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2035949-clinicalNot all of congenital cyanotic heart diseases become evident immediately after birthMajor erratum05/16/19 7:56 AM
595296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesNelson Essential of Pediatrics 7th edition page 501 or https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001111.htmPersistent truncus arteriosusis is not right to left shunt , it is cyanotic because of the mixing of the right and left sides blood. In overall, the blood shunted from left to rightMajor erratum05/16/19 8:53 AM
596296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesNelson Essential of Pediatrics 7th edition page 501 or https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/tapvr.htmlTotal Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return is not left to right shunt , it is cyanotic because of the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the right atrium and that blood shunted to the rightMinor erratum05/16/19 8:56 AM
597296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115146/22q11-2-deletion-syndromeAssociated with 22q11 syndromes (instead of DiGeorge syndrome). Additional comment: DiGeorge syndrome is a commonly used synonym for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Historically a clinical diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome could be made in the absence of genetic testing, but today it should be reserved for patients in whom 22q11.2 deletion has been excluded and genetic etiology remains unknown. In this topic "DiGeorge syndrome" is used only when genetic etiology is unknown or unreported.Clarification to current text06/10/19 7:26 PM
598297CardiovascularPathologyAnatomy of the heartMade it upMneumonic for findings in Coarctation of the Aorta: ABCDE's --> A: berry Aneurysms, B: Bicuspid aortic valve, C: Costal notching, D: Delayed pulse in LE, E: EndocarditisMnemonic03/27/19 1:09 PM
599297CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetics-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy?search=Genetics%20of%20dilated%20cardiomyopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy could be familiar: defect in gene TTN that codes for protein titin.High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:33 PM
600297CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.pediatricheartspecialists.com/blog/55-down-syndrome-and-congenital-heart-diseasenot only atrial septal defect associated with Down syndrome. In fact, the most common heart defects in Down syndrome are the following: atrioventricular septal defect, or AV canal defects (45%), ventricular septal defects (35%), secundum atrial septal defects (8%), and patent ductus arteriosus (7%).Minor erratum05/16/19 9:14 AM
601297CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesnot neededIt is better to mention " PDA is normal in utero and normally closes only after birth." and "Patency is maintained by PGE synthesis and low O2 tension." below "In fetal period, shunt is right to left (normal)." since all of them discuss the ductus arteriosus before birthClarification to current text05/16/19 11:29 AM
602297CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesn/a“TURN into an ARC” coARCtation of aorta associated with TURNer syndromeMnemonic07/08/19 1:18 PM
603297CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesn/a“Feeling DOWN to have A Septal Defect” DOWN syndrome associated with Atrial Septal DefectMnemonic07/08/19 1:20 PM
604298CardiovascularPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationsStep prep question on USMLE RX.The entry for Turner Syndrome under congenital cardiac defect associations should specify that these individuals are at risk for *juxtaductal* aortic coarctation.High-yield addition to next year01/11/19 2:40 PM
605298CardiovascularPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/congenital-cytogenetic-abnormalities?search=edwards%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~76&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H11Ventricular septal defects and patent duct arteriosus are the most common defects in Edwards syndrome presenting in neonates.High-yield addition to next year03/21/19 2:11 AM
606298CardiovascularPathologyFeatures of renal disordersIndexFibromuscular Dysplasia is listed in the index as page 303. This is wrong. It should be listed as page 298 and 592Minor erratum06/08/19 8:13 PM
607298CardiovascularPathologyHypertensionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634904/ https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hypertension-in-adults?search=hypertension%20risk%20factors&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H8&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#Diabetes and smoking are not risk factors for hypertension. In fact, smoking is associated with lower blood pressureMinor erratum01/22/19 8:26 AM
608298CardiovascularPathologyHypertension1. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24352797. Published February 5, 2014. Accessed May 28, 2019. 2. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12748199. Published May 21, 2003. Accessed May 28, 2019.Hypertension is defined as ‘persistent systolic BP > 130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > 80 mmHg.’ I think the SBP and DBP values should be revised as follows: JNC-8 and JNC-7 define pre-hypertension as SBP >120 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > 80 mmHg, while hypertension is persistent SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP > 90 mmHg (in otherwise healthy individuals), or >130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Thus, I suggest 1) changing 130 mmHg to 140 mmHg, (2) changing 80mmHg to 90mmHg, (3) including the phrase ‘or >130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease.’ and possibly (4) including the definition of pre-hypertension as SBP 120-139 mmHg and/or DBP 80-89 mmHg.Major erratum05/28/19 4:31 AM
609298CardiovascularPathologyHypertensionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241381-overviewThe First Aid 2019 states the following: "Hypertension: Persistent systolic BP > 130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP > 80 mm Hg", which is a mistake, as the latest guideline from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association states the following: Hypertension: Persistent systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg.Major erratum07/23/19 6:15 PM
610299CardiovascularPathologyBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsno linkIn Index you will find "Carotid Massage p. 299" this is incorrect. Correct page number is 294.Major erratum05/24/19 8:42 AM
611300CardiovascularPathologyAortic aneurysmhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S107858849990864XAAA (3 A's) is sometimes due to a defect in the gene encoding for type III procollagenMnemonic07/30/19 1:07 PM
612300CardiovascularPathologyAortic aneurysmhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470237/Add Hypercholesterolemia as one of the major causes of Abdominal aortic aneurysmClarification to current text08/26/19 4:54 PM
613300CardiovascularPathologyAortic aneurysmhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1979501-clinical#b1"May cause abdominal and/or back pain, which is a sign of leaking, dissection, or imminent rupture." Should also mention that the sudden onset abdo ± back pain can be a sign of "ruptured AAA" (i.e. not just imminent, but the AAA has ruptured). Any patient with sudden onset "tearing" abdo ± back pain who comes in with hemodynamic instability on a b/g of CV risk factors, should have AAA as a differential high on the list.Clarification to current text08/27/19 5:24 AM
614300CardiovascularPathologyAtherosclerosisAorta. COronary. POpliteal. CArotid.A COPy CAtMnemonic02/08/19 9:47 AM
615300.00IndexPhysiologyNormal cardiac pressures2019 First Aid for the USMLE Step 1The index says that you can find the "Swan-Ganz catheter" on page 300. There's no mention of it on that page, it is instead mentioned on page 295. The same thing applies to PCWP (Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure).Minor erratum05/07/19 12:58 PM
616301CardiovascularPathologyIschemic heart disease manifestationshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview#showallSTEMI have characteristic of ST elevation and pathological Q wave. FA2019 mentions Q wave but is missing term "Pathological". It is very important to differentiate between pathological and physiological Q waves.Clarification to current text03/03/19 9:47 AM
617301CardiovascularPathologyKussmaul signhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/constrictive-pericarditis?search=Constrictive%20pericarditisConstrictive%20pericarditis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~95&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Constrictive pericarditis could be a complication of radiation therapy of non-honking lymphoma.High-yield addition to next year01/17/19 1:08 AM
618302CardiovascularPathologyEvolution of myocardial infarctionPathomaafter reperfusion due to influc of Ca leads to contraction; that is called (contraction band necrosis)Minor erratum03/01/19 6:28 PM
619303CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/08/14/12/31/eliminating-creatine-kinase-myocardial-band-testingCK-MB is no longer recommended in the diagnosis of reinfarction following acute MI (ACC/AHA 2013 Guidelines)Major erratum12/26/18 10:32 PM
620303CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/811905-overviewAlthough Myoglobin was deemed unnecessary, it should be added to graph as a note stating that it rises prior to Troponin after MI and declines rapidlyHigh-yield addition to next year04/09/19 10:09 AM
621303CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionRobbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Ninth Edition - Chapter 12, Under section "Myocardial Infarction" - "Troponins I and T are not normally detectable in the circulation. Following an MI, levels of both begin to rise at 3-12 hours."In the book, it says "Cardiac troponin I rises after 4 hours" but it is actually 3 hours.Minor erratum09/01/19 6:00 PM
622303CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMIn/aA Smart LAD scores 1st/2nd = LAD obstruction - AnteroSeptal infarct with V1-V2 ST elevation An Average LAD scores 3rd/4th = LAD obstruction - AnteroApical infarct with V3-V4 ST elevation A Lazy LAD scores 5th/6th = LAD obstruction - AnteroLateral infarct with V5-V6 ST elevationMnemonic07/08/19 1:21 PM
623305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/23/3/586Important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy is coronary artery diseaseHigh-yield addition to next year01/08/19 9:51 AM
624305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153153-overviewI recommend changing the ABCCCD mnemonic to ABBCCCD (i.e. add a B). The extra B stands for "birth" -- thus incorporating peripartum cardiomyopathy as a cause of dilated CM. This also improves the mnemonic such that there is 1 A, 2 B's, and 3 C's to make it more memorable as the number corresponds to the letter position in the alphabet.Mnemonic01/19/19 5:04 PM
625305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22335739Came across a question on UWorld asking about sudden death in young man. I've always associated sudden death HOCM with sarcomeric mutations. However, familial cases in dilated cardiomyopathy are also associated with sarcomeric mutations specifically in the titin protein (TTN gene).High-yield addition to next year04/25/19 10:04 AM
626305CardiovascularVirologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy?search=lyme%20myocarditis&topicRef=4935&source=see_linkABBCCCD = Alcohol abuse, wet Beriberi, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxsackie B viral myocarditis, chronic Cocaine use, Chagas disease, DoxorubicinMnemonic05/07/19 7:44 PM
627305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1110186truncating mutations that affect TTN gene which encodes for Titin protein are the most common cause of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)High-yield addition to next year05/11/19 11:27 AM
628306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Failure/HF006Diastolic dysfunction causes Decrease in EDV and Increase in EDP according to the attached diagram , not normal EDVMajor erratum03/01/19 6:34 PM
629306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureMnemonicDrugs that decrease mortality : (ABC) 1)Ace inhibitors 2)Beta Blocker 3) CpironolactoneMnemonic03/05/19 9:04 PM
630306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurenone neededIn the pressure-volume loop diagrams, it would be helpful if the abbreviations were written out with their abbreviation in parentheses following. (I.e., "Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)" and "Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF"). This is the only place where these abbreviations are used.Clarification to current text03/15/19 12:00 AM
631306CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart failureN/ADiastolic dysfunction is associated with S4 heart sound and diastolic has 4 syllables for S4 (di-a-sto-lic --> S4) On the other hand, systolic dysfunction, which is associated with an S3 heart sound, has 3 syllables for systolic (sys-to-lic). Therefore, sys-to-lic --> S3Mnemonic04/18/19 1:42 PM
632306CardiovascularPathologyHydralazineFirst aid 2019Hydralazine with nitrate therapy improves both symptoms and mortality in 'selected' patients. Text in the book says 'select'. Selected patients could be specified eg: African patientsSpelling/formatting03/17/19 6:14 AM
633307CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditisNot neededMnemonic -> Owsler nodes. Ow indicates pain and helps differentiating the hand lesions in endocarditis (Osler vs Janeway).Mnemonic01/07/19 3:05 AM
634307CardiovascularPathologyShockNoticed itMissing a comma after anaphylaxis in what distributive shock is caused by. Right now it reads "anaphylaxis CNS injury," but should by "anaphylaxis, CNS injury"Spelling/formatting03/27/19 4:35 PM
635307CardiovascularPathologyShockuWorldAccording to uWorld, anaphylactic shock results in decreased cardiac output, not increased. The attached figure shows a combined cardiac/vascular function curve for anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis causes widespread venous/arterial dilation along with increased capillary permeability and third spacing , causing decrease in mean systemic filling pressure and venous return. Contractility and HR go up to compensate, but overall CO effect is still decreased.Minor erratum05/10/19 11:53 AM
636307CardiovascularPathologyShockhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/definition-classification-etiology-and-pathophysiology-of-shock-in-adults?search=shock&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H25Mnemonic for types of Shock: SANCHO. The first 3 letters are subtypes of Distributive shock (Septic, Anaphylactic, Neurogenic/CNS Injury). Rest of letters are: Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, Obstructive.Mnemonic07/19/19 1:09 PM
637308Rapid ReviewPathologyRheumatic feverhttps://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticHALF (minor criteria for rheumatic fever): H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, Leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major & 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:03 PM
638309IndexPathologyCardiac tamponadeN/AThe fact for 'Pulsus paradoxus' below cardiac tamponade is incorrectly said to be on page 315 in the index.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:34 AM
639309CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tamponadehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157096-overviewConstrictive pericardisit : Pericardium loses its elasticity, Stiff, Thickened, sticky. Results from : Pericarditis, Radiation, Heart surgery. Symptoms of congestion - Heart cannot fill properly: Dyspnea, Raised JVP, Edema. Pulsus Paradoxus & kussmaul sign. Rapid Y desent in Jugular venous pulse curveHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 1:55 PM
640309CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tamponadehttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsus_paradoxus&ved=2ahUKEwiw9qv7ovzgAhVC6RoKHV8fAG4QFjAHegQICBAB&usg=AOvVaw0q8O4IojznhFHl4KwkEiWsCauses of pulsus paradoxus. CHACOT (Cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, Hypovolemic shock, Asthma, COPD, Obstructive sleep apnea, Tension pneumothoraxMnemonic03/12/19 4:21 AM
641309CardiovascularPathologyMyocarditisn/a“Pulsus Paradoxus with a CrAP Cardiac Output” Croup, Asthma, Pericarditis, Cardiac tamponade, Obstructive sleep apneaMnemonic07/08/19 1:16 PM
642310IndexIndexVasculitidesFAS1 2019Giant cell arthritis is listed as being on page 315, but it is actually on 310.Major erratum01/08/19 12:18 PM
643310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23663684/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20457278/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23114585/It would be good to add that the production of cytokines, in particular Interleukin-6 (IL-6), appears to closely correlate with the severity of the Giant Cell Arteritis. A monoclonal antibody against IL-6 (tocilizumab) is effective in treatiing GCA.High-yield addition to next year01/30/19 12:11 AM
644310IndexPathologyVasculitidesindex clariicationleukocytoclastic vasculitis is predominantly discussed on this page (310) but is only listed in the updated index as being on page 173. This should be corrected. Thank you.Clarification to current text02/15/19 2:13 PM
645310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesUWorld, Pathomafor polyarteritis Nodosa; due to different stages of lumpy fibrosis (Nodosa) it gives the appearance of "String of Pearls". This appearance also found in renal FibroMuscular Dysplasia.High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:29 PM
646310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesPathomafor Kawasaki disease: since Cardiac compication is such unique to know (kids with MI like pictures), suggest thinking of "kid on Kawasaki motorcycle"; their hands and feets are red and their heart is excited or beating fast same with disease.Mnemonic03/01/19 6:30 PM
647310IndexPathologyVasculitidesFirst Aid 2019Vasculitis is listed as page 315, 316 in the index but it's covered on page 310, 311Major erratum03/03/19 12:19 PM
648311CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureN/AOn pg. 757 in the appendix, "heart failure" directs you to pg. 311. There is no mention of heart failure on pg 311. Additionally, under "heart failure - associations" on page 757, it directs you to page 690, which has no mention of heart failure.Spelling/formatting02/09/19 1:37 PM
649311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesSpelling errorImmunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with BERGER disease (i.e. IgA nephropathy) not BUERGER disease (i.e. thromboangiitis obliterans)Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:26 AM
650311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesN/APage 311 states that immunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease) when it should be *Berger* disease. Confusing because Buerger disease is another vasculidity.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:16 PM
651311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239927-overviewIn Immunoglobulin A vasculitis, "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease)" must be "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger disease)"Minor erratum01/09/19 8:35 AM
652311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/329255-overviewMixed cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis due to mixed IgG and IgA immune complex deposition. This is incorrect, mixed cryoglobulinemia contain rheumatoid factors (RFs), which are usually IgM and, rarely, IgG or IgAMajor erratum01/15/19 9:49 AM
653311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/iga-nephropathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20352268On page 311 under Vasculitides (continued) and in reference to Immunoglobulin A vasculitis under the PATHOLOGY/LABS section it states that Immunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease). I believe this to be a mistake and should be corrected to its “ Associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger Disease)”. Page 583, 585, and 690 all make reference to Berger disease as being IgA Nephropathy. Buerger Disease is a Medium-vessel vasculitis associated with Gangrene and Amputation of extremities.Minor erratum03/27/19 10:35 AM
654311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239927-overviewImmunoglobulin A vasculitis associated wit Ig A nephropathy is "berger's" disease and the book says its "buerger's" disease which is TOASpelling/formatting07/01/19 1:47 PM
655311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesn/aW-egner Granulomatosis M-icroscopic Polyangiitis Take these diseases like an image in the mirror.Mnemonic07/08/19 4:41 PM
656311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesYour own text verifies this. A simple typo.For IgA vasculitis, in the pathology/labs column it says “Associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease).” It should say “Associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger) disease.” Buerger disease is thromboangitis obliterans. Berger disease is IgA nephropathy.Minor erratum07/12/19 2:59 PM
657312CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tumorsFA2019 lists Myxomas as the most common primary cardiac adult tumor"Adults make myxed drinks" to remember that myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors in adults, vs. rhabdomyomas in children.Mnemonic01/03/19 9:19 PM
658312CardiovascularPathologyHereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasiaMnemonic, FA19 p. 312*Schnoz*ler-Weber-Rendu has *nose*bleedsMnemonic04/24/19 2:15 PM
659312IndexPharmacologyKussmaul signN/AThe index incorrectly lists this fact to be on page 319.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:30 AM
660312CardiovascularPharmacologyThiazide diureticshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jch.12679Thiazide-type diuretics are associated with significant but small adverse glycemic effects in hypertensive patients. Treatment with a lower dose might reduce or avoid glycemic changes.Clarification to current text07/19/19 7:46 PM
661312CardiovascularPathologyUlcer complicationshttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/varicose-veinsVaricose veins: dilated tortuous veins most commonly found on the superficial system. cussed by chronic elevation of venous pressure or loss of the strength in vessel wall leading to incompetent of the venous valves. common complication includes. edema,infection, dermatitis, ski ulcer and poor wound healing.High-yield addition to next year02/10/19 2:48 AM
662313IndexPathologyBacterial endocarditisIndex errorin the index,under Staph Aureus, bacterial endocarditis is said to be on pg 313 but it is on pg 307Minor erratum03/14/19 9:17 AM
663313CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockers.Concerning dihydropyridines : MALO and NIMO are CLEaVIng and kNIFing each other in a CAR .All of them end with -dipine.Mnemonic01/02/19 2:57 PM
664313CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockersNot applicabletypes of Ca channels: Think with your brain (T-type found mainly in the brain), Love with your heart (L-type found mainly in the heart)Mnemonic04/05/19 3:51 PM
665313CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertensive emergencyhttp://www.jbc.org/content/276/37/34681.longNitroprusside increases myosin light-chain phosphatase activity due to increase cGMP via direct release of NOHigh-yield addition to next year04/09/19 10:37 AM
666313CardiovascularPharmacologyNitratesNot neededAdd methemoglobinemia to the side effects of nitrates. Already mentioned on page 648 of FA2018. Knowledge of this fact is HY (seen on NBMEs).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:07 AM
667314CardiovascularPharmacologyAntianginal therapyWong GWK, Boyda HN, Wright JM. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of partial agonist beta blocker monotherapy for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD007450. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007450.pub2ACE card and Pi(e)NDulum cause anxiety .. ACE stands for acebutolol and Pi(e)NDulum stands for pindolol.Mnemonic07/08/19 9:21 AM
668314CardiovascularPharmacologySacubitrilhttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00886captoPRIL- ACE inhibitor, sacubiTRIL- neprilyson inhibitor, omaPaTRILat- both ACE and NEP inhibitor. (Name contaim both PRIL and TRIL- PaTRIL. )Mnemonic02/25/19 6:07 PM
669314CardiovascularPharmacologySacubitrilhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/use-of-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction https://reference.medscape.com/drug/entresto-sacubitril-valsartan-1000010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30508581/Neprilysin is responsible for degradation of Natriuretic peptides , substance P, endothelins and other vasoactive peptide such as Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. It does not degrade ANGIOTENSIN II. So, sacubitril as such does not prevent degradation of Angiotension II. Angiotensinase degrades Angiotensin II. The slight increases level of angiotensin II is due to combination of Sacubitril with Valsartan, as Valsartan is ARB.Major erratum08/08/19 2:45 PM
670315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pcsk9-inhibitors-pharmacology-adverse-effects-and-use?search=pcsk9&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1063920136In the figure at the bottom of the page, an arrow going from PCSK9 to LDL receptor is marked with a ‘+’ which is misleading because PCSK9 works by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. Hence if PCSK9 is blocked, more LDLRs are recycled and are present on the surface of cells.Clarification to current text12/31/18 6:46 AM
671315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/861024Figure indicates that PCSK9 stimulated LDL-R. While in fact PCSK9 stimulated degradation of LDL-R. Text after arrow should read "LDL-R Degradation" to avoid confusionMinor erratum03/05/19 9:47 AM
672315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/gemfibrozil-drug-information?search=gemfibrozil&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~73&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Gemfibrozil is spelled incorrectly. It is "Gemfi rozil" on the book.Spelling/formatting03/18/19 5:34 PM
673315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3489608/Fibrates are one of the main VLDL lowering agents.High-yield addition to next year03/26/19 11:40 AM
674315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentsn/aGemfibrozil = Gall stones PPAR α = 7-α hydroxylase inhibitorMnemonic07/08/19 4:42 PM
675316CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac glycosideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693787/The text suggests that van Gogh suffered the side effects of digoxin. However, medical historians now largely agree that Van Gogh's yellow period was likely not due to digitalis-induced xanthopsia (see reference).Minor erratum06/30/19 4:53 PM
676316CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac glycosideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30529380In the mechanism of action of Digoxin, the indirect inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger should not increase the Calcium influx- but rather, decrease the Calcium efflux. Same result, but minor difference. Based on the diagram shown as well as general directionality/mechanism of these pumps.Minor erratum09/06/19 1:43 PM
677317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/quotation_marks/more_quotation_mark_rules.htmlThe mnemonic for Class IC is "'Can I have Fries, Please." It is a question, so it should end with a "?" instead of a "."Spelling/formatting02/03/19 8:31 PM
678317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://www.cvpharmacology.com/antiarrhy/sodium-blockerssodium channel binding strength is a CAB to fastest dissociation. IC>IA>IB.Mnemonic02/06/19 3:43 PM
679317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/159222-treatmentIt should be added to the Clinical Use section within Class 1A that such antiarrhythmics, like procainamide, are used to treat Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. I have had many questions inquire about this concept, including the USMLE-Rx question bank. No where in first aid 2019 is the treatment for this syndrome included.High-yield addition to next year02/23/19 2:10 PM
680317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_BaeSalt Bae Kills Cows - Na block, B block, K block, Ca blockMnemonic03/13/19 6:27 PM
681317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)Error in bookFor Class 1B sodium channel blockers the book forgets to list Tocainide. However the mnemonic still highlights the “T” in “I’d Buy Liddys Mexican Tacos”Clarification to current text03/25/19 9:23 PM
682317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)n/aClass I”B” = Broken (Post MI) and Weak (Na channel blockade) Heart Class I”C” = Correct (Structurally normal without IHD) and Strong (Na channel blockade) Heart Class III = AmIODarone: “Check ALL before Treatment” = Amiodarone, Liver, Lungs, Thyroid Class IV = “It takes LONGER to get a Canadian PR” = CCB proLONGs PR interval.Mnemonic07/08/19 4:44 PM
683318CardiovascularPharmacologyDrug nameshttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/194661B-Blockers that lower (benefit) cardiac mortality.: Carvedilol, Bisoprolol, Metoprolol. • Mnemonic: B-Blocker that Benefit Cardiac Mortality (B= Benefit/Bisoprolol) (C= Cardiac/Carvedilol) (M= Mortality/ Metoprolol)Mnemonic04/30/19 8:55 AM
684319CardiovascularPharmacologyIvabradinen/aiVaBrAdiNe is a Funny drug that blocks Funny Na channels at phase Four. HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY Pathological RBC forms, pg 406 In the END, you are either BURRied or, burnt in a PYRE. So LIVE as you can! BURR cells – END stage renal disease, PYRuvate Kinase Deficiency, LIVEr disease. Heme synthesis, porphyrias and lead poisoning, pg 417 Porphyria cutanea tarda = affected UROporphyrinogen decarboxylase “URO – enzyme down towards URINE” = Accumulated substance = UROporphyrin (tea colored urine) Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, pg 419 ROBOTIC ADAM’s Increased WILL to AGGREGATE in the human society! ROBOTIC – THROMBOTIC ADAMTS13 – Deficient or inhibited Increased large von WILLebrand Factor multimers Increased platelet AGGREGATION Factor V Leiden, pg 420 Lady GAGA will tour from ARGentina  Guatemala but not in the People’s Republic Of China. Lady = Leiden Guanine to Adenine DNA point mutation Amino acid change from ARGenine  Guanine Resistance ofMnemonic07/08/19 4:53 PM
685321EndocrineAnatomyEosinophilsNot Needed"pink PiG" -- Anterior Pituitary Acidophils are GH and PRL, the PiG in FLAT PiG. Pigs are Pink, Acidophils stain pink on H&E.Mnemonic05/08/19 9:07 AM
686321EndocrineAnatomyPituitary glandhttps://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/glandular/pituitary.php"pink PiG" -- Anterior Pituitary Acidophils release GH and PRL, the PiG in FLAT PiG. Pigs are Pink, Acidophils stain pink on H&E.Mnemonic05/19/19 12:58 PM
687322EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullaMnemonic"CorticOL" hormones are derived from "CholesterOL" (may also be placed on page 328)Mnemonic02/13/19 2:07 PM
688322EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullaIt's a mnemonic“The deeper you go, the sweeter it gets, and out comes the 1^o hormones in alphabetical order; Aldosterone, Cortisol, DHEA, Epi, Ne”. (A, C, D, E, N marked in bold/red)Mnemonic02/25/19 11:09 AM
689322EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid developmenthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/845125-overviewParafollicular cells are neural crest (ectoderm derived), not endoderm derivedMinor erratum12/28/18 6:57 PM
690322EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid developmentLast updated Mar 22, 2019: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/845125-overviewError in errata: Newest errata (March '19) says: "Delete the last sentence “Thyroid follicular cells and parafollicular cells (aka, C cells, produce calcitonin) are derived from endoderm”. However, the parafollicular cells ARE derived from endoderm so the line doesn't need to be deleted.Minor erratum04/09/19 10:15 AM
691323EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-clinicalIn the hyperpigmentation induced by primary adrenal insufficiency (Addisons Disease), First Aid states that a-MSH is released by corticotrophs which is responsible for stimulating peripheral melanocytes and stimulating melanin production. However after consultation with multiple texts and Dr. Kathleen Giangiacomo (whom I would like acknowledged should this erratus submission be accepted), I have come to understand that while aMSH is cleaved from POMC along with ATCH, that process occurs peripherally as adrenal corticotrophs lack the protease necessary. Furthermore in the pathology of adrenal insufficiency it is ACTH binding to MC1R receptors in the dermis causing hyperpigmentation. I have provided some textbook references in the images attached.Minor erratum03/08/19 7:39 AM
692323EndocrineAnatomy and PhysiologyB cellsLutz, T.A., 2016. Gut hormones such as amylin and GLP-1 in the control of eating and energy expenditure. International Journal of Obesity 6, S15–S21. 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-54852-6.00013-6Amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-amino-acid hormone that is co secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells. Like insulin, amylin is to a certain extent tonically secreted into the circulation and its plasma concentration increases in proportion to body fat. In the pancreas, amylin inhibits the release of glucagon and thus decreases blood glucose via inhibition of hepatic glucose production. Beyond its paracrine action in the pancreas, amylin decreases GI motility and peripheral or central administration of amylin decreases body weight through inhibition of food intake. In the 2019 edition of first aid its not mentionated anything about the release of amylin from B pancreatic cells. The physiology is also relevant cause, nowdays has been a recently option of treatment for diabetes.High-yield addition to next year07/30/19 8:28 PM
693323EndocrineAnatomyEndocrine pancreas cell typesmnemonicstructure of pancreatic islets - ALPHA men at periphery guarding BETAful (beautiful) women in centre. Delta are dogs which are just everywhere.Mnemonic05/01/19 11:21 AM
694323EndocrineAnatomyEndocrine pancreas cell typeshttps://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789400766853The photo and text of the islet of langerhans needs to be clarified, that distribution of alpha cells in the periphery and beta cell in the center of the islet is for murine species, in humans it is aleatorizedClarification to current text07/28/19 5:34 PM
695323EndocrineAnatomyPituitary glandhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeurophysinsNeurophysin 1 is a carrier protein for Oxytocin and Neurophysin 2 is a carrier protein for ADH.Clarification to current text05/13/19 7:23 PM
696324EndocrineAnatomy and PhysiologyInsulinN/AGLUT1= remember "RBC" -- R=RBC, B=baby (placenta), brain, C=cornea; GLUT3=the 2Bs of GLUT1 (=baby (placenta) and brain)-- remember this since 2+1=3Mnemonic02/18/19 2:40 AM
697324EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinn/aADdicts are DEPENDENT 4 Substance Insulin DEPENDENT Glucose Transposters: GLUT 4 – ADipose tissue, Striated muscles.Mnemonic07/08/19 5:52 PM
698324EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinuworld+my mnemonicINsulin - INtrinsic tyrosine kinase pathway (PI3K-MAPK), while Glucagon - Gs (cAMP-PKA)Mnemonic09/10/19 5:29 AM
699324EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinuworld question 1926In the figure at the bottom left please add Serine phosphorylation (glucagon, epi) that inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin receptor autophosphorylationHigh-yield addition to next year09/10/19 5:33 AM
700325EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-adrenal-insufficiency-in-adults?search=addisons%20disease%20adult&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3195785943Under MSH. It is stated that MSH causes hyperpigmentation in Cushing's disease. This is only correct if it is ACTH hypersectretion is causing the excessive cortisol. The ACTH and MSH pathway is classically suppressed in Cushing's. Addison's Disease is classically associated with hyperpigmentation.Major erratum01/31/19 2:58 PM
701325EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormonesmnemonic for information already in text"S-eye-ADH" - ADH (elevated in SIADH) is produced in the supra-optic nucleus of the hypothalamusMnemonic02/07/19 8:30 AM
702325EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormonesFirst Aid 2019, pg. 323 (under "Pituitary Gland", there's a list of all the hormones for anterior vs. pituitary glands), 325 (shows how somatostatin inhibits GH)Instead of alphabetical order, it would be helpful to reorganize the "hypothalmic-pituitary hormones" table into sections depending on which part of the pituitary gland the hormone affects: 1. anterior pituitary (CRH/TRH/GnRH/GHRH/somatostatin (which inhibits GH release)), 2. intermediate lobe of pituitary (MSH) 3. posterior pituitary secretions (ADH and oxytocin)Clarification to current text05/07/19 12:07 AM
703326EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasCostanzo17a-hydroxylase --> DHEA via 17,20-lyase (NOT 17a-hydroxylase). Similarly, 17-hydroxyprogesterone --> Androstenedione via 17,20-lyase (NOT 17a-hydroxylase). This is correct on the online Rx flaschards, but incorrect in the book.Minor erratum02/26/19 1:12 PM
704326EndocrinePhysiologyProlactinNone neededIn the figure "Primary hypothyroidism" is misspelled as "Primary hypothroidism"Spelling/formatting01/15/19 4:11 PM
705327EndocrinePhysiologyAntidiuretic hormoneN/AMnemonic for remembering that ADH is produced in the supraOPTIC nucleus: "S-eye-ADH"Mnemonic03/12/19 2:19 PM
706328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overviewWrong enzyme mentioned when moving from zona fasciculata to zona reticularis, should say 17,20 lyase instead of 17 alpha hydroxylaseMajor erratum01/03/19 6:44 AM
707328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overviewI submitted for the 2018 and it was ignoredHigh-yield addition to next year02/02/19 10:32 AM
708328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasn/a"Girls read Seventeen Magazine" i.e. individuals with 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency will be phenotypically female due to sex hormone deficiencyMnemonic02/17/19 3:23 PM
709328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920532-overview17,20 lyase instead of 17 alpha hydroxylase for 17 hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA and 17- hydroxyprogesterone to AndrostenedioneMajor erratum03/06/19 1:14 PM
710328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.kumc.edu/contents/adrenal-steroid-biosynthesis?search=adrenal%20steroid%20synthesis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Two instances of "17alpha-hydroxylase" are incorrect and must be changed to "17, 20-lyase". Need to change reaction to say 17-OHP —> DHEA using 17,20-LYASE enzyme Need to change reaction to say 17-OHP—>Androstenedione using 17,20-LYASE enzyme. The enzyme is currently listed incorrectly as 17alpha-hydoxylase for both reactions. See screenshot for error.Major erratum05/06/19 8:49 PM
711328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasThis suggestion does not require a reference.This is just a suggestion regarding how to organize the information. For the tip involving which enzyme deficiency (21-, 17a-, and 11b-hydroxylase) causes hypertension/virilization, it would be helpful to organize this into a table form (two columns, one BP, one testosterone; then for each major enzyme deficiency, change the "1" to an up arrow). Additionally, for clarity, it would be helpful to make the up/down arrows bigger/broader and assign colors for each direction. This would be helpful for other sections which contain these tables and up/down arrows (such as the iron interpretation table in the hematology section). I've attached images for clarity.Spelling/formatting05/11/19 8:52 PM
712328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/adrenal-steroid-biosynthesis#H11Production of DHEA and Androstenedione from 17-hydroxypregnenolone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone is done via 17,20-lyase. The book has the 17alpha-hydroxylase as the enzyme performing those reactions.Major erratum09/08/19 3:57 PM
713329EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920532-overviewThe reactions of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA and 17-hydroxyprogresterone to Androstenedione are catalyzed by 17,20 Lyase not by 17a-hydroxylase. They are both catalyzed by the same enzyme complex (P450c17). 17,20 Lyase deficiency presents similar to 17a-hydroxylase deficiencyClarification to current text02/14/19 6:02 AM
714329EndocrinePhysiologyCortisolhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/glucocorticoids https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/national-hormone-pituitary-program/health-alert-adrenal-crisis-causes-death-people-treated-hghGlucocorticoids are essential to maintain life.High-yield addition to next year03/26/19 8:19 AM
715329EndocrinePhysiologyCortisolhttps://emcrit.org/pulmcrit/nlr/for cortisol's role in immune function one of the mneumonics I use is: INDE which stands for Increase neutrophils, Decrease Eosinophils. I found this helpful in my studies and thought maybe other students may benefit from this as well.Mnemonic08/29/19 1:23 PM
716330EndocrineAnatomy and PhysiologyParathyroid hormonehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10824426Under function for Parathyroid Hormone, it should be PTH binds RANK (Receptor) on osteoblasts, not osteoclasts as it is currently written.Major erratum05/15/19 11:06 AM
717330EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/papillary-thyroid-cancer?search=Papillary%20thyroid%20cancer&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Tall cell variant: folicular hiperplasia lined by tall epithelial cells, seen in adults with poor prognosis.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 6:46 PM
718331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/thyroid-hormone-synthesis-and-physiology?search=iodine%20thyroid&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H3&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=4~150&display_rank=4#H3It was stated in the first paragraph of this section, "organification of iodide...". However, the organification is with iodine (I2) not iodide.Clarification to current text02/07/19 4:20 PM
719331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)eMedicine: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089554-overview#a2The text says "decreased TBG in hepatic failure", however there is actually generally an increased TBG in chronic liver disease. (studies show increased TBG in all cases studied of liver disease, though eMedicine states it may be increased or decreased).Minor erratum02/27/19 9:39 PM
720331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/452667_5Add dopamine (alongside somatostatin) as an inhibitor of TSH release. Dopamine is acknowledged as an inhibitor of TSH release in the schematic on page 325.Clarification to current text03/07/19 4:44 PM
721331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)UworldReverse T3 is a byproduct generated almost entirely from the peripheral conversion of T4. Exogenous T3 supplementation will decrease TSH, T4, and reverse T3 (rT3) due to less T4 available for conversion.High-yield addition to next year03/28/19 7:54 AM
722331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/459924_4Wolff-Chaikoff Effect - Excess Iodide temporary inhibits iodide organification as a defense mechanism of thyroid gland use to prevent synthesis of large quantities of hormones.Clarification to current text03/28/19 8:11 AM
723331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)First Aid Step 1 2019 p.331, Table "Thyroid hormones"I suggest to add "β-blockers, glucocorticoids" after PTU, as 5'-deiodinase inhibitors to the picture located at the bottom of the page.Clarification to current text09/04/19 12:35 PM
724331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)First Aid Usmle Step 1 2019, page 331to remember 5'deiodinase inhibitors, use mnemonic ' 3 P's " PTU, Propranolol (beta-blockers), Prednisone (glucocorticoids)Mnemonic09/04/19 12:47 PM
725332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathway of steroid hormonesMnemonicV1 receptor and H1 receptor use the 1P3 (IP3) signaling pathway. Bold the 1s and I in IP3Mnemonic02/14/19 12:24 PM
726332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesnot neededI think it is better to delete "Think Growth Factor" ,we don't need it because the new mnemonic "Get Found In the MAP" is clearClarification to current text12/30/18 1:19 PM
727332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesBRS, Linda Constanzo 6th edition; Physiology, Linda S. Constanzo fith editionBoth "BRS" and "Physiology" have the GHRH as with a signaling pathway of "Phospholipase C Mechanism (IP3/Ca)"Minor erratum07/31/19 6:27 PM
728332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesLinda Constanzo Physiology 5th editionGHRH has both (cAMP and IP3/Ca) signaling pathways.Minor erratum08/05/19 7:03 PM
729333EndocrinePathologyCushing syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340771/The text indicates that Cushing Syndrome may have a finding of pseudohyperaldosteronism. That is true. But it will be good to specify that it is an transient increase in aldosterone level. As the disease progress, the aldosterone level decreases. Hypothetically, the pseudohyperaldosteronism is due to acute rise in ACTH wherease decreased aldosterone later will be due to direct actions of increased Cortisol.Clarification to current text02/25/19 7:08 AM
730333EndocrinePathologyCushing syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acquired-hyperpigmentation-disordersIn the "Findings" subsection of Cushing Syndrome, the skin changes include thinning and striae; however, it is also important to remember that Cushing Syndrome caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (Cushing Disease) can also cause hyperpigmentation due to the increased production of ACTH. Although it was mentioned in the physiology section, it is important to include "hyperpigmentation" in the skin findings of Cushing Syndrome, as this is a VERY high-yield point that students should be reminded of in the context of Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.Major erratum08/12/19 12:21 AM
731334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/216821Adrenal insuffuciency metyrapone test-it says "In 1* adrenal insufficiency, ACTH is (arrow pointing up) but 11 deoxycortisol remains (arrow pointing down)" which I think should clarify that the ACTH is high before test even (not increased by metyrapone) and that after test it stays high too and the 11-deoxycortisol remains low after test.Clarification to current text01/03/19 11:17 AM
732334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/metyrapone-stimulation-tests?source=autocomplete&index=0~1&search=metyrapone#H3541141777Under the metyrapone stimulation test, the text states that you would observe decreased ACTH if 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency. This is misleading; the ACTH response would still be elevated but just not as elevated as expected. It might also be useful to include a note that metyrapone stimulation test is most sensitive for detecting defects in ACTH secretion, whereas random serum ACTH is a better tool for differentiating between 1º and 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency.Clarification to current text01/16/19 10:31 AM
733334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyn/aBlack ADDidas shoes at low COst! ADDison disease Black - Hyper pigmentation Low COrtisol/aldosteroneMnemonic07/08/19 5:56 PM
734334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyuworld has the whole question considering this concept. Q.id 608Add changes of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid under metyrapone testHigh-yield addition to next year09/11/19 4:38 AM
735334EndocrinePathologyHyperaldosteronismIt's MnemonicNormal K (potassium) = No Konn’s (Conn’s) syndrome .Mnemonic01/22/19 12:47 PM
736334EndocrinePathologyHyperaldosteronismhttps://casereports.bmj.com/content/2016/bcr-2016-216209Current text states that primary hyperaldosteronism is seen with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. I believe this is incorrect. According to various research online, it is seen with unilateral adrenal hyperplasia.Major erratum05/30/19 5:04 PM
737335EndocrinePathologyCarcinoid syndromemy brainCARCINOID 5yndrome mnemonicMnemonic01/12/19 11:45 AM
738335EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/91/3/1159/2843609 Radiology. 1993 Jul;188(1):115-8. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-graves-orbitopathy-ophthalmopathy?search=graves%20ophthalmopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2In ocular findings of Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease), lid lag/ retraction is due to either thickening of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris or fibrosis of the Superior Tarsal muscle. However, the innervation of the levator palpebrae is totally by oculomotor nerve instead of sympathetic nerve. And the Superior Tarsal is innervated by sympathetic nerve. Pathologic changes of the Levator Palpebrae is for sure, (Radiology. 1993 Jul;188(1):115-8.), however it's mechanism is still under debate. According to Uptodate, this is due to thyroid hormone excess. (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-graves-orbitopathy-ophthalmopathy?search=graves%20ophthalmopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2) And the pathologic change of the Superior Tarsal is also proved in this article. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/91/3/1159/2843609 I think FA2019 page337 fail to demonstrate the exact neurological innervation of these two closely related eyelid muscle :-).Major erratum03/09/19 8:54 PM
739336GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal secretory productshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/stomach-chief-cellthe CHIEFs drinks PEPSInMnemonic03/26/19 10:38 PM
740336EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomaN/A"Rule of 10's:" 10% of MEdullary, Chromaffin cells, Be, Kids (10% Malignant, 10% Extra-adrenal, 10% Calcify, 10% Bilateral, 10% KidsMnemonic01/11/19 2:04 PM
741336EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomathis is just a mnemonic revision suggestion, not a citable content revision.Please change the Rule of 10's to the Rule of 90's: 90% are benign, 90% are unilateral, 90% are adrenal only, 90% are uncalcified, 90% occur in adults. It seems much more intuitive to describe the rule as that of the primary presentation the vast majority of the time (90%), and the exceptions to those rules are easy to remember as the 10% occurrences.Mnemonic03/01/19 5:45 PM
742336EndocrinePathologySomatostatinomahttps://www-uptodate-com.webproxy2.ouhsc.edu/contents/pathology-classification-and-grading-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-arising-in-the-digestive-system?search=somatostatinoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~21&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Also known to have psammoma bodiesHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 9:56 AM
743336EndocrinePathologySomatostatinomaself explanatoryclarify that Somatostatin is needed supplemented after the surgery (I think that's how its meant?) but it really doesn't help for "symptom control" acutely!Clarification to current text06/07/19 9:33 AM
744336EndocrinePathologyZollinger-Ellison syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2565843 + also had a World Question which brought this to my attentionAfter administration of secretin, gastrin does not only *remain elevated* but it even rises! I think this is a key difference between a just autonomous gastrin secreting tumor and the special "inversion" of endocrine mechanism in ZES!Minor erratum06/26/19 4:22 AM
745337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismNoneNo blue brackets present in image to indicate onycholysisSpelling/formatting01/02/19 8:47 PM
746337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismwikiin Hyperthyroidism, lid lag is due to sympathetic stimulation of superior tarsal muscle or muller muscle, not levator palpebrae superiors, which is innervated by cranial nerve IIIMajor erratum01/19/19 2:23 AM
747337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384127/Lid retraction is due to increased sympathetic stimulation of the SUPERIOR TARSAL MUSCLE (muller's muscle)Clarification to current text01/30/19 8:36 AM
748337EndocrinePathologyVIPomaIt's MnemonicV*1*poma --> associated with MEN *1*.Mnemonic12/30/18 7:36 AM
749338EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismN/AIn the description of Postpartum thyroiditis, the second sentence mistakenly lists transient hyperthyroidism twice. "Presents as transient hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism."Minor erratum03/23/19 1:49 PM
750339EndocrinePathologyHyperthyroidismhigh fibroblast secretion of hydrophilic GAGs leads to high adipocyte count which leads to exophthalmosadipocyte count ?Clarification to current text07/21/19 5:54 PM
751340EndocrinePharmacologyInsulinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/general-principles-of-insulin-therapy-in-diabetes-mellitus?search=General%20principles%20of%20insulin%20therapy%20in%20diabetes%20mellitus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1regular insulin start its effect at 30 minutes and peek 4=6 hr andaréis acting insulin star at 15 minutes and peek at 2=4 hr.High-yield addition to next year01/08/19 8:33 PM
752340EndocrinePathologyThyroid adenomahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnostic-approach-to-and-treatment-of-thyroid-nodules"Cold" or nonfunctional thyroid adenomas are more often cancerous than "hot" or "toxic" thyroid adenomas. "Cold" adenomas may require biopsy by fine needle aspiration.Clarification to current text04/23/19 12:05 PM
753340EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancernot neededNew table to more deep understanding of the topicHigh-yield addition to next year01/22/19 6:14 AM
754340EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancernone neededRemember that Medullary Carcinoma is associated with MEN2A and MEN2B by writing it as "MENdullary" (with the two Ls highlighted to remember its association with type 2)Mnemonic03/11/19 4:14 PM
755341EndocrinePathologyDiagnosing parathyroid diseasehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089334-overview#a1 , First Aid Usmle Step 1 2019 page XXI suggest to add normal range values of calcium(8.4 - 10.2 mg/dL) and parathyroid hormone (10-65 pg/mL) near graphic for better visualization.Clarification to current text09/04/19 1:10 PM
756341EndocrinePathologyHypoparathyroidismn/aPseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A: Mother: There won’t be PEACE until there’s resistance. Inherited from Mother PEACE – Shortened 3rd and 4th digits (Albright Syndrome) Resistance to PTH. Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism: Father: Yes! When there’s NO Resistance, there will be PEACE. Inherited from Father PEACE – Features of Albright Syndrome seen But, NO resistance to PTH.Mnemonic07/08/19 5:58 PM
757341EndocrinePathologyParathyroid hormoneMade upPseudohypoparathyroidism (alliteration/Stress the S)---> G"S" protein defect resulting in "S"hortened stature, "S"hortened 3/4th digits & Subnormal PTH responseMnemonic02/15/19 12:38 PM
758343EndocrinePathologyHyperparathyroidismhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127351-overviewAdd that bone resorption in osteitis fibrosa cystica occurs in the SUBPERIOSTEAL layer of boneHigh-yield addition to next year03/07/19 6:16 PM
759344EndocrinePathologyDiabetes insipidusIt's Mnemonic*N*ephrogenic DI --->* N*ormal ADH levels.Mnemonic01/05/19 8:42 AM
760346EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitusPathoma page 166: "Due to autoimmune destruction of beta cells by T lymphocytes." Other authoritative sources include Robbins. Also research articles: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16280652; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119381/; and many, many other reviews and research articles.The autoimmune destruction of of beta cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus from T cells and macrophages, not the autoantibodies. The autoantibodies are present but they are not what causes the destruction. The text implies the antibodies cause the destruction.Major erratum02/16/19 10:35 AM
761346EndocrinePathologyDiabetic ketoacidosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state-in-adults-clinical-features-evaluation-and-diagnosis?topicRef=1795&source=see_link#H10Please consider adding the value of hyperglycemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is often >250 mg/dlClarification to current text07/23/19 1:15 PM
762346EndocrinePathologyDiabetic ketoacidosisnot neededI have created a helping mnemonic for DKA. D for DKA (Diabetic ketoacidosis), K for Ketones / Kussmaul respirations and A for metabolic Acidosis are important criteria for diagnostic.Mnemonic07/23/19 1:25 PM
763346EndocrinePathologyHyperosmolar hyperglycemic statehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1914705-overviewIn this section, near the end where the "Labs" are reported. It says there is "ketone production inhibited by presence of insulin". However, there is no ketone production in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. It should state "NO ketone production". This is an important fact.Major erratum03/04/19 3:28 PM
764346EndocrinePathologyHyperosmolar hyperglycemic statehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1914705-overviewIn the "Labs," there is an extra parentheses after the word "normal," as it should read "no acidosis (pH normal, ketone production inhibited by presence of insulin" or "no acidosis (pH normal), ketone production inhibited by presence of insulin."Spelling/formatting08/12/19 12:25 AM
765346EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid developmenthttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Crest_DevelopmentThe text says "Thyroid follicular cells and parafollicular cells (aka, C cells, produce Calcitonin) are derived from endoderm." This is false, because C cells or parafollicular cells are derivates of the Neural Crest and therefor of Ectoderm.Major erratum07/27/19 3:58 PM
766347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123447-overviewMEN 1(1 Person): Pituatry,Pancreas,Parathyroid. MEN 2(2 people=Male & Female): Feochromocytoma+Medullary thyroid. Male/Boy(2B) :(Mucosal neuromas/Marfanoid)Mnemonic01/09/19 4:05 AM
767347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasFirst Aid 2019MEN 1: there is 1 pituitary gland (pituitary tumor), and 1 pancreas (pancreatic tumor). MEN 2: there are 2 adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma) and 2 thyroid lobes (medullary carcinoma of thyroid)Mnemonic02/06/19 10:44 AM
768347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiashttps://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid can be remembered in MEN2(A/B) by reading it as "MEN-two-llary carcinoma"Mnemonic07/13/19 2:25 AM
769348EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/119020-medication#2Glimepiride is a 3rd generation sulfonylurea (Tex classifies it as 2nd)Clarification to current text03/30/19 12:10 PM
770349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620230/#!po=0.375940In the 4th row, the adverse effects column reads ‘Not recommended if kidney function is impaired.’ This text should be deleted or modified as acarbose is considered an ideal candidate for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.Clarification to current text12/24/18 11:51 PM
771349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementN/ADPP-4 inhibitors: "GLIPTIN suffix= GLP-1 LifTIN"Mnemonic02/18/19 9:20 AM
772349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/thiazolidinediones-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus?search=thiazolidinediones&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~124&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H8Addition of "cardiotoxicity" as a side effect of Glitazones/Thiazolidinediones -- encountered in QBank in which the deciding factor was knowing which DM drug class has noted cardiotoxicityHigh-yield addition to next year04/24/19 10:53 AM
773349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementN/AThe -FLOZIN drugs keep the glucose flowin through the kidneyMnemonic05/08/19 5:26 PM
774349EndocrinePharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsThionamidesn/a“γ–zone is a nexus working to INCREASE sensitivity towards patients with HEART FAILURE” Activate PPAR-γ Zone – ThiaZOlidinedioNEs Nexus – Increase level of adipoNECTIN Increase Insulin SENSITIVITY Adverse drug reaction: HEART FAILUREMnemonic07/08/19 6:00 PM
775350EndocrinePharmacologyCinacalcethttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-adult-nondialysis-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease?search=cinacalcet&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Under secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD should include the specification that it’s approved for dialysis patients only, as it’s not recommended, according to UpToDate, for nondialysis patients.Clarification to current text02/19/19 7:11 PM
776350EndocrinePharmacologyCinacalcetMnemonicSomeone could remember that Cinacalcet is used to sensitize Ca2+-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland to circulating Ca2+, which decreases PTH by remembering, "'SEN'acalcet (Cinacalcet) 'SEN'sitizes Ca2+-'SEN'sing receptor..."Mnemonic03/20/19 10:12 AM
777350EndocrinePathologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsIt's Mnemonicpronounce (Cinacalcet) like (Sena*Ca*lcet )= *Sen*sitizes *Ca*2+-sensing receptor.\highlight "sen" and "ca".Mnemonic01/05/19 8:58 AM
778350EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/947954-overviewIn addition to treatment of GH deficiency and Turner syndrome, GH is also used in Prader-Willi SyndromeHigh-yield addition to next year02/17/19 2:08 PM
779350EndocrinePharmacologySevelamern/a“Pho @ $7” SEVElamer decrease absorption of PHOsphate in hyperPHOsphatemia.Mnemonic07/08/19 6:02 PM
780354GastrointestinalAnatomyPancreas and spleen embryologyFirst Aid 2019Pancreas and spleen embryology (that contains annular pancreas and pancreas divisum) is mistakenly placed in the first part of the anatomy section instead of the embryology section.Clarification to current text02/28/19 12:00 AM
781354GastrointestinalAnatomyPancreas and spleen embryologyBoards and BeyondAnnular pancreas complications include duodenal obstruction, polyhydramnios, and pancreatitis.High-yield addition to next year02/28/19 12:03 AM
782354GastrointestinalEmbryologyPancreas and spleen embryologyhttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Pancreas_Development"Ventral pancreatic bud contributes to uncinate process and main pancreatic duct. The dorsal pancreatic bud alone becomes the body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct" as well as the main pancreatic duct.Minor erratum07/29/19 2:57 PM
783355GastrointestinalAnatomyImportant gastrointestinal ligamentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/surgical-techniques-for-managing-hepatic-injuryIt should be included under the pringle maneuvor fact that failure to stop bleeding upon completion of the maneuvor suggests bleeding from hepatic outflow source (the IVC, hepatic vein). This is the clinical relevance to the manuevor and this is how it is tested on board exams.High-yield addition to next year04/25/19 10:43 AM
784355GastrointestinalAnatomyImportant gastrointestinal ligamentshttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/ligament-of-treitz & https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17653583 & Standring S. Gray's Anatomy. 41st ed. London: Elservier; 2016:1026.Ligament of Treitz- Also known as suspensory ligament of the duodenum. Connects the right crus of the diaphragm and connective tissue around celiac trunk. Is avascular, does not contain any vessel. Clinically use to distinguish if a GI bleeding is considered to be an upper GI bleeding or a lower GI bleeding, also used radiologically to diagnose intestinal complete or partial rotation.High-yield addition to next year07/29/19 4:26 PM
785355GastrointestinalAnatomySpleenhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948863-overview#a2The fact "splenorenal ligament" says that it connects the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall. However, as per the name, the splenorenal ligament is known to connect the spleen to the anterior surface of the left kidney. Per emedicine "The splenorenal ligament extends from the hilum of the spleen to the anterior surface of the left kidney; it contains the tail of the pancreas and splenic vessels."Major erratum03/03/19 9:02 AM
786356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomynot neededTo help remember frequencies of basal electric rhythm, fast to slow: "digestion is slow (stomach), mixing is fast (duodenum), absorption is in between (ileum)"Mnemonic01/09/19 9:40 AM
787356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603487/ and Dr. Jason Ryan of Boards & BeyondSlow waves originate in the interstitial cells of CajalHigh-yield addition to next year01/20/19 7:28 AM
788356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomyN/AFor Muscularis layers: Bold and color "i" in both inner and circular then bold and hi-light "o" for outer and longitudinal (for the different layers)Mnemonic03/09/19 9:32 PM
789357GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and branchesN/AOrder of anterior-branching arteries of the abdominal aorta = CSI [Crime Scene Investigation], for Celiac, SMA, IMA.Mnemonic01/10/19 10:29 AM
790357GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and brancheswas in a Question stem but also see here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878259/A Varicocele is symptom in the Nutcracker Syndrome because when the left renal vein becomes trapped under the SMA there is also distention of the left gonadal vein! Also this makes a kind of easy to remember Mnemonic since the Name of the Syndrome is "Nutcracker"...High-yield addition to next year06/07/19 9:18 AM
791357GastrointestinalAnatomyGastrointestinal blood supply and innervationFA 2019 Page 360Hind gut is suppleid by IMA until upper portion of anal canal (not the rectom)Minor erratum04/29/19 6:49 PM
792357GastrointestinalAnatomyIschemiahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/366808-overviewRecto-sigmoid Water shed- IMA and hypogastric (Internal Iliac) arteryMinor erratum04/26/19 9:30 PM
793358GastrointestinalAnatomyCeliac trunkNetter's Clinical Anatomy, 3rd Ed (p. 181); Essential Anatomy 5; https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Thorax-Abdomen-Pelvis/Digestive-system-Illustrations (slide 63)In the figure of the celiac trunk, the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery appear to wrap around the duodenum. Instead, they should wrap around the pancreas: (1) the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery would fit more appropriately at the current location of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and (2) the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery could be depicted as faded behind the pancreas, branching from the gastroduodenal artery at the branchpoint of the current anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.Minor erratum03/09/19 1:53 PM
794359GastrointestinalAnatomyPortosystemic anastomoseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8873859 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3940321/Diagram suggests that the superior epigastric vein (which doesn't drain into iliac veins, but rather the internal thoracic) is not involved with caput medusae. "Small epigastric veins" may be vague to some readers and can be clarified to include inferior, superficial, and superior epigastric veins.Minor erratum07/01/19 2:07 PM
795360GastrointestinalAnatomyPectinate lineThere was an erratun provided and approved for page 97 dated 2/14/18 for switching internal iliac to common iliac LNLymphatics for above the line drain into internal iliac LN; It should be Common iliac LNs based on newly approved erratumMajor erratum03/01/19 6:51 PM
796360GastrointestinalAnatomyPectinate linenot applicableunder anal fissure: possible addition to mnemonic innervated by (P)udendal nerveMnemonic04/23/19 10:41 PM
797361GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architectureMnemonicDistinguishing which type of hepatitis (viral or alcoholic) affects which hepatic zone (Zone I or Zone III) = the # of single full downwards pen strokes made when writing the word “viral” or “alcoholic”, as if you are writing roman numerals of the affected Zone. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 7:42 PM
798361GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architecturehttps://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LIVEHTML/LIVER003.htmlAddition of a histological picture illustrating the zones of the liver, with accompanying text illustrating which area is affected by what. For example- the picture would be as attached, with under "zone 1"; viral hepatitis, ingested toxins, and so on.Clarification to current text02/27/19 10:52 AM
799362GastrointestinalAnatomyFemoral regionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482388/ & https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1923032-overview#a2"Femoral sheath: Fascial tube 3-4 cm below inguinal ligament. Contains femoral *V*ein, femoral *Artery* and *C*anal (deep inguinal lymph nodes) but no femoral *N*erve" Propose mnemonic *V*odka, *A*le or *A*bsinthe and *C*hampagne for the party, but no *N*ectar allow.Mnemonic07/29/19 5:29 PM
800363GastrointestinalAnatomyInguinal canaln/aTransversus abdominis muscle + Internal oblique muscle = Conjoint tendon TIC = T+I = C.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:23 PM
801363Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNeuromuscular junction diseasesI thought of this mnemonic myself"L before M" for Lambert-Eaton vs Myasthenia Gravis autoantibodies that affect PRE-synaptic and POST-synaptic channels, respectively.Mnemonic07/05/19 8:16 PM
802364GastrointestinalAnatomyHerniashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-inguinal-and-femoral-hernias-in-adults?search=inguinal%20hernia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~119&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H4Move the most common in males to the top of the paragraph to read: "Most common in males. Goes through the...scrotum." Or, change the word scrotum to groin to reflect that it can occur in both sexes.Clarification to current text02/01/19 4:34 PM
803364GastrointestinalAnatomyHerniashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-inguinal-and-femoral-hernias-in-adults#H5Slide into the DMs: Direct = Medial to inferior epigastric vesselsMnemonic06/05/19 7:31 PM
804365GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal regulatory substanceshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiology-of-gastrin ,Negative regulation of gastrin is by somatostatin which is missing from the list of regulators. It is especially worth adding here in the table because of its clinical utility as treatment in gastrinomas.High-yield addition to next year02/11/19 12:25 AM
805365GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal regulatory substanceshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/motilin https://books.google.com.eg/books?id=zZINAEddjA0C&pg=PA357&dq=mo+cell+motilin&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=mo%20cell%20motilin&f=falseThe Motilin is secreted by Mo cells in small intestine, what if you write it between 2 brackets under Small intestine.Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:05 PM
806366GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal secretory productsmnemonic"CHIEF of PEPSI-Cola" Chief cells of stomach produce pepsinMnemonic07/30/19 1:31 PM
807367GastrointestinalPhysiologyCarbohydrate absorptionnot neededAll are t(2)ransported to blood by GLUT 2 .( Highlight "t" and "2")Mnemonic12/30/18 7:24 AM
808367GastrointestinalPhysiologyCarbohydrate absorptionNot needed.'Fructose' is spelt as 'Frutose' in the diagram of the enterocyte.Spelling/formatting02/10/19 8:21 AM
809367GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal secretory productshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10433005ECL cells are illustrated outside the stomach diagram and it gives the impression that they are not found in the stomach, when in fact, they are.Minor erratum02/06/19 11:05 AM
810367GastrointestinalPhysiologyPancreatic secretionsMnemonicThe only pancreatic enzyme that does not require cleavage/activation by trypsin is ɑ-amylase because “ɑ-amylase is ɑlways active” (or “ɑlready active”). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 8:34 PM
811367GastrointestinalPhysiologyPancreatic secretionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54127/Pointing out just amylase as being secreted in its active form may mislead students into thinking it's unique; lipase is also secreted as a non-zymogen, and is unacknowledged as in in the notes right below amylase. (DNase and RNase are also active).Clarification to current text07/30/19 7:51 PM
812370GastrointestinalPathologySalivary gland tumorshttps://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/cranial-nerve-disorders/trigeminal-neuralgiaIt currently says "CN VII signs (ie, facial paralysis or pain) suggest malignant involvement". However, CN VII only innervates facial muscles and all sensation from the face is from CN V.Minor erratum06/25/19 2:16 PM
813371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesNoneThe 'New image' annotation box was left in next to the picture of pseudomembrane, on the bottom of the page. It is a yellow box in the margin. Just a formatting error, I don't believe this was supposed to be left in.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:53 PM
814371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesFirst AidPlumber DIES instead of Plumbers DIE. The S for increase risk for "S"quamous cell carcinoma.Mnemonic01/11/19 10:47 AM
815371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesFirst Aid 2018Boerhaave Syndrome along with its description is completely missing from the 2019 edition. It is indexed correctly but seems to be deleted.Major erratum01/30/19 8:41 PM
816371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2639970/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5387146/GERD does not show signs of dysphagia. Signs of dysphagia only appears when the patient has progressed to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as they also show signs of weight loss. I think this point should be stated clearly, as it can help students differentiate if a patient has GERD or cancer based on presentationMajor erratum02/04/19 1:28 PM
817371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesMnemonicTo remember that Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural esophageal rupture caused by excessive vomiting, think of it like all those episodes of vomiting have bored a hole through the esophagus and into the mediastinum; like miners drill boreholes into the wall of a cave or mine shaft.Mnemonic02/08/19 7:14 AM
818371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/eosinophilic-esophagitis-eoe-genetics-and-immunopathogenesis?search=eosinophilic%20esophagitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=4For eosinophilic esophagitis, it is now known that many patients will respond to PPIs (it is not necessarily "typical"), From UpToDate: It is now appreciated that a substantial number of patients with esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, an entity that is now referred to as PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE)Minor erratum03/08/19 5:28 AM
819372GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal cancerhttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114594/Plummer-Vinson-syndromeRisk factors for squamous cell carcinoma: add Plummer Vinson Syndrome (PVS is associated with an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus)High-yield addition to next year06/10/19 7:19 PM
820373GastrointestinalPathologyGastric cancerMnemonicKrukenberg tumors are metastases to the ovaries from gastric adenocarcinoma. There are two more common metastases (Virschow- supraclavicular node, Sister Mary Joseph- periumbilical metastases) and the locations are difficult to remember along with the names. If you remember "Krack the Eggs" then it helps to remember that Krukenberg tumor is a metastasis to the ovaries as eggs are made in the ovaries.Mnemonic02/07/19 10:20 AM
821373GastrointestinalPathologyGastritisn/aCURling ulcer = “BURNt by high CURrent”Mnemonic07/10/19 8:28 PM
822373GastrointestinalPathologyMénétrier diseaseNot neededFor -Men-etrier think mens (Latin for mind) —> brain —> brain-looking stomachMnemonic02/02/19 11:43 AM
823373GastrointestinalPathologyMénétrier diseasementerier disease increase overproduction of TGF-a https://www.gastrojournal.org/article/0016-5085(92)91455-D/pdfmenterier disease increase overproduction of TGF-aClarification to current text05/15/19 5:10 PM
824374GastrointestinalPathologyPeptic ulcer diseasehttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/smallbowelbrunnersgland.htmlDuodenal ulcers are associated with Brunner gland hyperPLASIA NOT hyperTROPHY.Major erratum02/16/19 10:57 AM
825374GastrointestinalPathologyUlcer complicationsmnemonic, FA 19 9. 374*a*nterior ulcer--> *a*ir in *a*bdomen... *p*osterior ulcer --> bleeding from *g*astro*d*uodenal artery *p*ray to *g*-*d* (** indicates highlight in red)Mnemonic04/24/19 3:05 PM
826375GastrointestinalPathologyBugs causing diarrheahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/whipples-disease?search=whipple%20disease&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~71&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H6Add "S" for steatorrhea to the current mnemonic "PAS the foamy Whipped cream in a CAN". So the revision will read "PAS the foamy Whipped cream in CANS". This change will help students remember another important symptom due to the pathophysiology of Whipple disease.Mnemonic08/24/19 2:36 PM
827375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesPathoma (‎Fundamentals of Pathology) 2016mucosal absorption affects the jejunum (duodenum is less commonly involved)Minor erratum02/01/19 9:23 PM
828375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesMnemonicABCDE mnemonic for celiac disease: Ig”A” antibodies destroy intestinal “B”illi (villi) to cause “C”eliac disease. “D”uodenum is most commonly affected. May lead to “E”ATL.Mnemonic02/08/19 12:54 PM
829375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesMnemonicTo remember what celiac disease is and that is it associated with HLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8: "People with CELIAC disease H8 2 eat GLUTEN"Mnemonic02/26/19 6:26 PM
830375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromeshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parts-per_notationPPM stand for parts per million. It should be added on the abbreviations at the end of the book.Spelling/formatting05/15/19 5:17 PM
831376GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseaseshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.med.nyu.edu/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-adults?search=ulcerative%20colitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1844647392In comparing UC and Crohns, the text says aphthous ulcers are found in both diseases. But we were taught (and UptoDate seems to confirm) that aphthous ulcers are only seen in Crohn's disease.Minor erratum03/05/19 9:06 PM
832376GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesN/ACrohn (1 word)= Th1 mediated vs Ulcerative Colitis (2 words)= Th2 mediatedMnemonic03/09/19 9:20 PM
833376GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesContent directly from FA 2019 (p. 376)Extraintestinal manifestations of IBD: (ARE U IBD?) A - arthritis (ankylosing spondylitis, sacroilitis, migratory polyarthritis) R - rash (erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum) E - eye (uveitis, episcleritis) U - ulcers (aphthous)Mnemonic03/20/19 9:58 AM
834377GastrointestinalPathologyAppendicitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=SURG%2F115333&topicKey=SURG%2F1383&search=appendicitis&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150Treatment for appendicitis is only listed as appendectomy. However, treatment for appendicitis has now been shown to include either appednectomy ORMajor erratum02/11/19 10:15 AM
835377GastrointestinalPathologyAppendicitishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499946/add "Y.enterocolitica infection" in parentheses after "pseudoappendicitis"Clarification to current text09/04/19 3:42 PM
836378GastrointestinalPathologyHirschsprung diseasehttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1319.htmlrectal suction biopsy (Submucosa). writing submucosa between 2 brackes at the end !Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:22 PM
837379GastrointestinalPathologyIntussusceptionUworld question, https://step1.medbullets.com/gastrointestinal/110050/intussusception,Treatment should be added to Intussuseption- Barium enema is diagnostic/therapeutic and surgical intervention is mandated if intussusception does not resolve with enemaHigh-yield addition to next year03/10/19 12:43 PM
838380GastrointestinalPathologyOther intestinal disordershttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200209123471122 https://academic.oup.com/ageing/article/38/3/267/16387acquired type IIA von Willebrand's syndrome + Aortic Stenosis patients ⇒ Angiodysplasias bleed = Heyde's Syndrome. Stenotic/calcified valve makes vWF multimer uncoil and cleaved by ADAMTS13. Got a UW q from this mechanism.High-yield addition to next year03/21/19 2:02 AM
839380GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulusFirst Aid versions 2018, 2019, and this NCBI article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2780196/.Mnemonic suggestion: Midgut volvulus more common in infants/children (Midgut=Minors); Sigmoid volvulus more common in elderly (Sigmoid=Seniors)Mnemonic01/16/19 6:52 PM
840381GastrointestinalPathologyColonic polypshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/175377-overview#a4Familial adenomatous polyps- should be 5q21Minor erratum04/08/19 10:35 AM
841381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesIt's Mnemonic*P*eutz-Jeghers syndrome ----> hyper*p*igmented .\highlight "P".Mnemonic01/11/19 11:19 AM
842381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peutz-jeghers-syndrome-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=peutz%20jeghers%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2Gene mutations associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: STK11High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:33 PM
843381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/molecular-genetics-of-colorectal-cancer?search=apc%20mutation&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Autosomal dominant mutation of APC tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 5q21, NOT 5q22Major erratum06/04/19 9:33 PM
844381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesSelf.Gardner Syndrome = FAP + JAW Tumors = eat food from the GARDEN (Gardner)Mnemonic08/01/19 5:49 PM
845381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesno neededGardner syndrome, mnemonic: "GARDen in FOREST". GARDen for Gardner syndrome, FOREST for F: familial adenomatous polyposis O: osseous/soft tissue tumors RE: Retinal epithelium hypertrophy ST: supernumerary teethMnemonic08/26/19 8:07 PM
846382GastrointestinalNeoplasiaColorectal cancerUworldClostridum septicum is associated with colonic malignancy and can lead to spontaneous gas gangrene, rapid-onset muscle pain, fever, hemorrhagic bull with dusky surrounding skin, and tissue crepitusHigh-yield addition to next year04/24/19 9:45 AM
847382GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromeuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=lynch%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~99&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H345552210Gene mutations associated with Lynch syndrome: MSH2/6, MLH1High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:25 PM
848382GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromeN/a (Just a mnemonic, not stating any new facts)I think of this is as: you CLOSE the genes involved in DNA mismatch repair, where CLOSE is an acronym standing for: (C)olorectal, (L)ynch Syndrome, (O)varian, (S)kin, and (E)ndometrial cancer.Mnemonic02/17/19 9:09 AM
849383GastrointestinalPathologyCirrhosis and portal hypertensionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/185856-overviewCirrhosis increases estrogen effects (which is the cause of gynecomastia, palmar erythema, testicular atrophy and impotence)High-yield addition to next year02/25/19 9:59 AM
850383GastrointestinalPathologyColorectal cancerN/AText is written as: "Chromosomal instability pathway: mutations in APC cause FAP and most sporadic CRC (via adenoma-carcinoma sequence; (firing order of events is “AK-53”)." - there should be no start parenthesis before "via"!Spelling/formatting04/20/19 2:45 PM
851383GastrointestinalPathologyMolecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancernaafter CRC on the 1st line, there is open parentheses before via, but there os no closing of parenthesesSpelling/formatting06/12/19 6:33 PM
852384GastrointestinalPathologyCirrhosis and portal hypertensionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2697093/it states that spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is caused by AEROBIC organisms (such as E.COLI and KLEBSIELLA); however, these bacteria are ANAEROBICMinor erratum03/31/19 3:27 PM
853386GastrointestinalPathologyHepatocellular carcinoma/hepatomahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7694895Polycythemia is just listed as a finding of HCC, while the other findings can be inferred based on the decreased function of the liver, polycythemia is not. It should be added that the proposed mechanism is increased EPO from the malignant cells (also referred to in PCV section in secondary causes).High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 1:44 PM
854386GastrointestinalPathologyOther liver tumorsUWorldPer UWorld, cavernous hemangiomas are described as "abnormally dilated capillaries separated by thin connective tissue septa" and can occur in both the liver and brain.High-yield addition to next year02/05/19 5:21 PM
855386GastrointestinalPathologyOther liver tumorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24707153 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689692Transcription factor ERG is a specific and sensitive diagnostic marker for hepatic angiosarcoma, but it can express CD 31 as well.Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:32 PM
856386GastrointestinalPathologyOther liver tumorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728840/ https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=hepatoblastoma-90-P02728i think it would be better if you write something about Hematoblastoma.Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:36 PM
857387GastrointestinalPathologyJaundicemnemonic, FA 19 p. 387Indirect bilirubin elevated in *h*emolysis, *C*rigler-Najjar, *G*ilbert, *neonatal* jaundice // *hCG* elevated before having a "neonate* (everything in ** to be highlighted in red)Mnemonic04/17/19 1:30 PM
858388GastrointestinalPathologyHereditary hyperbilirubinemiasn/aDR = DiRect hyperbilirubinemia Dubin Johnson and Rotor syndrome.Mnemonic07/10/19 8:29 PM
859389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseRobbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease ninth edition , page 858 , table 18 - 11- Most common autoimmune association with Primary biliary cholangitis is Sjogren syndromeHigh-yield addition to next year01/23/19 2:43 PM
860389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseasebrainprimary (S)clerosing cholangitis (= Sperm for Men) // primary (B)iliary cholangitis (= Breasts for Women) .|| only way I can differentiate the twoMnemonic01/31/19 8:26 AM
861389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseRobbins Basic Pathology 10th Page 664 https://books.google.jo/books?id=YYZMDgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA664&ots=YixrI4sZvu&dq=Interlobular%20bile%20ducts%20are%20actively%20destroyed%20by%20lymphoplasmacyticinflammation%20with%20or%20without%20granulomas(the%20florid%20duct%20lesion)&pg=PA665#v=onepage&q&f=falsePrimary Biliary Cholangitis can be with or without granulomas so it should be ± instead of +Minor erratum05/08/19 6:37 PM
862389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseasehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2087891-overview & https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/467020 & https://www.medscape.com/answers/187001-69452/what-ggt-levels-suggest-biliary-obstruction"May present with pruritus, jaundice dark urine, light-colored stool, hepatosplenomegaly. Typically with cholestatic pattern of LFTs ( increase conjugate bilirrubin, increase cholesterol, increase ALP", increase GGT).Minor erratum07/30/19 5:34 PM
863389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/177216-differentialHemochromatosis is associated with increased susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio vulnificus and Yersinia enterolitica infections.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 6:00 PM
864389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisMnemonicTo remember that Prussian blue stains iron deposits, imagine a Russian weightlifter turning blue while “pumping iron”. (Also may be applied to the “Sideroblastic Anemia” section on pg. 411). Colored image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 11:05 PM
865389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnot neededcurrently H"FE" is highlighted in red to reflect "iron", but down the road this can be forgotten especially with too many genes to memorize as you study the book. I suggest changing it to; HFE stands for human “Ferrous Enterocytes” and by that you remember that the problem with intestinal enterocytes absorbing Fe!Mnemonic03/01/19 6:13 PM
866389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnot neededmedications: deFERasirox, deFERoxamine, deFERiprone for ferrous, is for FeMnemonic03/01/19 6:13 PM
867389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnone neededHemochromatoSIX as a reminder that the mutation is located on chromosome 6.Mnemonic03/17/19 2:35 PM
868389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisFirst Aid 2019It is mentioned in the text that " C282Y mutation > H63D mutation on HFE gene" it is not clear that the both mutations occurs in HFE geneClarification to current text03/22/19 1:33 PM
869389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosis--HFE gene location mnemonic : hemochromatoSIX (chromosome 6)Mnemonic04/07/19 7:35 PM
870389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12547214Hemochromatosis increase dmt 1 expressionHigh-yield addition to next year05/15/19 5:40 PM
871389GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseMnemonicTo remember Wilson Disease results from impaired copper transport/excessive deposition, picture 28th U.S. President Woodrow Wilson on the penny. Image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 11:33 PM
872390GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/gallstones-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-prevention?search=tpn%20gallstone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2608614826TPN is mainly a risk factor for cholesterol stones not pigment stonesMinor erratum02/09/19 8:57 AM
873390GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasisHarrison Principles of Internal Medicine 20th editionCholesterol stones account for >90% of stones indicated by Harrison. FA book has 80%.Clarification to current text04/30/19 10:55 AM
874392GastrointestinalPharmacologyHistamine-2 blockershttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00455The mnemonic currently is "table for 2" because H2 blockers have "dine" in it and block H2 receptors. The issue is that Loratadine and Terfenadine also have "dine" in it and are H1 blockers. I would suggest just changing it to include the "idine" to add accuracy. So the new mnemonic can be "I dine with H2o" because most of us do have water when we eat or "I dine at 2" which is a bit weird since 2 is a weird time to eat. Either way, you get the drift.Mnemonic01/17/19 11:38 AM
875393GastrointestinalPharmacologyAntacidsN/AI suggest changing Mg2+ = Must go to the bathroom -> Mg2+ Must go 2 the bathroom. It will help remember Mg2+ because the mnemonic now has a 2 in it correlating to the 2+ in Mg2+. Thank you for the consideration.Mnemonic03/19/19 3:00 PM
876394GastrointestinalPharmacologyDrug nameshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/alosetron-drug-information?search=alosetron&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~10&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Alosetron, sold under the brand name Lotronex among others, is a 5-HT3 antagonist used for the management of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)High-yield addition to next year07/31/19 8:17 PM
877394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativesN/ASenna turns the colon black like Henna (melanosis coli). Colonoscopy pictures of melanosis coli actually look strangely like they are coated with Henna!Mnemonic02/18/19 1:58 AM
878394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativesNone neededSENNa - Stimulate ENteric NervesMnemonic05/16/19 3:06 AM
879394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-adults#H230371755-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 4 receptor agonists - TegaserodHigh-yield addition to next year07/31/19 7:59 PM
880394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-adults#H23037175Guanylate cyclase agonists — Linaclotide and plecanatide are guanylate cyclase agonists that stimulates intestinal fluid secretion and transitClarification to current text07/31/19 8:01 PM
881394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-adults#H23037175Lubiprostone — Lubiprostone is a locally acting chloride channel activator that enhances chloride-rich intestinal fluid secretionClarification to current text07/31/19 8:02 PM
882394GastrointestinalPharmacologyProton pump inhibitors*Loren Laine. Gastrointestinal Bleeding. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 19th edition. McGraw-Hill Education, 2015. pp. 276 – 279. *Jeffery A. Baker. Gastrointestinal Bleeding. In: Clinical Emergency Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. pp.128- 130. * C. Prakash Gyawali and Amit Patel. Gastrointestinal Bleeding. In: Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics 34th edition. Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 2014. Pp. 620-626. *NEJM 2016; 374: 2367Proton Pump Inhibitors are used for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding. It is an important clinical use and should be taken into account to be added to the next First Aid edition.High-yield addition to next year07/20/19 7:14 PM
883395Hematology and OncologyIndexHematopoiesisN/AAnatomy is said to be in page 400 when it starts in page 398Spelling/formatting04/22/19 7:06 AM
884396Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemoglobinFirst Aid 2019Hemoglobin HbA2 (alpha2,Delta2), we can memorize Delta by the Decreased (D) number of this Hb (because it’s little in blood)Mnemonic05/09/19 10:02 AM
885397Hematology and OncologyPathologyBlood groupshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/red-blood-cell-antigens-and-antibodies?search=Red%20blood%20cell%20antigens%20and%20antibodies&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the table , row “Antibodies in plasma” , column “Rh-“ , replace the image of the anti-D igG with None. In fact the Anti-D igG is an immune antibody and not a natural antibody like anti-ABO antibodies. It’s clearly stated in the paragraph “Rh antibodies” of the UpToDate article “Red blood cell antigens and antibodies”.Major erratum01/23/19 4:57 AM
886397Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_systemAnti-A and anti-B antidodies that RBC Type O are most likly IgG and not IgM as the text picture indicatesMinor erratum02/23/19 5:00 PM
887397Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemolytic disease of the newbornnot neededType O mother; typer A or B fetus. To add Type AB fetus tooMajor erratum03/01/19 6:19 PM
888398Hematology and OncologyAnatomyHematopoiesishttps://books.google.com/books?id=zolYg-SsVhQC&pg=PA358&lpg=PA358&dq=myeloblast+lineage&source=bl&ots=pLKZqP70bt&sig=ACfU3U3TlfSFnczw3ff4w0zIiK-MBtBrXg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipmuHE-PzgAhUHP6wKHQ6LCAcQ6AEwFnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=myeloblast%20lineage&f=falseMost people use BEN (basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil) to remember myleoblast lineage - next year's book can list the cells in that order, and add the mnemonic!Mnemonic03/12/19 10:45 AM
889399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388527It mentions that Langerhans cells are macrophages derivatives. Whereas in old first aid (2016) and on uworld it says that Langerhans cells are dendritic cells.Major erratum01/14/19 6:37 PM
890399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)14323-1/fulltextChange Langerhans cells to Langhans cell. Langhans cells is a are large cells found in granulomatous conditions. They are formed by the fusion of epithelioid cells (macrophages), and this cells is different than langeRhans cells, which are mononuclear epidermal dendritic cells derived (like Langhans cells) from monocytes.Major erratum01/30/19 12:10 PM
891399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16405098to add "Langhans cells" when describing granuloma formation, and to remind not to mix it with "Langerhans" dendritic cells in skinHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:57 PM
892399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)not neededplatelet factor *f*our (4) \suggest writing "four" and highlight *f* or highlight *4* to match mnemonic.Mnemonic12/31/18 2:30 PM
893399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)N/AThink DenCe granules ( aDp, Ca )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:31 AM
894399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)First Aid 2019Dense granules (delta in some books) => (these dense granules are in the SAC) => (Serotonin, ADP, Calcium),,, the delta symbol is already a sac shapeMnemonic05/10/19 10:04 PM
895400Hematology and OncologyAnatomyEosinophilshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/embolism-from-atherosclerotic-plaque-atheroembolism-cholesterol-crystal-embolism PS* photo attached is from Pocket Medicine, 6thCholesterol emboli syndrome is a cause of eosinophilia. Add to one of the causes and add to the mnemonic: PACCCMANHigh-yield addition to next year02/08/19 11:59 PM
896402Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresismy brainCan Santa Fly Around the world ?Mnemonic02/03/19 2:33 PM
897402Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresisFirst Aid 2019We can memorize the sequence of the electrophoresis (A-F-S-C) by the first litters of the phrase: (Abnormally Folded Sickle Cell)Mnemonic05/09/19 10:15 AM
898402Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresisjust a clarificationunder the Diagram the label should state something like "normal HbA consisting of alpha2beta2" oder similar. because like this there could be a lot of confusion (at least for me) if Point A is just labeled with "normal beta chain"...Clarification to current text06/07/19 9:24 AM
899403Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyThrombogenesisuptodate.com, UWorldadd Desmopressin activate release of vWF from endothelial cellsHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:01 PM
900404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hemostasis?search=hmwk&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~17&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Add HMWK = High-molecular-weight kininogen to the image captionClarification to current text01/02/19 12:29 PM
901404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/bloodjournal/100/3/743.full.pdf?sso-checked=trueFactor XIII requires calcium to convert to XIIIa.Minor erratum01/11/19 7:13 AM
902404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysUWORLD question banksFor Fibrinolytic system: to add the following thrombolytics (Urokinase, Kallikerin, Hageman faxtor XII), also both tPA and Urokinase are inhibited by PAI( Plasminogen activator inhibitor). Also the following are direct PLASMIN inhibitors (Tranexamic Acid, Aprotinin, alpha 2 microglobulin, alpha 2 atitrypsin)High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:59 PM
903404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906870under anti IIa (tmrombin) meds box: it say heparin (greatest efficacy). Actually there is obvious conflict in literature regarding the effictivness of H vs LMWH and the general sense is that there is no superiority in effectivness of one over the other although many practitioners claim that LMWH is more effective than Heparin. LMWH is associated with less HIT. I recommend removing "Greatest Efficay"Major erratum03/01/19 6:10 PM
904404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysn/aI remember that Hemophilia B is aka as Christmas disease and is due to factor IX deficiency, by the mnemonic "NINE Before CHRISTMAS" = factor NINE, hemophilia B, CHRISTMAS diseaseMnemonic03/04/19 1:08 PM
905404Hematology and OncologyAnatomy and PhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123822192006384activated Factor XII converts prekallikrein to kallikrein. this should be included on the graphic since elevated PTT implies Kallikrein could be affected and the bradykinin activation thus might be impaired.High-yield addition to next year04/19/19 11:31 PM
906405Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulation componentshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19141161The inactive vitamin K dependent coagulation factors are listed as II, VII, IX, C, S. Factor X was neglected. It is, however, listed as a mature, carboxylated factor.Minor erratum01/04/19 11:15 AM
907405Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulation componentsFa 2017Factor 10 should be included for the inactive stateMinor erratum02/22/19 10:15 AM
908406Hematology and OncologyPathologyPathologic RBC formshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/acanthocytein Acanthocytes can you add in Notes section Spikes are irregular,Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:46 PM
909406Hematology and OncologyPathologyPathologic RBC formsn/aIn the END, you are either BURRied or, burnt in a PYRE. So LIVE as you can! BURR cells – END stage renal disease, PYRuvate Kinase Deficiency, LIVEr disease.Mnemonic07/08/19 4:55 PM
910407Hematology and OncologyPathologyPathologic RBC formshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18285271 https://www.labce.com/spg28881_target_cells_continued.aspxin Iron deficiency anemia you can see Target cells as well.Minor erratum05/15/19 5:53 PM
911408Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaInformation taken from First AidBurkitt Lymphoma, a t(8:14) of C-myc with a starry sky appearance. "At 8:14pm look up and SEE(c-myc) the STARRY SKY"Mnemonic02/07/19 3:45 PM
912409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/780334-overview ; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2086146-overviewConsider adding "acute blood loss" to the graphic depicting the differential diagnosis of anemia. Acute blood loss typically presents as a normocytic anemia with an elevated reticulocyte index. This addition should be considered since acute blood loss is stated as "the most common cause of acute anemia seen in the emergency department (ED)" in Medscape. Links provided in the "supporting references" section.High-yield addition to next year01/04/19 6:42 PM
913409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-adult-with-anemia?search=Approach%20to%20the%20adult%20with%20anemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In normocytic hemolytic anemia, the bone marrow response is usually normal so the reticulocyte index is > 3% and not > 2% according to the UpToDate article “Approach to the adult with anemia”, paragraph “decrease in effective red cell production”, line 4. So In the diagram, under “hemolytic”, replace reticulocyte index > 2% with > 3%.Minor erratum01/23/19 4:28 AM
914409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hereditary-spherocytosis?search=hereditary%20spherocytosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~87&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1623571274'Hereditary Spherocytosis' is listed as an Intrinsic (Intravascular) Hemolytic, Normocytic Anemia. I believe it is more properly categorized as an 'Extrinsic' (Extravascular) Hemolytic, Normocytic Anemia. While progressive cell membrane loss does impair RBC ability to traverse microcirculation, the spleen is where the ultimate destruction (phagocytosis) of the Spherocytes takes place.Minor erratum02/19/19 3:27 PM
915409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasFA 2017Sideroblastic Anemia is not included among Microcytic Anemias in the chartMinor erratum02/22/19 12:12 PM
916409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/sideroblastic-anemias-diagnosis-and-management?search=sideroblastic%20anemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~102&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1524133059In the "Anemias" flow chart, under "Microcytic (MCV<80 fL), Hemoglobin-affected (TAIL)" section, sideroblastic anemia should be included under "Defective Heme Synthesis". The mnemonic, "TAIL," should subsequently be changed to "TAILS".Minor erratum05/05/19 11:57 PM
917409Hematology and OncologyAnatomy and PhysiologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasNone needed.Consider adding "S" to the mnemonic TAIL (TAILS), under microcytic anemia, and include Sideroblastic anemia.Mnemonic06/26/19 3:22 PM
918410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Alpha thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 16High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:31 AM
919410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Beta thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 11High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:32 AM
920410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202333-overview#showall (as well as Pathoma [2018] pg. 42 . Dr. Husain Sattar)Hookworms (namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator Americanus) cause Iron Deficiency AnemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:41 PM
921410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasFirst Aid 2019We can corrlate (CiS with aSian) & (tRaNs with afRicaN)Mnemonic05/09/19 10:21 AM
922411Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hereditary-spherocytosisHereditary Spherocytosis has increased risk for pigmented gallstonesHigh-yield addition to next year05/22/19 10:27 AM
923411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasN/AExposure risk in Lead Poisoning should include exposure to batteries (like workers in a factory), or exposure to ammunition. Both of these exposure risks are included in the Lead Poisoning section on page 417.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:38 PM
924411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasDr. Sattar's PathomaClarify the increase in RBC protoporphyrin for lead poisoning as inhibited ALAD should lead to a decrease (hence why lead poisoning can lead to a sideroblastic anemiaClarification to current text01/06/19 5:57 PM
925412Hematology and OncologyPathologyMacrocytic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459295/some drugs that causes Nonmegaloblastic anemia: 5-Fluorouracil, Zidovudine , HydroxyuriaHigh-yield addition to next year05/15/19 6:11 PM
926412Hematology and OncologyPathologyMacrocytic anemiasNADiamond Blackfan anemia: a fan has three wings triphalangeal thumbMnemonic05/26/19 6:57 AM
927413Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningmnemonicTo remember intermediates in heme synthesis and porphyrias: Pour Hot Ugandan Coffee Pronto (Porphobilinogen, Hydroxymethylbilane, uroporphyrinogen III, Coproporphyrinogen III, Protoporphyran)Mnemonic12/22/18 1:31 PM
928414Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206107-overviewUnder Intrinsic hemolytic anemias there is hereditary spherocytosis listed. Hereditary spherocytosis is an intrinsic defect in the RBC but it is an extravascular hemolytic anemia. I suggest moving hereditary spherocytosis to page 415 under extrinsic anemia.Minor erratum01/20/19 1:48 PM
929415Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://coldagglutinindisease.org/cold-agglutinin-disease/In cold agglutinin if you can add to RBC agglutinates (Clumping agglutination) , so that can be easy differentiated from anything that causes stacked coin agglutination.Clarification to current text05/15/19 5:59 PM
930416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studiesGoljan 4th edition page 295, Pathoma 2018 edition page 43For anemia of chronic disease the % transferrin saturation is decreased.Major erratum01/12/19 10:48 PM
931416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-and-diagnosis-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-adults?search=iron%20deficiency%20stages&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the table it’s indicated that the first disturbance of iron deficiency is decreased serum iron. In fact, the first disturbance of iron deficiency is low ferritin (iron stores) , so the down arrow next to ferritin should be in red and the one next to serum iron should be in black. It is clearly specified in the UpToDate article (Causes and diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in adults) in “Progressive Iron depletion” and illustrated in table 4.Minor erratum01/23/19 3:56 AM
932416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studiesMnemonicTo remember which iron storage molecule is exclusively intracellular and which is found in serum, remember that HemoSIDErin “Hides inSIDE” the cell, while FERRitin is FREE to Float in the serum. Color coded image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:51 PM
933417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningUpToDate: Porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis; https://www-uptodate-com.proxy1.lib.tju.edu/contents/porphyria-cutanea-tarda-and-hepatoerythropoietic-porphyria-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=porphyria%20cutanea%20tarda&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~58&usage_type=default&display_rank=1acquired not autosomal dominantMinor erratum01/17/19 7:56 AM
934417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/heme-porphyrin.php#synthesisleaD poisoning= ALA(D) deficiency. Vitamin B Six deficiency= ALA(S) deficiencyMnemonic02/07/19 2:26 AM
935417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningn/aTo remember the enzymes related to the two main porphyrias (PBG for AIP and UROD for PCT): It is INTERMITTENTLY necessary to Pull out the Big Guns. U were TARDy (tarda) becase U ROD the bus to stay out of the sun.Mnemonic02/22/19 2:12 PM
936417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningn/aPorphyria cutanea tarda = affected UROporphyrinogen decarboxylase “URO – enzyme down towards URINE” = Accumulated substance = UROporphyrin (tea colored urine)Mnemonic07/08/19 4:58 PM
937418Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersN/AHemophilia A is deficient in factor Aight ( 8 )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:29 AM
938418Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersNoneIt helped me establish a bond for memorizing these concepts more easily due to it's short and very practical: PTT (3 letters): IntrInsIc (3 I's) , PT (2 letters): extrInsIc (2 I's).Mnemonic07/24/19 11:16 AM
939418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoninghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215844/Replace "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary ) " to "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary hemochromatosis)".Clarification to current text01/04/19 1:45 PM
940418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoningnot neededIron (Ferrous) chalting agents: IV deFERoxamine, oral deFERasiroxMnemonic03/01/19 6:20 PM
941418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoninghttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/contents/approach-to-the-patient-with-suspected-iron-overload?search=iron%20overload&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under chronic causes of Iron poisoning, it lists "(eg, chronic blood transfusions for thalassemia or sickle cell disease) hemochromatosis." The close parenthesis should be removed, and a comma "and" should be added before hemochromatosis. Could also mention that "Chronic Iron Poisoning" is know as "Iron Overload" as well.Spelling/formatting03/20/19 7:37 PM
942418Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.medlib.uits.iu.edu/contents/epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-burkitt-lymphoma?search=burkitt%20lymphoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~74&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Burkitt Lymphoma - t(8;14) - translocation of c-myc (8) and heavy-chain Ig (14). "C-my-crush? We had our first kiss (EBV) when we were in 8th grade, at age 14."Mnemonic03/08/19 2:35 PM
943419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4989643/ as well as Dr. Hussien Satar (Pathoma)IgG against the platelet antigens (GpIIb/IIIa) can cross the placenta and cause a short-lived thrombocytopenia in the newbornHigh-yield addition to next year01/03/19 4:59 AM
944419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUWORLD, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/platelet-dysfunction-in-uremiaUremic Platelet Dysfunction: Excessive bleeding in patients with renal dysfunction due to accumulation of uremic toxins that impair platelet aggregation and adhesion. Increase BT with normal PC. Patients improve with dialysisHigh-yield addition to next year01/04/19 3:42 AM
945419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUptodate and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136592/Add in: "Treatment dependent on severity of thrombocytopenia; observation only for those with mild cases." Also note that ITP is most commonly caused by IgG against GPIIb/IIIa (there are other platelet glycoproteins that can be targeted resulting in ITP as well as T-cell/cell-mediated route opposed to just antibody mediated).Clarification to current text01/11/19 6:23 PM
946419Hematology and OncologyPathology