2019 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Su...
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134BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structureN/AHeterochromatin --> column 2 --> Barr bodies (INACTIVATED X chromosomes) - Not inactivate X chromosomesSpelling/formatting01/01/19 11:34 AM
235BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesFA 2019 Page 35Why (-1 ring ) is colored in red?Spelling/formatting01/06/19 5:33 AM
338BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonic"2 'sides' to every 1 coin ['can']" hint for Etoposide/teniposide inhibit TOP II and irinotecan/topotecan inhibit TOP I. This can also be placed on page 434Mnemonic01/09/19 6:30 AM
438BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicFlUORoquinolones inhibit TOP IV(4).Mnemonic01/12/19 7:15 AM
540BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238440Fanconi Anemia is given as example under "homologous recombination", it is actually an example of "Non-Homologous End Joining" repair mechanism.Minor erratum01/16/19 9:09 AM
642BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesIt's MnemonicActinomycin *D* (also known as *D*actinomycin) inhibits RNA polymerase in *D*ual (both) prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Mnemonic01/12/19 8:13 AM
747BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomenot neededZellweger syndrome: Renee Zellweger has WEAK PEX (hypotonia; PEX gene mutation) and SEIZES (seizures) big livers (hepatomegaly); Refsum disease: ALPHA (alpha-oxidation disorder) males are PHYTAN A LOT (buildup of phytanic acid) because the REF's SON (Refsum) made the team but is CLUMSY (ataxia) and CAN'T SEE (cataracts/night blindness); Adrenoleukodystrophy: ß-A-L-D for ß-oxidationMnemonic01/02/19 1:06 PM
847BiochemistryCellularCell traffickinghttps://www.uniprot.org/locations/SL-0075COPI transports from Golgi -> Endoplasmic Reticulum (currently says from Golgi -> Golgi)Minor erratum01/11/19 11:19 AM
951BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseIt's MnemonicMenkes protein (ATP7A ,vs ATP7B in Wilson) --->M precedes W and A precedes B alphabetically ,so " Menkes =ATP7A ,,Wilson =ATP7B".Mnemonic01/12/19 8:36 AM
1056BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/li-fraumeni-syndrome?search=li%20fraumeni&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~40&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Li-Fraumenia syndrome is listed as an example of loss of heterozygosity but more often functions as a dominant negative mutation as having one mutant allele creates 1/16th functional proteins in the final tetramer.Minor erratum01/08/19 9:02 AM
1157BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termswww.Uworld.comHeteroplasmy definition: It says ".....resulting in variable expression in mitochondrially inherited disease"............. UWorld says "Variable Expression is not a feature of Mitochondrial diseases" in QID: 596 Choice D, last line.Major erratum01/12/19 8:06 PM
1260BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB08820Indication for Ivacaftor - not approved for patients with a Phe508 deletion UNLESS it's given in combination with lumacaftor. Indicated as monotherapy for other CF mutations, most notably, G551D, where the number of CFTRs is fine, but they just don't open enough.Clarification to current text12/27/18 6:39 PM
1363BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesGenetics: Glossary of terms - UpToDateNondisjunction in meiosis illustration: Replacing the words "Trisomy" with "Heterodisomy" and "Isodisomy" as specified in the attachment.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:41 AM
1464BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromeIt's Mnemonic*Cri du* - CHat =*5 letters * - CHromosome 5Mnemonic01/11/19 10:58 AM
1565BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: water solubleMy brainProposed mnemonic for sorting B vitamins in order. TRN-PPB-FC "The RN - Placed Patient Bobs - Foley Catheter" Where there is a dash, the number skips. This covered B1-12 in order. I made this and have found it useful to keep the numbers straight with the names of the B vitamins.Mnemonic01/05/19 11:56 AM
1667BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-gout?search=podagra&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Podagra is not an excess of vitamin B3. Podagra is a manifestation of gout, literally meaning "painful toe." The book implies that an excess of B3 is called podagra, in parallel to how a deficiency of B3 causes pellagra. Rather, an excess of B3 can increase the risk of podagra (gout).Clarification to current text12/24/18 12:41 PM
1770BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonic*E*xcess of Vitamin *E* increases risk of *E*nterocolitis in *E*nfants (infants).\ Highlight in red letter "E".Mnemonic01/11/19 7:50 AM
1870BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonicvitamin *E* ---> High-dose supplementation may alter metabolism of vitamin K : *E*nhanced anticoagulant effects of warfarin.Mnemonic01/11/19 7:58 AM
1976BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexYou know thisI have a better way for remembering the 5 cofactors (please see the attached picture). “The FAmous Nerds Like CoenzymeA” goes in order (B1 thiamine pyrophosphate, B2 FAD riboflavin, B3 NAD niacin, Lipoic acid (and the L can be seen in part of the strokes for the number “4”), B5 CoA pantothenic acidMnemonic01/12/19 1:27 PM
2078BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's Mnemonicthermogenin in b*r*own fat (has mo*r*e mitochondria than white fat).Mnemonic01/11/19 8:09 AM
2178BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's MnemonicN*O* ATP is produced because electron transport st*O*ps ----> *O*ligomycinMnemonic01/11/19 8:15 AM
2285BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen regulation by insulin and glucagon/epinephrinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5195864/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase_kinaseGlycogen phosphorylase kinase has calmodulin as one of its subunits. Therefore calcium binds directly to the enzyme and activates it. Furthermore, calcium is released from the endoplasmic reticulum in both muscle contraction and a1 receptor stimulation. This relationship can be summarized with the following arrows: Muscle contraction or a1 receptor stimulation -> Ca2+ (from endoplasmic reticulum) -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase (has calmodulin subunit). In the current graph in the book, the following sequence of arrows “calcium released from the endoplasmic reticulum -> Ca2+-calmodulin complex -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase” is conceptually wrong and unnecessary, as it is already shown with an arrow that calcium directly activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase.Major erratum01/07/19 1:45 AM
2386BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiGlycogen debrancher is an enzyme with two catalytic activities (as already stated in the text). Cori disease is caused by congenital deficiency of glycogen debrancher, therefore none of these catalytic activities would occur. Thus, both steps 5 & 6 are inhibited (not only step 6).Major erratum01/07/19 1:51 AM
2486BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dextrin. "Depolymerization of glycogen by phosphorylase halts when glycogen branches have been reduced to two to four linked glucose molecules (limit dextrins). Glycogen debrancher enzyme has two catalytic activities. One is the cleavage of a dextrin branch from the remaining glycogen molecule (amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity). The other is the transfer of the dextrin to the free end of a dextran polymer (oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase activity). The transferred dextrin may then be further depolymerized by phosphorylase." 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiLimit dextrin refers to 2-4 residues, not 1-4. The smallest form of a dextrin is a disaccharide.Major erratum01/07/19 1:55 AM
2587BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. Already mentioned in the book on page 86, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiCori disease is caused by glycogen debrancher deficiency, which has two catalytic activites (not only a-1,6-glucosidase).Minor erratum01/07/19 1:59 AM
2687BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7864/glycogen-storage-disease-type-1a, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucose-6-phosphatase-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-i-von-gierke-disease, 3. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PEDS%2F54417Von Gierke disease refers to the most common subtype of glycogen storage disease type 1, termed 1A, that is caused by glucose-6-phoshatase deficiency. Type 1B is caused by G6P transporter deficiency and is NOT termed Von Gierke disease.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:01 AM
2788BiochemistryMiscellaneousLysosomal storage diseasesN/ATay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick both have 2 parts in their names just like Cherry-Red which is present in both of themMnemonic01/04/19 3:26 AM
2893BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.rosalindfranklin.edu/contents/image?imageKey=PC%2F112742&topicKey=PC%2F4560&search=hdl&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150Currently, it is listed that the B-100 apolipoprotein is only on particles originating from the liver. However, HDL is synthesized in the liver and doesn’t contain B-100 which would contradict this statement.Clarification to current text01/16/19 4:27 PM
2996ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodeNot neededReplace the term "Postcapillary venule" with "High endothelial venule" in the lymph node schematic. High endothelial venules are mentioned in the text but not in the schematic. This can lead to confusion.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:08 AM
3096ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1892634/Medulla consists of medullary cords (closely packed lymphocytes and plasma cells) must be changed to (closely packed B lymphocytes and plasma cells)Minor erratum01/07/19 1:56 PM
31100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis (there is a s*C*ale lession) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/05/19 2:53 PM
32100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29072309In psoriasis, add the specific HLA-C allele that is strongly associated with the disease. All people have HLA-C in their genome. The specific allele that is associated with psoriasis is HLA-Cw6.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:13 AM
33100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis(Psoriati*C*) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:18 PM
34105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-humoral-immune-responseMaternal IgG starts to wane by birth and is almost completely gone by 6 months of age. It does not "start to wane after 6 months". As it is stated on page 110, the half-life of preformed antibodies is around 3 weeks.Major erratum01/07/19 2:17 AM
35107ImmunologyPhysiologyComplement disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC15187/"decay-acclerating factor" should be replaced with "decay-accelerating factor"Spelling/formatting12/23/18 10:07 PM
36111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationIt's Mnemonic*in*activated vaccine = typhoid (V*i* polysaccharide, *in*tramuscular).Mnemonic01/05/19 3:28 PM
37114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206885-overview https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?csi=e6afcaee-c28c-4e19-ab8d-320cbfd6a359&source=contentShare&imageKey=HEME%2F94399 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/immunologic-transfusion-reactions?csi=cf86246a-4478-4dfa-8128-e266eefc2666&source=contentShareAllergic/anaphylactic transfusion reactions do NOT present with fever, contrary to what the "clinical presentation" column says.Minor erratum01/10/19 4:42 PM
38114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction often present as DIC; as intravascular hemolysis is one of the causes of DIC.High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 2:27 PM
39115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-hashimotos-thyroiditis-chronic-autoimmune-thyroiditisIn Hashimoto thyroiditis, antimicrosomal & antithyroid peroxidase refer to the same antibody. Put one of them in a parenthesis next to the other one so this becomes clear. The way it is currently written can lead somebody to falsely believe that they are different antibodies.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:19 AM
40115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-adultsIn celiac disease, anti-tissue transglutaminase could also be IgG. This is useful because the IgG autoantibodies are used for the diagnosis of celiac disease in selective IgA deficiency.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:21 AM
41116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesUSMLE-Rx (QID: 3718.10); https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1050956-treatmentTreatment: IVIG; bone marrow transplant is not curative (differentiation of B cells would still not occur).High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 5:32 PM
42116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesnot neededHighlight 22 in "22q11" to match mnemonic "CATCH-22".Spelling/formatting01/05/19 3:34 PM
43116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencies1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-diseases-specific-defects, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357480/I suggest renaming the IL-12 deficiency entry to Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD, mentioned on page 102 as well). IL-12 is the most common cause of MSMD (>50% of cases). Also list some other defects, especially INF-gamma receptor deficiency (seen it MULTIPLE times on different NBMEs and in UWorld).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:24 AM
44119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionN/AGVHD row, last column, line 9, the word "transfusion" is miss-spelled.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:12 AM
45121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical usesIt's MnemonicIFN-*β* --->Multiple sclerosis(demyelination of CNS (*B*rain and spinal cord)).\Highlight "β and letter B in Brain".Mnemonic01/02/19 2:08 PM
46122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodiesIt's MnemonicE is the 5th letter alphabetically -->Eculizumab Complement protein C*5* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:14 PM
47124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structuresNot needed.Last sentence in the second column which reads ‘Lipoteichoic acid (gram positive) only extend from membrane to exterior.’ should read ‘’Lipoteichoic acids (gram positive only) extend from membrane to exterior.’Spelling/formatting01/01/19 8:14 AM
48125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPleomorphic bacteriaMy brainCREAM does not have a shapeMnemonic01/12/19 6:50 PM
49126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmenmonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Charcoa*L* for *L*egione*ll*aMnemonic01/04/19 8:39 AM
50126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmnemonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Thayer-Marti*N*for *N*eisseria.Mnemonic01/04/19 8:40 AM
51128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsI made this mnemonic.SHE PLANS BC (of her) Cat... that is a mnemonic that is more helpful for the catalase + organisms because all the letters (SHE PLANS BC) are bacteria. The current one is okay and relates to cats but everyone I know says it is hard to remember and this one is easier.Mnemonic01/10/19 1:09 PM
52136MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStreptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci)https://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticMajor criteria for rheumatic fever: J-Joint involvement ♥-Carditis N-Nodules, subcutaneous E-Erythema marginatum S-Syndenham chorea Minor criteria for rheumatic fever: H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 5:56 PM
53137MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus anthracis1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-pathogenesis-and-epidemiology-of-anthrax, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4041834/Multiple newer sources state that the anthrax toxin is not a single exotoxin composed of three molecules. Bacillus anthracis produces two anthrax toxins (exotoxins), edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT), each of which consists of two subunits. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the edema factor (EF), it gives rise to the edema toxin. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the lethal factor (LF) it gives rise to the lethal toxin. So to summarize: LT = LF + PA, ET = EF + PA. Please correct this on page 132 (footnote) as well.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:39 AM
54138MicrobiologyToxicities and Side EffectsClostridiahttps://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093458?casa_token=ga1wCncZq4UAAAAA:6rU4x_nmFz-dAJ9q_iqIZOS1Ka0ezH43uV1IczlQ2Rihc7gqh_9WTsxvAaNCzuukflE2qSqiQDxygpJ-Toxin A was initially considered Enterotoxin and Toxin B as cytotoxin. However, consensus has changed in last 2-3 years. Both Toxin A as well as Toxin B have enterotoxicity.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:17 AM
55140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overviewMycobacterium tuberculosis DOES NOT stain with a gram stain. First Aid states that it is gram positive, this is falseMajor erratum01/09/19 2:35 AM
56141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1551&sectionid=94106931Enterobacteriaceae(E. coli, serrate, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter) are oxidate test negative. Of the bacilli given in table on page 141, only 'P'seudomonas is oxidase 'P'ositive.(both starting with P)High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 12:35 PM
57142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaeUWorld question id: 963 explanation; Koneman's Color Alas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology 6th ed, pg 446Haemophilus Influenzae can also be grown with S aureus, which provides factor V DIRECTLY, and provides FACTOR X via RBC hemolysis.Major erratum01/16/19 7:58 AM
58144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocoliticahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-infectionsI found this to be mentioned alot in USMLE stem questions ""Conditions associated with iron-overload such as chronic liver disease, hemochromatosis, and thalassemias have been associated with an increased risk of invasive yersiniosisHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 5:42 AM
59146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacterial taxonomyUWorldV vulnificus has some interesting properties that would be beneficial to have in First Aid: Vibrio vulnificus grows in brackish coastal water and marine environments. transmission primarily occurs due to consumption of raw seafood or wound contamination. Manifestations are often mild but individuals with liver disease or iron overload are at very high risk of severe, fulminant infection (eg sepsis, necrotizing faciitis). Free iron acts as an exponential growth catalyst for the bacteriumHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:06 AM
60148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVDRL false positiveshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312652/ and https://www.ama-assn.org/residents-students/usmle/heres-most-missed-usmle-test-prep-question-and-right-answer"Drugs" here is referring to specific types of drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, procainamide) or to IV drug users? I've found reference to both of them, I just need some clarificationClarification to current text12/27/18 10:49 PM
61159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxocariasis-visceral-and-ocular-larva-migrans 2. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30331-6/fulltextMost pts w/ Visceral larva migrans (T. canis) are asymptomatic. MC occurs in children and results in hepatitis and pneumonitis (if symptomatic). Hepatic sx - hepatomegaly or nodular lesions. Lung sx - dyspnea, wheezing, and a chronic nonproductive cough in 20-80% of pts. Ocular larva migrans is common. CNS and cardiac involvement are rare but are potentially life-threatening complications. So the text should be corrected as "Most often asymptomatic. If symptoms arise (particularly in children), most commonly occur in lung (pneumonitis), eye (visual impairment, blindness - "Ocular larva migrans"), liver (hepatomegaly, nodular lesions). Disease can rarely affect heart (myocarditis) and CNS (seizures, coma)"Minor erratum01/04/19 4:21 AM
62159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/loiasis/treatment.htmlLoa loa infection refractory to diethylcarbamazine may be treated with albendazole.High-yield addition to next year01/09/19 3:50 PM
63166MicrobiologyVirologyViral structure—general featureshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC112152/It is stated that CMV interacts with integrins such as heparan sulfate, but I believe this should be RSV. It has been recognized that the RSV G protein attaches to heparan sulfate on host cells.Minor erratum01/11/19 12:51 PM
64182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionsFA p. 182Go to IT to fix your PC (Intraventricular calcifications with Toxoplasmosis; Periventricular calcifications with Cytomegalovirus)Mnemonic12/28/18 11:11 AM
65183MicrobiologySystemsRed rashes of childhoodi have no hyperlinks, i came up with thatafter a Rad Party, CHug Milk and Sleep Vell ( Rubella virus , Parvovirus B19, Coxsackievirus type A, HHV-8, Measles virus, Strep. pyogenes, Vzv)Mnemonic12/25/18 1:44 PM
66184MicrobiologySystemsSexually transmitted infectionsN/AGranuloma inguinale --> The character "A" which cites the picture, has a different font compared to elsewhere in the book.Spelling/formatting12/29/18 3:32 AM
67188MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsPenicillinase-resistant penicillinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517843/Kindly add methicillin to the list of penicillase-resistant penicillinsHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 3:11 AM
68190MicrobiologyPharmacologyClostridiaUworldFidaxomicin is a macrocytic antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase and is bactericidal to C. difficile.High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 1:09 PM
69192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNot needed.For mechanism of resistance: Tetracyclines are treated as Trash by bacteria. You dont want to bring Trash inside (reduced uptake) you want to throw it out (increased efflux)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:51 AM
70196MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsRifamycinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rifamycins-rifampin-rifabutin-rifapentine/printCurrent text claims "Rifampin ramps up cytochrome P-450, but rifabutin does not." This is not true, as rifabutin is considered an inducer of CYP-450, although to a lesser extent than rifampin. I suggest the following rewrite: "Rifampin RAMPS up cytochrome P-450. So does Rifabutin, BUT less so."Minor erratum01/10/19 1:38 PM
71197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsEthambutolhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethambutol-an-overviewReplace "may be reversible" with "usually reversible". Optic neuritis is reversible in most patients.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:43 AM
72199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAmphotericin B1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacology-of-amphotericin-b, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis-in-hiv-infected-patientsReplace "Intrathecally for fungal meningitis" with "Intrathecally for coccidioidal meningitis". Intrathecal administration is not used for cryptococcal meningitis.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:45 AM
73199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyUWorld, UpToDateAzoles specifically blocks 14-alpha-demethylase (the cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol)Clarification to current text01/15/19 6:33 PM
74201MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDrug namesUpToDate Docosanol: Drug informationDocosanol is a topical agent that prevents viral entry and replication at the cellular level. It is used for orolabial herpesHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 6:00 PM
75203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot neededFor abacavir association with HLA-B*57:01, highlight AB in abacavir red and highlight the A-B in HLA-B*57:01 red for memory aidMnemonic12/22/18 1:52 PM
76203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot needed"miraviroCXX"; (CXX is roman numerals for 120, gp120)Mnemonic12/28/18 8:48 AM
77203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773846/Maraviroc is not a fusion inhibitor. It is a co-receptor binding inhibitor. Both fusion inhibitors and co-receptor binding inhibitors are considered ENTRY inhibitors. I recommend changing "Fusion inhibitors" with "Entry inhibitors". This also applies to the chart on page 201.Major erratum01/07/19 2:47 AM
78206PathologyPathologyCellular adaptationshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia; https://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/overview-of-benign-breast-diseaseAdd "BPH" as an exception to neoplastic potential of hyperplasia, and add "apocrine metaplasia of the breast" as an exception to neoplastic potential of metaplasia.High-yield addition to next year01/12/19 11:30 AM
79212PathologyPathologyAmyloidosishttps://watermark.silverchair.com/ajcpath108-0289.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAk0wggJJBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggI6MIICNgIBADCCAi8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMtlki02qZntdM7fHhAgEQgIICAKb0OCRLIttoA307SWFQyMWGFQoZqVdeyp0SkLJU_bBGQ1LsNYjblQkqprShv4Anu-BVtNaDFDb0rEbYMNMZXBtWrQDaA4M7c8yJnnw4foUc-bvHtLPYWVSVIC2Qh3PfD5EnrmDoXIXvTfGPHMM_J4sveANlPRx7tbznKpmhJR5k8_DeWhB77aU5zJVYBMbfbAxb-pC0mvK8IE68J81KaqBL6sUdXVfkrA29G3hFdi2LSLFJnrBw9IJ5eXtkcohaY7iCO5_U6tHizycQ6nPjk8FJIf13nexfkb_HL1YQ-MnPcpsgf5gwegWZQC59iJ6v9c8IVGi7q1dM9OGG7ePZJ09fVPlmJksMiE9Bz-dShJMh7FyzmJhUMd7HSwfkoB9X2_t1QjxJUKldo25HIUJrGbUvOMuoex97_F-_ZbBnv2GODQUnm-5J3_QwlCZLvQVulEJx9KiqvZrMn3ekybkZS0o9nNG8FNmOP62QnYUKeDCI2FTbQ9AUgIDjBeT5fhkRG0khUNeZo14hhMQqJAFMxni6KhS-W_Go6faMIsX6q6BTpOQDjbb4NTuNCtHgPC9KHPiWxV2izvxCKogPXbgAfa1V4sHICtoOHFr3DXWutRT4GFi5hVMjVIC7KY24T88bnaokEKP4xwWuKkIuhsd2B9fR-UZfh3JKoIpcBqK_HmtqCalcitonin amyloid is known as 'ACal' (There should be no space between 'A' and 'Cal')Spelling/formatting12/23/18 3:47 AM
80213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsNext to Fibrinogen, the addition of an "upwards" arrow before ESR would clarify the result of increased fibrinogen.Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:22 AM
81213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsThe addition of an arrow pointing upwards and ESR (*increases ESR*) would be helpful if placed next to "Positive (Upregulated)". Otherwise, it would be helpful if "*upwards arrow* Acute Phase Reactants" was placed on Page 214 next to Inflammation under "increased ESR".Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:25 AM
82223PathologyNeoplasiaCarcinogensN/A"Ionizing radiation" row --> please add "Blood" under organ column for "Leukemias"Minor erratum01/09/19 8:07 AM
83224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesFA 2019 Page 224remove highlight from these letters "ungs" in the word "Lungs" in the mnemonic(Painful Bones Kill The Lungs) , keep just "L" in red color.Spelling/formatting01/05/19 1:17 PM
84225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19462461JAK2 is a "Non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. This is clarified in case of BCR-ABL - that it is a "non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. However, JAK2 does not have this clarificationClarification to current text12/23/18 3:29 AM
85225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23059849/RET associated neoplasm is familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Many students think medullary carcinoma alone which is excluded here but a clarification to familial would helpHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 9:51 PM
86234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsPharmacokineticshttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharmUnder agonist with noncompetitive antagonist it states that this would lead to a decrease in potency and efficacy. However, the ED50 would be equal for agonist alone or agonist with noncompetitive antagonist therefore the potency should be unchanged.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:32 PM
87236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsTherapeutic indexFA 2019 Page 251suggest making *The* in "Theophylline " and in the word "These" in mnemonic , in red color , like mnemonic in page 251.Mnemonic01/05/19 2:08 PM
88238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-spontaneous-preterm-birthMention in the caption of the diagram in the bottom that Myosin light-chain kinase causes vascular smooth muscle contraction. Also in the diagram , next to myosin light-chain kinase(smooth muscle) , add an arrow that says "vasodilation of blood vessels".Clarification to current text01/02/19 1:52 PM
89241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinenot neededDUMBBELSS in p240 is changed to DUMBBeLSS, I wonder if there is some story behind and suggest making it more clear.Mnemonic01/10/19 3:56 AM
90244PharmacologyPharmacologyα-blockershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2417047/Under ‘α2 selective’ please add Clonidine and Alpha Methyl dopa. These drugs cause a decrease in generalised sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Rebound hypertension is a concern with abrupt cessation. (The index of the book says these drugs can be found on page 240 and 244 but they are NOT there on these pages!)Clarification to current text12/31/18 5:46 AM
91246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsIngested seafood toxinsNot needed.Tetradotoxin Terminates sodium channel activity while ‘Siguatoxin’ Starts sodium channel activity.Mnemonic01/01/19 6:55 AM
92250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologichttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449853Under Visual Disturbances, Isoniazid does not cause "optic neuropathy/color vision changes." Only Ethambutol is known to do this.Minor erratum01/06/19 12:05 AM
93252PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesNot neededThe table is missing fluoroquinolones: -floxacin / fluoroquinolones/ ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:54 AM
94266Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationshttps://www.deathwithdignity.org/terminology/The situation where a terminally ill patient requests physician assistance in ending his/her life is currently being referred to as "physician assisted suicide," which is widely viewed as a biased term, as "suicide" does not accurately describe a terminally ill patient wishing to hasten their death. It would be more appropriate to refer to it as "physician assisted death"Minor erratum01/15/19 9:19 AM
95270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryMedicare and MedicaidIt's MnemonicThe 4(fou*R*) parts of Medica*R*e ,not Medicaid.Mnemonic01/06/19 3:19 PM
96270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryCommon causes of death (US) by ageFirst aid 2019AIDSSpelling/formatting01/11/19 1:24 PM
97277CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the hearthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiologic-and-pharmacologic-maneuvers-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-heart-murmurs-and-sounds?search=auscultation%20of%20heart%20sounds&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H2&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=4~150&display_rank=4#H2*I*nspiration increases intensity of r*I*ght heart sounds; *E*xpiration increases intensity of l*E*ft heart soundsMnemonic01/05/19 12:30 PM
98278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart embryologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107421/The posterior CARDINAL vein, and not "posterior vein", gives rise to the IVC.Major erratum01/07/19 2:56 AM
99279CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893798-overviewIn the figure showing the spiraling of the aorticopulmonary septum, the spiral is drawn in the wrong direction. The aorta should be spiraling over the pulmonary trunk, not under it.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:25 PM
100281CardiovascularAnatomyCardiac and vascular function curveswww.usmle-rx.comIn Coronary Blood supply, there's a repeat on content regarding LAD supply.Major erratum12/27/18 9:36 AM
101281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttp://www.vhlab.umn.edu/atlas/coronary-arteries/lad-left-anterior-descending-artery/index.shtmlLAD supplies the anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterior left ventricle, anterolateral papillary muscle, and provides collateral circulation to the Right ventricle. It is the most commonly occluded. The left circumflex (LCX) supplies anterior of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle, left atrium, and the posterior and lateral sides of the left ventricle.Major erratum12/27/18 5:58 PM
102281CardiovascularAnatomyMyocardial infarction complicationsN/AUnder CORONARY BLOOD SUPPLY on page 281, Cardiovascular - Anatomy, there is a description of the structures supplied by the LAD, followed immediately by a second sentence repeating the same information. It would help save space in the 2020 edition if these two sentences were condensed.Spelling/formatting01/10/19 6:10 PM
103282CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variableshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/surgical-management-of-heart-failure?search=laplace%27s%20law%20hypertrophy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1LV compensates for ↑afterload by thickenin (hypertrophy) in order to ↓wall tension; wall tension should be changed into wall stressMinor erratum01/06/19 2:58 AM
104285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253755/In the ventricular volume curve of the second graph, it is shown that during the atrial systole the ventricular volume increases gradually and then decreases to the level that it was prior to the atrial systole. This is wrong. The ventricular volume increases and remains at that volume (isovolumetric contraction) until the aortic valve opens.Major erratum01/07/19 3:01 AM
105295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangeNot needed.Used as an example of a great number of facts that are not listed correctly in the index. Page numbers are off by quite a bit.Clarification to current text01/12/19 9:17 AM
106297CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetics-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy?search=Genetics%20of%20dilated%20cardiomyopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy could be familiar: defect in gene TTN that codes for protein titin.High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:33 PM
107298CardiovascularPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationsStep prep question on USMLE RX.The entry for Turner Syndrome under congenital cardiac defect associations should specify that these individuals are at risk for *juxtaductal* aortic coarctation.High-yield addition to next year01/11/19 2:40 PM
108301CardiovascularPathologyKussmaul signhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/constrictive-pericarditis?search=Constrictive%20pericarditisConstrictive%20pericarditis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~95&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Constrictive pericarditis could be a complication of radiation therapy of non-honking lymphoma.High-yield addition to next year01/17/19 1:08 AM
109303CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/08/14/12/31/eliminating-creatine-kinase-myocardial-band-testingCK-MB is no longer recommended in the diagnosis of reinfarction following acute MI (ACC/AHA 2013 Guidelines)Major erratum12/26/18 10:32 PM
110305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/23/3/586Important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy is coronary artery diseaseClarification to current text01/08/19 9:51 AM
111307CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditisNot neededMnemonic -> Owsler nodes. Ow indicates pain and helps differentiating the hand lesions in endocarditis (Osler vs Janeway).Mnemonic01/07/19 3:05 AM
112308Rapid ReviewPathologyRheumatic feverhttps://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticHALF (minor criteria for rheumatic fever): H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, Leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major & 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:03 PM
113309IndexPathologyCardiac tamponadeN/AThe fact for 'Pulsus paradoxus' below cardiac tamponade is incorrectly said to be on page 315 in the index.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:34 AM
114309CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tamponadehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157096-overviewConstrictive pericardisit : Pericardium loses its elasticity, Stiff, Thickened, sticky. Results from : Pericarditis, Radiation, Heart surgery. Symptoms of congestion - Heart cannot fill properly: Dyspnea, Raised JVP, Edema. Pulsus Paradoxus & kussmaul sign. Rapid Y desent in Jugular venous pulse curveHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 1:55 PM
115310IndexIndexVasculitidesFAS1 2019Giant cell arthritis is listed as being on page 315, but it is actually on 310.Major erratum01/08/19 12:18 PM
116311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesSpelling errorImmunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with BERGER disease (i.e. IgA nephropathy) not BUERGER disease (i.e. thromboangiitis obliterans)Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:26 AM
117311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesN/APage 311 states that immunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease) when it should be *Berger* disease. Confusing because Buerger disease is another vasculidity.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:16 PM
118311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239927-overviewIn Immunoglobulin A vasculitis, "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease)" must be "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger disease)"Major erratum01/09/19 8:35 AM
119311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/329255-overviewMixed cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis due to mixed IgG and IgA immune complex deposition. This is incorrect, mixed cryoglobulinemia contain rheumatoid factors (RFs), which are usually IgM and, rarely, IgG or IgAMajor erratum01/15/19 9:49 AM
120312CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tumorsFA2019 lists Myxomas as the most common primary cardiac adult tumor"Adults make myxed drinks" to remember that myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors in adults, vs. rhabdomyomas in children.Mnemonic01/03/19 9:19 PM
121312IndexPharmacologyKussmaul signN/AThe index incorrectly lists this fact to be on page 319.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:30 AM
122313CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockers.Concerning dihydropyridines : MALO and NIMO are CLEaVIng and kNIFing each other in a CAR .All of them end with -dipine.Mnemonic01/02/19 2:57 PM
123313CardiovascularPharmacologyNitratesNot neededAdd methemoglobinemia to the side effects of nitrates. Already mentioned on page 648 of FA2018. Knowledge of this fact is HY (seen on NBMEs).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:07 AM
124315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pcsk9-inhibitors-pharmacology-adverse-effects-and-use?search=pcsk9&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1063920136In the figure at the bottom of the page, an arrow going from PCSK9 to LDL receptor is marked with a ‘+’ which is misleading because PCSK9 works by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. Hence if PCSK9 is blocked, more LDLRs are recycled and are present on the surface of cells.Clarification to current text12/31/18 6:46 AM
125322EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid developmenthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/845125-overviewParafollicular cells are neural crest (ectoderm derived), not endoderm derivedMinor erratum12/28/18 6:57 PM
126326EndocrinePhysiologyProlactinNone neededIn the figure "Primary hypothyroidism" is misspelled as "Primary hypothroidism"Spelling/formatting01/15/19 4:11 PM
127328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overviewWrong enzyme mentioned when moving from zona fasciculata to zona reticularis, should say 17,20 lyase instead of 17 alpha hydroxylaseMajor erratum01/03/19 6:44 AM
128330EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/papillary-thyroid-cancer?search=Papillary%20thyroid%20cancer&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Tall cell variant: folicular hiperplasia lined by tall epithelial cells, seen in adults with poor prognosis.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 6:46 PM
129332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesnot neededI think it is better to delete "Think Growth Factor" ,we don't need it because the new mnemonic "Get Found In the MAP" is clearClarification to current text12/30/18 1:19 PM
130332EndocrinePathologyAdrenal cortex and medullahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/216821Adrenal insuffuciency metyrapone test-it says "In 1* adrenal insufficiency, ACTH is (arrow pointing up) but 11 deoxycortisol remains (arrow pointing down)" which I think should clarify that the ACTH is high before test even (not increased by metyrapone) and that after test it stays high too and the 11-deoxycortisol remains low after test.Clarification to current text01/03/19 11:17 AM
131334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/metyrapone-stimulation-tests?source=autocomplete&index=0~1&search=metyrapone#H3541141777Under the metyrapone stimulation test, the text states that you would observe decreased ACTH if 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency. This is misleading; the ACTH response would still be elevated but just not as elevated as expected. It might also be useful to include a note that metyrapone stimulation test is most sensitive for detecting defects in ACTH secretion, whereas random serum ACTH is a better tool for differentiating between 1º and 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency.Clarification to current text01/16/19 10:31 AM
132335EndocrinePathologyCarcinoid syndromemy brainCARCINOID 5yndrome mnemonicMnemonic01/12/19 11:45 AM
133336EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomaN/A"Rule of 10's:" 10% of MEdullary, Chromaffin cells, Be, Kids (10% Malignant, 10% Extra-adrenal, 10% Calcify, 10% Bilateral, 10% KidsMnemonic01/11/19 2:04 PM
134337EndocrinePathologyVIPomaIt's MnemonicV*1*poma --> associated with MEN *1*.Mnemonic12/30/18 7:36 AM
135337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismNoneNo blue brackets present in image to indicate onycholysisSpelling/formatting01/02/19 8:47 PM
136340EndocrinePharmacologyInsulinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/general-principles-of-insulin-therapy-in-diabetes-mellitus?search=General%20principles%20of%20insulin%20therapy%20in%20diabetes%20mellitus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1regular insulin start its effect at 30 minutes and peek 4=6 hr andaréis acting insulin star at 15 minutes and peek at 2=4 hr.High-yield addition to next year01/08/19 8:33 PM
137344EndocrinePathologyDiabetes insipidusIt's Mnemonic*N*ephrogenic DI --->* N*ormal ADH levels.Mnemonic01/05/19 8:42 AM
138347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123447-overviewMEN 1(1 Person): Pituatry,Pancreas,Parathyroid. MEN 2(2 people=Male & Female): Feochromocytoma+Medullary thyroid. Male/Boy(2B) :(Mucosal neuromas/Marfanoid)Mnemonic01/09/19 4:05 AM
139349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620230/#!po=0.375940In the 4th row, the adverse effects column reads ‘Not recommended if kidney function is impaired.’ This text should be deleted or modified as acarbose is considered an ideal candidate for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.Minor erratum12/24/18 11:51 PM
140350EndocrinePathologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsIt's Mnemonicpronounce (Cinacalcet) like (Sena*Ca*lcet )= *Sen*sitizes *Ca*2+-sensing receptor.\highlight "sen" and "ca".Mnemonic01/05/19 8:58 AM
141356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomynot neededTo help remember frequencies of basal electric rhythm, fast to slow: "digestion is slow (stomach), mixing is fast (duodenum), absorption is in between (ileum)"Mnemonic01/09/19 9:40 AM
142357GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and branchesN/AOrder of anterior-branching arteries of the abdominal aorta = CSI [Crime Scene Investigation], for Celiac, SMA, IMA.Mnemonic01/10/19 10:29 AM
143367GastrointestinalPhysiologyCarbohydrate absorptionnot neededAll are t(2)ransported to blood by GLUT 2 .( Highlight "t" and "2")Mnemonic12/30/18 7:24 AM
144371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesNoneThe 'New image' annotation box was left in next to the picture of pseudomembrane, on the bottom of the page. It is a yellow box in the margin. Just a formatting error, I don't believe this was supposed to be left in.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:53 PM
145371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesFirst AidPlumber DIES instead of Plumbers DIE. The S for increase risk for "S"quamous cell carcinoma.Mnemonic01/11/19 10:47 AM
146380GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulusFirst Aid versions 2018, 2019, and this NCBI article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2780196/.Mnemonic suggestion: Midgut volvulus more common in infants/children (Midgut=Minors); Sigmoid volvulus more common in elderly (Sigmoid=Seniors)Mnemonic01/16/19 6:52 PM
147381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesIt's Mnemonic*P*eutz-Jeghers syndrome ----> hyper*p*igmented .\highlight "P".Mnemonic01/11/19 11:19 AM
148381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peutz-jeghers-syndrome-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=peutz%20jeghers%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2Gene mutations associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: STK11High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:33 PM
149382GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromeuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=lynch%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~99&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H345552210Gene mutations associated with Lynch syndrome: MSH2/6, MLH1High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:25 PM
150399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)not neededplatelet factor *f*our (4) \suggest writing "four" and highlight *f* or highlight *4* to match mnemonic.Mnemonic12/31/18 2:30 PM
151399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)N/AThink DenCe granules ( aDp, Ca )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:31 AM
152399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388527It mentions that Langerhans cells are macrophages derivatives. Whereas in old first aid (2016) and on uworld it says that Langerhans cells are dendritic cells.Major erratum01/14/19 6:37 PM
153404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hemostasis?search=hmwk&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~17&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Add HMWK = High-molecular-weight kininogen to the image captionClarification to current text01/02/19 12:29 PM
154404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/bloodjournal/100/3/743.full.pdf?sso-checked=trueFactor XIII requires calcium to convert to XIIIa.Minor erratum01/11/19 7:13 AM
155405Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulation componentshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19141161The inactive vitamin K dependent coagulation factors are listed as II, VII, IX, C, S. Factor X was neglected. It is, however, listed as a mature, carboxylated factor.Minor erratum01/04/19 11:15 AM
156409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/780334-overview ; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2086146-overviewConsider adding "acute blood loss" to the graphic depicting the differential diagnosis of anemia. Acute blood loss typically presents as a normocytic anemia with an elevated reticulocyte index. This addition should be considered since acute blood loss is stated as "the most common cause of acute anemia seen in the emergency department (ED)" in Medscape. Links provided in the "supporting references" section.High-yield addition to next year01/04/19 6:42 PM
157410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Alpha thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 16High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:31 AM
158410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Beta thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 11High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:32 AM
159410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202333-overview#showall (as well as Pathoma [2018] pg. 42 . Dr. Husain Sattar)Hookworms (namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator Americanus) cause Iron Deficiency AnemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:41 PM
160411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasN/AExposure risk in Lead Poisoning should include exposure to batteries (like workers in a factory), or exposure to ammunition. Both of these exposure risks are included in the Lead Poisoning section on page 417.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:38 PM
161411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasDr. Sattar's PathomaClarify the increase in RBC protoporphyrin for lead poisoning as inhibited ALAD should lead to a decrease (hence why lead poisoning can lead to a sideroblastic anemiaClarification to current text01/06/19 5:57 PM
162413Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningmnemonicTo remember intermediates in heme synthesis and porphyrias: Pour Hot Ugandan Coffee Pronto (Porphobilinogen, Hydroxymethylbilane, uroporphyrinogen III, Coproporphyrinogen III, Protoporphyran)Mnemonic12/22/18 1:31 PM
163416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studiesGoljan 4th edition page 295, Pathoma 2018 edition page 43For anemia of chronic disease the % transferrin saturation is decreased.Major erratum01/12/19 10:48 PM
164417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningUpToDate: Porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis; https://www-uptodate-com.proxy1.lib.tju.edu/contents/porphyria-cutanea-tarda-and-hepatoerythropoietic-porphyria-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=porphyria%20cutanea%20tarda&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~58&usage_type=default&display_rank=1aquired not autosomal dominantMinor erratum01/17/19 7:56 AM
165418Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersN/AHemophilia A is deficient in factor Aight ( 8 )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:29 AM
166418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoninghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215844/Replace "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary ) " to "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary hemochromatosis)".Clarification to current text01/04/19 1:45 PM
167419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4989643/ as well as Dr. Hussien Satar (Pathoma)IgG against the platelet antigens (GpIIb/IIIa) can cross the placenta and cause a short-lived thrombocytopenia in the newbornHigh-yield addition to next year01/03/19 4:59 AM
168419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUWORLD, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/platelet-dysfunction-in-uremiaUremic Platelet Dysfunction: Excessive bleeding in patients with renal dysfunction due to accumulation of uremic toxins that impair platelet aggregation and adhesion. Increase BT with normal PC. Patients improve with dialysisHigh-yield addition to next year01/04/19 3:42 AM
169419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUptodate and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136592/Add in: "Treatment dependent on severity of thrombocytopenia; observation only for those with mild cases." Also note that ITP is most commonly caused by IgG against GPIIb/IIIa (there are other platelet glycoproteins that can be targeted resulting in ITP as well as T-cell/cell-mediated route opposed to just antibody mediated).Clarification to current text01/11/19 6:23 PM
170419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersN/ASymptoms of TTP mnemonic: FAT RN (Fever, microangiopathic hemolytic Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Failure, Neurologic symptoms)Mnemonic01/12/19 10:53 AM
171420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMixed platelet and coagulation disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Transfusion is too generic. DIC often occurs in the setting of intravascular hemolysis, often due to an Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (AHTR).Clarification to current text01/16/19 2:31 PM
172420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMixed platelet and coagulation disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Intravascular hemolysis is one of the causes of DIC (e.g., AHTR and malaria).High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 2:32 PM
173422Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BCL6for the Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma please include that "BCl-6 is on chromosome 3"High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 11:48 PM
174423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMultiple myelomahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204369-overview#a3; Dr. Jason Ryan of Boards and Beyond mentions this as an important fact in his reputable board-review series.Multiple Myeloma, and the growth of myeloma cells, is highly dependent on IL-6. It is required required for myeloma cell proliferation.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 5:08 AM
175423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMyelodysplastic syndromeslecture slidesWould be helpful to mention that MDS has increased bone marrow cellularity (cells don't leave marrow). and the 100-age for normal cellularity estimation. This is in contrast to aplastic anemia which is hypocellular.High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 11:14 AM
176424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasMnemonicAML - "A*uer rods, M*yeloperoxidase positive, myeL*oblasts" (bolded pathognomonic signs)Mnemonic01/11/19 6:01 AM
177424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1300874arsenic +ATRA treatment is specific to acute promyelocytic leukemiaClarification to current text01/16/19 11:01 AM
178424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30030507; https://www.astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2018/us-fda-approves-lumoxiti-moxetumomab-pasudotox-tdfk-for-certain-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-hairy-cell-leukaemia.htmladd in Moxetumomab pasudotox for treatment for relapse/ refactory hairy cell leukemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/16/19 9:31 PM
179425Hematology and OncologyPathologyChronic myeloproliferative disordersFA2018I saw that the JAK2 mutation (V617F) was removed from FA2019. While it makes sense that it was removed from the general section description as it does not pertain to ET or myelofibrosis, it should be readded under the subsection of polycythemia vera as it is present in ~95% of cases)Clarification to current text01/16/19 12:36 PM
180426Hematology and OncologyPathologyTumor lysis syndromeN/APUcK for remembering the electrolytes imbalances in TLS. Capitalization means hyper and lowercase means hypo. P (hyperphosphatemia) U (hyperuricemia) c (hypocalcemia) K (hyperkalemia)Mnemonic01/14/19 11:26 AM
181426Hematology and OncologyPathologyTumor lysis syndromeN/ATumor lysis syndrome is associated with chemotherapy which often makes you vomit/puke: so remember hyperPUKe for TLS--> hyperPhosphatemia, hyperUricemia, hyperKalemiaMnemonic01/14/19 2:19 PM
182429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect factor Xa inhibitorsnot neededApixaban, rivaroxaban (Api-Xa-BAN because it bans Xa)Mnemonic01/09/19 12:35 PM
183430Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCancer drugs––cell cycleFirst AidCladribine is not S-phase specific. It is cell-cycle independent. This is clarified on page 432 but the current diagram is not consistent with the clarification.Minor erratum12/26/18 11:37 PM
184432Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntimetaboliteshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fluoropyrimidine-associated-cardiotoxicity-incidence-clinical-manifestations-mechanisms-and-management5-fluorouracil-induced coronary artery spasm is a potentially lethal side effect that needs to be addressed here.High-yield addition to next year01/10/19 11:50 AM
185434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyEtoposide, teniposideN/AMove II the -side. To memorize that etoposide and teniposide are topoisomerase II inhibitors.Mnemonic01/13/19 5:50 AM
186434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyIrinotecan, topotecanN/A"I -can". To memorize that Irinotecan and Topotecan are topoisomerase I inhibitorsMnemonic01/13/19 5:53 AM
187434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyImatinib, dasatinibN/A"Im -abl to inhibit tyrosine kinase". In order to remember that IMatinib is an inhibitor of bcr-abl.Mnemonic01/13/19 5:56 AM
188435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTrastuzumabhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/herceptin-ogivri-trastuzumab-342231In adverse effects, it says that "Heartceptin" damages the heart. I didn't understand what heartceptin was referring to so I googled and found out it is another name for trastuzumab. In First Aid 2018 there is herceptin written next to the fact title but in First Aid 2019 there isn't.Clarification to current text12/28/18 3:51 PM
189435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTamoxifen, raloxifenehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mechanisms-of-action-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-and-down-regulators "Both raloxifene and tamoxifen also induce hot flashes (an estrogen antagonist effect)"Hot flashes can be caused by raloxifene as well, not only tamoxifen.Clarification to current text01/07/19 3:10 AM
190436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyKey chemotoxicitiesFA 2018 page 431, Antitumor antibiotics sectionAdd daunorubicin next to doxorubicin (same format with the D capitalized and in red color).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:12 AM
191438Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySpinal cord—lower extenthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-low-back-pain-in-adults?search=Evaluation%20of%20low%20back%20pain%20in%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Differential diagnosis of back pain.High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:52 PM
192439Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyWrist regionFA 2019 for Usmle step 1 Text Book, Page 439on line 11th, after the phrase "the radial artery", there are two dots: (..) instead of one at the end of the sentence.Spelling/formatting01/06/19 6:32 PM
193440Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nerveshttps://teachmeanatomy.info/upper-limb/muscles/upper-arm/ https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-upper-extremity-peripheral-nerve-syndromes?search=musculocutaneous%20nerve&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H7507770The musculocutaneous nerve supplies the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm, not the triceps and thus the triceps reflex should not be affected although it is supplied by C7 (radial nerve)Major erratum01/13/19 3:23 AM
194448Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyAchondroplasiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/achondroplasia?search=achondroplasia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~114&usage_type=default&display_rank=1"Membranous ossification is affected", should instead be "Membranous ossification is NOT affected". Endochondral ossification is affected while membranous ossification is not affected, hence leading to a large head relative to limbs.Minor erratum12/27/18 7:50 AM
195449Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteopetrosishttp://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-73/issue-9/839.htmlAlso known as "Marble Bone Disease". was a question about in UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year12/22/18 9:35 PM
196450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteitis deformanshttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/713989_9Pagets disease is caused by: Paramyxovirus (measles and RSV)High-yield addition to next year12/24/18 5:37 PM
197450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMuscle proprioceptorsnot neededthe title "Muscle proprioceptors" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:15 AM
198453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionsnot neededthe phrase "Patellofemoral" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:17 AM
199453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imhI6PLtGLcThe text mentions "Ortolani and Barlow maneuvers" but by convention it is named "Barlow and Ortolani Maneuvers". The reason for specific order lies in fact that Barlow Maneuver is always performed before Ortolani maneuver to confirm the developmental dysplasia of hip. Also, this maneuver is usually performed at the age 0-3 months as it comes negative usually after the age of 3 months.Minor erratum01/10/19 6:41 AM
200453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionshttps://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-scfeSlipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis indicates age as approximately 12 yo. and does not provide direction. Usually, the age of occurrence is 12-16 yo for Boys and 10-14 yo for girls. The Epiphysis is shifted downwards compared to femoral neck.Minor erratum01/10/19 7:05 AM
201457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsFA 2019 Page 457white arrow*s* in (F).Spelling/formatting01/04/19 12:33 PM
202461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritisnot neededthe phrase "spondylarthritis" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:21 AM
203470Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin infectionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/910570-workupThe histologic picture of Molluscum Contagiosum cytoplasmic bodies is very high yield to know for step1High-yield addition to next year01/10/19 10:33 AM
204471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordersFirst AidVulgar words come from the mouth so there's oral involvementMnemonic01/11/19 1:56 PM
205475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8397891Under side effects of Aspirin, tinnitus is listed. In parenthesis it says CN 7. However, the tinnitus is due to CN 8.Major erratum12/22/18 8:46 PM
206475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948907-overviewin adverse effect part, after the word "tinnitus", CN VII should be corrected as: CN VIIIMajor erratum01/02/19 9:30 PM
207476Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyGout drugshttps://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/allopurinol-azathioprine-interaction-mechanism-wbcText says "increase concentrations of xanthine oxidase active metabolites, azathioprine, and 6-MP.". This text is confusing. It should be replaced by "Increases the concentrations of drugs metabolized by xanthine oxidase e.g. 6-MP (and it's prodrug Azathioprine) and increases the potential toxicity of these drugs if their concentration is not reduced"Clarification to current text01/12/19 6:07 PM
208483Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeurotransmitter changes with diseasehttps://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.vcom.idm.oclc.org/content.aspx?sectionid=147035958&bookid=1969&jumpsectionID=147036058&Resultclick=2#1137636972In this section, the location of serotonin synthesis is written as Raphe Nucleus (medulla). I have found other resources that say that the raphe nuclei are located in both the medulla and the pons. In fact, some resources have said that they are more substantial in the pons.Major erratum01/16/19 6:48 PM
209491Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCircle of Willishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1877617-overview https://radiopaedia.org/articles/anterior-choroidal-artery?lang=usOn the Circle of WIllis diagram on page 491, the ant. choroidal A. comes from the MCA, but in reality it is a branch of the ICA.Minor erratum01/07/19 11:40 AM
210494Neurology and Special SensesAnatomyCranial nerveshttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/cranial-nerves-mnemonic?lang=usMnemonic: Oof, Oop, Ouch, Touch Try And Feel Very Good Velvet Accessing Heaven! Description: First 3 words are in alphabetical order and give idea of first 3 Cranial Nerves i.e. Oof (Olfactory), Oop (Optic), Ouch (Oculomotor) Next comes other nerves: Touch (Trochlear), Try (Trigeminal), Feel (Facial), Very (vestibulocochlear), Good (Glossopharyngeal), Velvet (Vagus), Accessing (Accessory), Heaven (Hypoglossal). This mnemonic is an improvisation of existing online mnemonic (that was confusing to most) Adding alphabetical order and caring for similar phonetics helped improve existing mnemonic. For your reference online mnemonic was " Ooh Ooh Ooh to touch and feel very good velvet! Such Heaven". You can notice the the difference and use whichever one you find better.Mnemonic01/02/19 11:26 AM
211498Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyClinical reflexeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1147993-overviewMnemonics are missing from reflexes.Spelling/formatting12/30/18 11:13 AM
212499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionsnot neededin frontal eye lid lesion, (or at the hemiplegia) should be changed into "away from the hemiolegia"Major erratum01/08/19 12:36 AM
213499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/internuclear-ophthalmoparesis?csi=4e09571d-2500-4a0e-b534-f89be1463f01&source=contentShareParamedian pontine reticular formation should read: Eyes looks AWAY FROM side of hemiplegia.Major erratum01/14/19 12:13 PM
214506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadachesIt's Mnemonic*T*ension ---> *Bi*lateral =Two lateral.Mnemonic01/04/19 5:56 AM
215512Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyAcute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/guillain-barre-syndrome-pathogenesisCauses of Guillain-Barre: MC CHiVE Mycoplasma, Campylobacter jejuni, Cmv, Hemophilus influenzae, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-barr virus.Mnemonic12/28/18 10:19 AM
216513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurocutaneous disordersFA 2019 Page 513Highlight the letter *T* and *S* in "Tuberous sclerosis" to match the mnemonic.Clarification to current text01/04/19 8:22 AM
217516Neurology and Special SensesPathologyChildhood primary brain tumorsI just tried to find a way to differentiate between Pilocytic astrocytoma and Medulloblastoma"Pilocytic" astrocytoma is Cystic+Solid (vs Medulloblastoma), just like a "Pillow" stuffed with cottons!Mnemonic01/05/19 2:08 PM
218520Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyMeningeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-adultsAdd a new section on "Meningitis" in Neuropathology. Microbiology section covers common pathogens and lab findings but Neuropathology should cover clinical aspects of meningitis. I attached a picture of the information I added on my First Aid while watching Boards & Beyond Videos (by Dr. Jason Ryan).High-yield addition to next year01/08/19 11:09 AM
219526Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinitisFirst AId 2018Entry on Retinitis excludedHigh-yield addition to next year01/07/19 5:08 PM
220532Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy drugsnot neededvigabatrin = "Irreversible GABA TRansaminase INhibitor" (moa)Mnemonic01/14/19 1:51 PM
221535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Tasmar-tolcapone-1605Entacapone does not inhibit central COMT. The current text states that it does under the heading 'Prevent dopamine breakdown.' This drug should be Tolcapone NOT Entacapone. The diagram is correct but the current text is not.Major erratum12/23/18 3:57 AM
222535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone%20peripheral%20COMT&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under the strategy "Prevent dopamine breakdown," Entacapone is said to inhibit central COMT and block dopamine conversion to 3-MT. However, Entacapone works in the periphery and converts dopamine to 3-OMD. Instead of Entacapone, Tolcapone would be a more appropriate correction since this drug blocks the conversion of dopamine to 3-MT via inhibition of central COMT. Also, in another strategy on the same page, “increase L-DOPA availability,” Entacapone is already mentioned to prevent peripheral L-DOPA degradation, which is the correct mechanism of action.Major erratum01/04/19 4:38 PM
223535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyDrug nameshttps://livertox.nih.gov/Entacapone.htm"Entacapone inhibits COMT activity only peripherally, unlike tolcapone which acts both peripherally and centrally."Major erratum01/10/19 12:23 AM
224535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entecapone%20tolcapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~8&usage_type=default&display_rank=4#H204803Under prevent dopamine breakdown it says entecapone works by inhibiting central COMT but only tolcapone inhibits central, entecapone just does peripheral (which is correct in the diagram)Minor erratum01/10/19 4:55 PM
225538Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologySpasmolytics, antispamodicsIt's MnemonicTiz*a*nidine --> *α*2 *a*gonist .\highlight "a" in red color.Mnemonic01/04/19 9:47 AM
226538Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologySpasmolytics, antispamodicshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519505/ ,, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TizanidineTizanidine is more Tolerable than baclofen .(*T*izanidine -->*T*olerable).Clarification to current text01/04/19 9:52 AM
227553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalitySee First Aid 2018 - pg 549 which includes Paranoid personality disorder vs pg 553 First Aid 2019 does not include "paranoid"; however mnemonic on First Aid 2019 pg 553 still includes "Accusatory".Cluter A personality disorders - mnemonic includes Accusatory; however, "Paranoid personality disorder" has been removed in First Aid 2019 pg 553.Minor erratum12/30/18 3:37 PM
228553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityFirst Aid 2018 has the disorderParanoid personality disorder omitted from the bookHigh-yield addition to next year01/02/19 11:19 AM
229553PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639232/ ,,,First aid 2018you should put these paragraph "Paranoid Pervasive distrust (Accusatory) and suspiciousness of others and a profoundly cynical view of the world."High-yield addition to next year01/04/19 11:00 AM
230565RenalAbbreviations and SymbolsRenal clearancehttps://academic.oup.com/ajh/article/30/4/339/2623060 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00440/fullThroughout the renal section, the Term "AT-II Receptor Blocker" is used to denote Angiotensin II receptor blocker medications. However, although the term AT-II can imply Angiotensin II, to denote ARBs as AT-II Receptor Blocker is incorrect. This is because the notation “ATII-R” does not signify the only “Angiotensin II receptor blocker.” More-so, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers actually block AT1R bringing. This is a common misnomer, but is crucial in clarifying receptor binding, as new medications regarding which receptors bind are in clinical trials. Regarding the physiology, Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II via ACE (and is inhibited by ACE-Inhibitors). Angiotensin II, however, binds to 2 receptors, AT1R (which is the target site of ARB’s), and ATIIR. The AT1R is actually the interaction targeted by ARBs. The notation “AT-II receptor blocker” denotes the incorrect binding, and as such, the common notation is rather: Ang-II receptor blocker. In summary: If you wish to denote Angiotensin II receptor blockers as ARB's, the abbreviation Ang-II must be used, rather than the misleading AT-II, as the latter denotes a separate entity Please reference Figure 1 in Carey, 2017, for visual clarification, as well as the distinction noted in Gebre et al., 2018.Clarification to current text01/08/19 12:02 PM
231568RenalAnatomyKidney anatomy and glomerular structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29083626The lobar artery of the kidney is neither mentioned in the text nor shown in the picture: The text should change to read like this "Segmental artery -> lobar artery -> interlobar artery -> ..."High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:14 AM
232574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsnot neededI think we don't need to highlight the letter "a" in "Fanconi" ,in red color, in the table and in the image.Clarification to current text01/03/19 2:50 PM
233581RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeUworldShould clarify that good pasture targets type IV collagen AND is a type 2 hypersensitivityClarification to current text12/26/18 12:50 AM
234587RenalPathologyAcute kidney injuryMy brainMnemonic for the causes of nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis is CLEAR: Cisplatin, Lead, Ethylene glycol, Aminoglycosides, Radiocontrast agentsMnemonic01/14/19 1:17 PM
235591RenalPathologyAcute tubular necrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238064-overviewThere is a loss of tubular cell polarity in ATN due to Na/K ATPase switching from basolateral side to lumenal side. This also increases sodium reabsorption which affects macula densa cells and further exacerbate constriction of afferent arteriole.High-yield addition to next year12/27/18 4:01 PM
236591RenalPathologyDiffuse cortical necrosisno linkmisspeling the word CORTICAL, in the boook it's written as ORTICALSpelling/formatting01/13/19 2:52 AM
237592RenalPathologyRenovascular diseaseIt's Mnemonic*F*ibromuscular dysplasia ---> *F*emales.Mnemonic01/04/19 5:21 AM
238593RenalPharmacologyDiuretics site of actionDude trust meChange "Thiazide" to "Thiazide diuretics".Spelling/formatting01/07/19 3:16 AM
239594RenalPharmacologyLoop diureticshttp://austinpublishinggroup.com/nephrology/fulltext/ajnh-v1-id1025.phpLoop diuretics do not cause PGE release, but rather prevent its degradation by inhibiting prostaglandin dehydrogenase. "Loop diuretics have been shown to decrease renal vascular resistance and therefore increase renal blood flow. This is likely due to the inhibition of prostaglandin dehydrogenase by loop diuretics, resulting in diminished breakdown of PGE 2 (a potent vasodilator), subsequently resulting in decreased renal vascular resistance and increased renal blood flow [17]."Major erratum01/07/19 3:18 AM
240610ReproductiveAnatomyGonadal drainageIt's MnemonicCerv*i*x* ---> *I*nternal and e*X*ternal iliac nodes.Mnemonic12/30/18 7:41 AM
241615ReproductivePhysiologyHuman placental lactogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233258/Maternal hyperglycemia from insulin resistance leads to lipolysisMinor erratum12/29/18 5:58 AM
242616ReproductivePhysiologyEstrogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4397276/Estrogen causes closure of epiphyseal plates. This is mentioned under Testosterone on page 622 ("via estrogen converted from testosterone"), but not under Estrogen itself.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:29 AM
243619ReproductivePhysiologyTanner stages of sexual developmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2020314/The first mound formation in females occurs in stage II NOT in stage III.Minor erratum12/31/18 4:57 AM
244629ReproductivePathologyHypertension in pregnancynot neededsuggest making this mnemonic "Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine" like this mnemonic ,in Page 312, "He likes my neonate" ,i think it's simpler .Clarification to current text01/01/19 12:52 PM
245636ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathology-of-breast-cancerTubular & mucinous carcinomas are NOT subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma, but rather subtypes of breast cancer (invasive carcinoma).Major erratum01/07/19 3:21 AM
246636ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628841/Inflammatory breast cancer usually presents with a palpable mass in at least 70% of cases. This contradicts what the text is saying ("usually lacks a palpable mass"). "Underlying tumour masses might be palpable in IBC, but up to 30% of patients will present with no underlying masses."Major erratum01/07/19 3:22 AM
247640ReproductivePharmacologyControl of reproductive hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cyproterone-united-states-not-available-drug-informationDelete cyproterone. It is not mentioned anywhere else in the book. Also this drug is not available in the US. It is very unlikely that it will come up in the exam.Clarification to current text01/07/19 3:25 AM
248643ReproductivePharmacologyTestosterone, methyltestosteronehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-burn-injury-in-older-patientsI suggest deleting the phrase "stimulate anabolism to promote recovery after burn or injury" because neither testosterone nor methyltestosterone are indicated for the stimulation of the anabolism in catabolic conditions (eg, burn injuries). Oxandrolone is used instead for these conditions.Minor erratum01/07/19 3:27 AM
249648RespiratoryPhysiologyHemoglobin modificationshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281520/Under Carboxyhemoglobin; Causes decrease in oxygen binding capacity with left shift in oxygen curve. I suggest modifying it to "for the reminder of Hb (not bound to CO) the affinity becomes higher to oxygen so the curve will shift to the Left in the presence of CO in blood". this will prevent confusion that might arise by the original parapgraphClarification to current text12/22/18 1:24 AM
250648RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyParagraph above, previous editions of First AidThe bronchioles are made up of columnar epithelium, not cuboidal epithelium. The text next to the illustration mislabels the illustration.Minor erratum01/09/19 4:15 PM
251653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curvehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195245/ ,, https://media.lanecc.edu/users/driscolln/RT127/Softchalk/Oxygen_transport_softchalk/Oxygen_Transport_Lesson4.htmlsuggest adding "HbS" in the column of "Right shift" .High-yield addition to next year01/03/19 10:05 AM
252653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's MnemonicLe*F*t shift = Hb*F* .Mnemonic01/03/19 10:07 AM
253653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's Mnemonic*R*ight shift =*R*ise.Mnemonic01/03/19 10:08 AM
254653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's MnemonicRight shift =Ri*S*e =Hb*s*Mnemonic01/03/19 10:10 AM
255654RespiratoryPhysiologyPulmonary circulationhttps://books.google.com/books?id=xZswDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=diffusion+and+gas+%3D+A+x+D+X+p1-p2&source=bl&ots=jcKLyVYnCe&sig=NpTNtppgNg3Dzw4iz3aNVVv915w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiyhOL35NHfAhUHKuwKHehgCtYQ6AEwEnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=diffusion%20and%20gas%20%3D%20A%20x%20D%20X%20p1-p2&f=falseReplace( *T* ↑ in pulmonary fibrosis )with (* ∆x * ↑ in pulmonary fibrosis ).Minor erratum01/03/19 8:22 AM
256655RespiratoryPhysiologyVentilation/perfusion mismatchhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PULM%2F103089&topicKey=PULM%2F101436&search=physiologic%20dead%20space%22&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150For blood flow obstruction the text parenthetical names the defect "physiologic dead space". Without clarification that this includes both anatomic and alveolar dead spaces this description is confusing. I propose that it should read "alveolar dead space" since this is more specific to the defect. Thank you for your consideration!Minor erratum01/02/19 6:41 PM
257657RespiratoryPathologyRhinosinusitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-bacterial-rhinosinusitis-in-children-microbiology-and-treatmentIt has been mentioned on FA 2019 that S pneumoniae is the most common cause of Rhinosinusitis, but due to the replacement of PCV7 by PCV13 in 2010, it is no longer the leading cause. H influenza takes the first spot now as per new guidelines (Nov 18, UpToDate). H influenza (40-50%), S Pneumo (20-25%), M catarrhalis (25%). This is very high yield for most common organism type of questions on USMLE.Minor erratum01/13/19 4:37 PM
258658RespiratoryPathologyPulmonary embolinot neededchange order of images from " A--C--B " to "A--B--C" in accordance with alphabet.Spelling/formatting01/03/19 1:14 PM
259660RespiratoryPathologyObstructive lung diseasesnot neededchange order of images from " D--A--B--C--E--F--G " to "A--B--C--D--E--F--G" in accordance with alphabet.Spelling/formatting01/03/19 1:32 PM
260684Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewClostridiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridioides-formerly-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-treatment-and-preventionMetronidazole is no longer recommended as any initial treatment of Clostridium Difficle. Recommended first line treatment for C. Difficile is now oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for both severe and non-severe CDIMinor erratum01/01/19 2:19 PM
261732IndexIndexAcute pericarditisN/AListed in the index to be on page 314 but is found on page 308.Minor erratum01/04/19 6:32 PM
262736IndexIndexHereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasiaN/ATwo issues. 1) In the index, "hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia" is written twice under Arteriovenous malformations (AVM). 2) The reference page number is wrong, it should be to page 312 instead of page 319.Minor erratum01/13/19 6:29 PM
263743IndexIndexBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsN/AChemoreceptors are listed in the index as being on page 299. This section is actually found on papge 294Clarification to current text01/12/19 10:38 AM
264744IndexIndexSympatholytics (α2-agonists)Not requiredClonidine can be found on Page 242 and under Tourette syndrome on Page 545 but not on Pages 240 and 244Minor erratum12/31/18 7:45 AM
265758IndexIndexVasculitidesFirst Aid pg. 676Henoch-Schonlein purpura is erroneously listed as pg. 318, however it is actually on pg. 311Spelling/formatting01/13/19 6:10 AM
266763IndexIndexTorsades de pointesnoneThe index states that Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is on page 297, when it is actually on page 292.Spelling/formatting01/11/19 2:29 PM
267778IndexIndexProtein synthesishttps://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/24-4-protein-metabolism/Under the category of protein synthesis, "metaboilic site" is listed, this should be spelled correctly as metabolic siteSpelling/formatting01/09/19 12:17 AM
268779IndexIndexReceptor bindingNot neededon page 779, it says receptors are on page 231 but they are actually on page 238Minor erratum01/05/19 6:47 PM
269785IndexIndexSyphilitic heart diseaseN/AListed to be on page 315 in index but is found on page 309.Minor erratum01/04/19 6:31 PM
270785IndexIndexTriptansNoneOn p 785 within the index, under "Sumatriptan", "coronary vasospasm with" reads p 248 and it should be p 247Spelling/formatting01/07/19 12:32 PM
271788CardiovascularIndexCongenital cardiac defect associationsN/AIn the index, Turner's Syndrome cardiac association is said to be found on page 303 but it is found on page 298.Minor erratum01/11/19 2:36 PM
272588 (based on 2018 edition)RenalPathologyRenal cyst disordersSaw it in class/UW QID 3Adults are dominants (autosomal dominant) and infants are not (autosomal recessive)Mnemonic01/15/19 5:51 PM
273590 and 591RenalPathologyAcute tubular necrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238064-overviewBUN/Cr ratio increases in phase 2 of ATN and decreases in phase 3. The text has it as only decreased in phase 3 on page 591. The text also has it decreased in general on page 590 under intrinsic renal failure. This should be clarified that it is only phase 3 that the ratio decreases and it increases in phase 2.Clarification to current text12/27/18 3:56 PM
274IndexIndexIndexCardiomyopathiesnot neededI think the whole book's Index needs to be re-made, I've recorded too many errors to keep submitting errata.Major erratum01/11/19 7:04 PM
275IndexIndexIndexHeart failuren/aThe page numbers in the index are grossly incorrect -- often off by 6 or more pages. Which makes the entire index difficult to use. For instance paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is listed as page 312 but it on page 306.Major erratum01/16/19 6:08 PM
276viCardiovascularIndexHeart embryologySee FA 19 textbook, page 273.The contents incorrectly labels section III as starting on page 269, when it actually starts on page 273. Approaching the organ systems starts on page 274, and cardiovascular starts on page 277. These 3 contents are listed with incorrect page numbers.Minor erratum12/24/18 2:25 PM
277392GastrointestinalPharmacologyHistamine-2 blockershttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00455The mnemonic currently is "table for 2" because H2 blockers have "dine" in it and block H2 receptors. The issue is that Loratadine and Terfenadine also have "dine" in it and are H1 blockers. I would suggest just changing it to include the "idine" to add accuracy. So the new mnemonic can be "I dine with H2o" because most of us do have water when we eat or "I dine at 2" which is a bit weird since 2 is a weird time to eat. Either way, you get the drift.Mnemonic01/17/19 11:38 AM
278466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyDermatologic macroscopic termshttps://courses.washington.edu/hubio567/lang/vesicle.htmlThe text mentions vesicle<1cm and Bulla>1cm. However several references mentions Vesicle size < 0.5 cm and Bulla size > 0.5 cmMinor erratum01/17/19 11:49 AM
279737IndexIndexAutoregulationFirst Aid 2019 pg. 295Every time autoregulation of blood flow appears in the index (737, 739, 740, 752, 757) it is listed as pg. 300, however it is actually on pg. 295Spelling/formatting01/18/19 1:14 AM
280579RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/bartter-and-gitelman-syndromes#H53269181In the renal disorders table, there should be a column for urinary Magnesium. Both barter and gitleman syndrome have renal magnesium wasting. The urinary magnesium wasting column for gitleman can read 'severe', while that for bartter can read 'mild/moderate'. In addition, the serum magnesium entry for bartter can read 'normal or mildly reduced'. This can help people use just the urinary magnesium values when trying to differentiate between gitleman and bartter when the urine calcium is not given, and it also helps in understanding the pathophysiology behind bartter since it makes sense that it involves urinary magnesium wasting.High-yield addition to next year01/18/19 4:17 AM
281553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294307-overviewParanoid Personality Disorder is missing from the Cluster A personality disordersMajor erratum01/18/19 12:15 PM
282599ReproductiveEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativesDon't have one, made it upSurface ectoderm mnemonic: GOOAALEE Glands (parotid, sweat, mammary), Oral cavity epithelial lining, Olfactory epithelium, Adenohypophysis, Anal canal below pectinate line, Lens of eye, Epidermis, Ear (sensory organs)Mnemonic01/18/19 12:45 PM
283535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~3&usage_type=default&display_rank=1On prevent dopamine breakdown, entacapone is listed as a central COMT inhibitor but it should be peripheral COMT inhibitorClarification to current text01/18/19 3:03 PM
284535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~3&usage_type=default&display_rank=1On prevent dopamine breakdown, entacapone is listed as a central COMT inhibitor but it should be peripheral COMT inhibitor. I think FA meant to say Tolcapone in it's placeClarification to current text01/18/19 3:07 PM
285651RespiratoryPhysiologyLung and chest wallthe information is correct, just duplicated.Inward pull of lung is balanced by outward pull of chest wall, and system pressure is atmosphere was duplicated in this section.Spelling/formatting01/18/19 8:25 PM
286337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismwikiin Hyperthyroidism, lid lag is due to sympathetic stimulation of superior tarsal muscle or muller muscle, not levator palpebrae superiors, which is innervated by cranial nerve IIIMajor erratum01/19/19 2:23 AM
287641ReproductivePharmacologyTamoxifen, raloxifeneas per UworldTamoxifen causes hot flashes due to anti-estrogen effects on the anterior hypothalamus causing thermoregulatory dysfunction.High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 8:55 AM
28862BiochemistryGeneticsRett syndromemnemonic from my brainStereotyped hand-wringing (Rett-ers cramp)Mnemonic01/19/19 9:06 AM
289506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadacheshttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2720121?guestAccessKey=dc65fc07-7bc7-4530-b864-94399937b0e7&fbclid=IwAR1JSsJK_PtyafnAnqJ6ipp8itIDNzeU_pP0vj0sgvZmLqBN_mwlPEBx-voFremanezumab and Erenumab, 2 newly FDA approved antimigraine CGRP monoclonal antibodies, should be reserved for patients with disabling high-frequency episodic migraine or Chronic migraine who have not benefited from or cannot tolerate 1st-line preventive treatments, like propranolol or topiramate (for episodic migraine) or botulinum toxin (for chronic migraine).High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 10:08 AM
290736IndexIndexAortic dissectionno reference neededThe wrong page number is listed in the index for aortic dissection. The main "aortic dissection" section is on page 301, but in the index it is listed as 306. However, there is no mention of "aortic dissection" on page 306.Spelling/formatting01/19/19 1:45 PM
291419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acquired-ttp-initial-treatmentA new drug has been approved in Europe for acquired TTP (US FDA most likely to approve on Feb 6th, 2019 - currently on fastrack) - Anti-von Willebrand factor Caplacizumab (Cablivi™) is set to become the first line treatment for acquired TTP (vs existing plasmapheresis). *The target action date for the FDA decision is February 6, 2019.*High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 2:53 PM
292475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinN/Atinnitus would be caused by CN VIII instead of CN VIIMinor erratum01/19/19 3:18 PM
293305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153153-overviewI recommend changing the ABCCCD mnemonic to ABBCCCD (i.e. add a B). The extra B stands for "birth" -- thus incorporating peripartum cardiomyopathy as a cause of dilated CM. This also improves the mnemonic such that there is 1 A, 2 B's, and 3 C's to make it more memorable as the number corresponds to the letter position in the alphabet.Mnemonic01/19/19 5:04 PM
294441Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMovement disordershttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510573_9under erb palsy, the teres minor muscle and serratus anterior are also affected but it is not mentioned under muscle deficit.Major erratum01/19/19 7:49 PM
295356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603487/ and Dr. Jason Ryan of Boards & BeyondSlow waves originate in the interstitial cells of CajalHigh-yield addition to next year01/20/19 7:28 AM
296414Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206107-overviewUnder Intrinsic hemolytic anemias there is hereditary spherocytosis listed. Hereditary spherocytosis is an intrinsic defect in the RBC but it is an extravascular hemolytic anemia. I suggest moving hereditary spherocytosis to page 415 under extrinsic anemia.Spelling/formatting01/20/19 1:48 PM
297106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplement-C5b activates MAC mnemonic: Big-MAC; B from Big is to remember it's C5b not C5aMnemonic01/20/19 4:47 PM
298535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugsUworld and UpToDate - https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-diseasePsychotic symptoms are a frequent complication in Parkinson disease (especially when dopaminergic drugs are used, which are first line for PD), and are the strongest predictor for nursing home placement of patients with PD. Drugs for psychosis in PD are Quetiapine, Clozapine and Pimavenserin (other antipsychotics worsen underlying Parkinson disease due to their extrapyramidal symptoms). Definitely high yield for what-drug-would-you-use kind of questions on the USMLE.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 4:56 PM