2019 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Su...
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134BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structureN/AHeterochromatin --> column 2 --> Barr bodies (INACTIVATED X chromosomes) - Not inactivate X chromosomesSpelling/formatting01/01/19 11:34 AM
235BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesFA 2019 Page 35Why (-1 ring ) is colored in red?Spelling/formatting01/06/19 5:33 AM
335BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesaaaPurines (A, G); 2 rings -- PURe As Gold; Exchange 2 gold Rings in a weddingMnemonic03/01/19 5:26 AM
436BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesishttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/proguanil https://www.uptodate.com/contents/antimalarial-drugs-an-overview#H14Add proguanil (anti-malarial) to list list of medications that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 12:52 AM
537BiochemistryMolecularGenetic code featureshttps://www.ugg.com/men-footwear/Add mnemonic "when you wear your UGG, you Tryp (trip; for Tryptophan)" to remember that UGG codes for tryptophan and that it is an exception to the Degenerate/Redundant feature of the genetic codeMnemonic02/08/19 10:45 AM
638BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonic"2 'sides' to every 1 coin ['can']" hint for Etoposide/teniposide inhibit TOP II and irinotecan/topotecan inhibit TOP I. This can also be placed on page 434Mnemonic01/09/19 6:30 AM
738BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicFlUORoquinolones inhibit TOP IV(4).Mnemonic01/12/19 7:15 AM
838BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicTo remember that DNA Polymerase reads DNA 3’ to 5’ and DNA is synthesized 5’ to 3’ write out the words “reads” and “synthesized” but replace every letter “E” with the number “3” and every “S” with the number “5”. This works both for prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and synthesis. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 8:28 PM
938BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMneumonicDNA polymerase III (III, red color) proofreads with 3' (3, red color) --> 5' exonuclease. DNA I (I, red color) degrades RNA primer (prime, red color)Mnemonic02/19/19 12:51 AM
1039BiochemistryMolecularMutations in DNAN/AIn the image provided for "Mutations in DNA", the silent mutation coding DNA (GAA) is the same as the mRNA codon (GAA). This would be a correct translation... not a silent mutation.Minor erratum02/16/19 2:53 PM
1140BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238440Fanconi Anemia is given as example under "homologous recombination", it is actually an example of "Non-Homologous End Joining" repair mechanism.Minor erratum01/16/19 9:09 AM
1240BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-homologous_end_joiningNHEJ is also defective in many forms of SCID.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 6:06 PM
1341BiochemistryMolecularProtein synthesisMnemonicThe directionality of protein synthesis proceeds from the amino (N) terminus to the carboxy (C) terminus. This can be remembered by “proteiNs are Created N → C terminus"Mnemonic03/01/19 7:43 AM
1442BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesIt's MnemonicActinomycin *D* (also known as *D*actinomycin) inhibits RNA polymerase in *D*ual (both) prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Mnemonic01/12/19 8:13 AM
1542BiochemistryGeneticsSplicing of pre-mRNAmnemonic for existing material in bookGULAG - A mnemonic for the sequences at either end of an intron: FU at 3' end and AG at 5' end. The L stands for Lariat/Loop.Mnemonic02/07/19 8:25 AM
1644BiochemistryMoleculartRNAhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6236/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848691/ ;and also UWorldIn the diagram explaining the structure of a tRNA, the acceptor stem is incorrectly labeled; it should include the whole length of the vertical 3' end attached to the T arm (so basically the CCA end is only part of the acceptor stem)Minor erratum03/08/19 5:45 PM
1746BiochemistryCellularCell cycle phaseshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2443.1996.d01-234.xEPO is Non-receptor tyrosine kinase, while insulin, PDGF, EGF are receptor tyrosine kinase of the family tyrosine kinases.Minor erratum02/06/19 6:26 AM
1847BiochemistryCellularCell traffickinghttps://www.uniprot.org/locations/SL-0075COPI transports from Golgi -> Endoplasmic Reticulum (currently says from Golgi -> Golgi)Minor erratum01/11/19 11:19 AM
1947BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomenot neededZellweger syndrome: Renee Zellweger has WEAK PEX (hypotonia; PEX gene mutation) and SEIZES (seizures) big livers (hepatomegaly); Refsum disease: ALPHA (alpha-oxidation disorder) males are PHYTAN A LOT (buildup of phytanic acid) because the REF's SON (Refsum) made the team but is CLUMSY (ataxia) and CAN'T SEE (cataracts/night blindness); Adrenoleukodystrophy: ß-A-L-D for ß-oxidationMnemonic01/02/19 1:06 PM
2048BiochemistryCellularMicrotubulenature.com/subjects/dyneinTie-Dye is retro: Tie-Dye (dynein) in Retro(grade)Mnemonic02/24/19 3:41 PM
2149BiochemistryCellularSodium-potassium pumphttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2949520/The cardiac glycosides activate the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger which results in the exit of 3 Na+ ions and the entry of 1 Ca2+ ionMinor erratum03/09/19 5:26 PM
2250BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurenone neededHosts Give Partygoers Champagne at their SOIREE. Each of the four first words corresponds with the step in collagen synthesis that has an associated deficiency/syndrome. SOIREE corresponds with the first letter in the associated problem. Hosts (hydroxylation) Give (glycosylation) Partygoers (proteolytic processing) Champagne (cross-linking) at their SOIREE (scurvy, osteogenesis imperfecta, SKIP step 4 (R), Ehlers-Danlos, Ehlers-Danlos and Menkes)Mnemonic03/10/19 5:23 PM
2351BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseIt's MnemonicMenkes protein (ATP7A ,vs ATP7B in Wilson) --->M precedes W and A precedes B alphabetically ,so " Menkes =ATP7A ,,Wilson =ATP7B".Mnemonic01/12/19 8:36 AM
2451BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseasenot requiredPlease see attachment: W=copper goes up, M=copper goes downMnemonic02/04/19 9:06 PM
2555BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesFluorescence in situ hybridizationN/ASecond to last line states "(two blue arrows...)" but the arrows are not blue. Irrelevant wording.Spelling/formatting01/22/19 8:22 PM
2655BiochemistryGeneticsMolecular cloningWebster-Miriam DictionaryStep two should say Add "reverse" transcriptase, not Add "reserve" transcriptaseSpelling/formatting02/14/19 2:06 AM
2756BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/li-fraumeni-syndrome?search=li%20fraumeni&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~40&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Li-Fraumenia syndrome is listed as an example of loss of heterozygosity but more often functions as a dominant negative mutation as having one mutant allele creates 1/16th functional proteins in the final tetramer.Minor erratum01/08/19 9:02 AM
2857BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termswww.Uworld.comHeteroplasmy definition: It says ".....resulting in variable expression in mitochondrially inherited disease"............. UWorld says "Variable Expression is not a feature of Mitochondrial diseases" in QID: 596 Choice D, last line.Major erratum01/12/19 8:06 PM
2957BiochemistryGeneticsMutations in DNAN/AMcCune-Albright Syndrome =3 "P"s: "P" recocious puberty, "P"igmentation, "P"olyostotic fibrous dysplasiaMnemonic01/28/19 3:50 PM
3058BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingMneumonicAngelMan has no Mama. The M in AngelMan helps think of deletion in the allele of the Mother VMnemonic01/24/19 11:13 AM
3159BiochemistryGeneticsFragile X syndromeFact Sheet 54| FRAGILE X SYNDROME This fact sheet ... PDFwww.genetics.edu.au › fact-sheet-54-frag...According to Harrison'' Principles of Internal Medicine -20th edition page 3363, Fragile X syndrome is classified as X linked Recessive, Robbins Pathology latest edition also says it as X linked Recessive. Wikipedia says XD but both these books says XR. I am not sure about the errorMinor erratum02/07/19 6:15 AM
3259BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mitochondrial-myopathies-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=gomori&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~20&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Better classification of Mitocondrial diseases: add Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and Leigh syndrome, and also the stain often used for diagnosis : GOMORI THRICOME STAINHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/19 9:50 PM
3360BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB08820Indication for Ivacaftor - not approved for patients with a Phe508 deletion UNLESS it's given in combination with lumacaftor. Indicated as monotherapy for other CF mutations, most notably, G551D, where the number of CFTRs is fine, but they just don't open enough.Clarification to current text12/27/18 6:39 PM
3460BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosisFound on update here: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cystic-fibrosis-assessment-and-management-of-pancreatic-insufficiency?search=cystic%20fibrosis%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=6~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=6#H9 and tested on in multiple UWorld questionsTreatment for Cystic Fibrosis includes pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) to correct for pancreatic insufficiency.High-yield addition to next year01/30/19 5:14 AM
3560BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosissimple illustration attached"defect in CFTR gene on chromosome 7"; Write CFTR as "C7TF" (where 7 is a laterally inverted image of F)Mnemonic03/02/19 5:07 PM
3662BiochemistryGeneticsRett syndromemnemonic from my brainStereotyped hand-wringing (Rett-ers cramp)Mnemonic01/19/19 9:06 AM
3763BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesGenetics: Glossary of terms - UpToDateNondisjunction in meiosis illustration: Replacing the words "Trisomy" with "Heterodisomy" and "Isodisomy" as specified in the attachment.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:41 AM
3863BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412855<2% of cases of Down Syndrome are due to mosaicism.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 5:24 PM
3963BiochemistryPathologyGenetic termsUworld"DITCH" down syndrome for all the GI abnormalities listed in Uworld for trisomy 21 (D)Deuodenal atresia (most common) (I)Imperforate anus, (T)Transeophageal fistula ,(C)Celiacs Disease, (H)Hischsprungs diseaseMnemonic02/06/19 3:23 PM
4064BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromeIt's Mnemonic*Cri du* - CHat =*5 letters * - CHromosome 5Mnemonic01/11/19 10:58 AM
4164BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromemnemonicCats are born with closed eyes (think epicanthal folds), have so cute paws like 5 fingers (think chromosome 5), your heart melts (VSD)Mnemonic03/02/19 5:17 PM
4265BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: water solubleMy brainProposed mnemonic for sorting B vitamins in order. TRN-PPB-FC "The RN - Placed Patient Bobs - Foley Catheter" Where there is a dash, the number skips. This covered B1-12 in order. I made this and have found it useful to keep the numbers straight with the names of the B vitamins.Mnemonic01/05/19 11:56 AM
4366BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B1N/A"ATP BReakdown" for the four enzymes. Combination of 2018 and 2019 since Be APT is awkward. A=Alpha-ketoglutarate, T=Transketolase, P=Pyruvate, BR=BRanched-chain ketoacid (also reminds you of glucose BReakdown). All together reminds you that it is a loss of ATP due to impaired glucose breakdown.Mnemonic01/23/19 4:36 PM
4467BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-gout?search=podagra&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Podagra is not an excess of vitamin B3. Podagra is a manifestation of gout, literally meaning "painful toe." The book implies that an excess of B3 is called podagra, in parallel to how a deficiency of B3 causes pellagra. Rather, an excess of B3 can increase the risk of podagra (gout).Clarification to current text12/24/18 12:41 PM
4567BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B5noneI remember that Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid because it sounds like "pento-thenic acid" and pento means 5Mnemonic03/04/19 12:24 PM
4669BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Cn/aBold the 'C' in 'Vitamin C', and also bold/capitalize the 'C' in sCurvy.Mnemonic01/28/19 3:56 AM
4769BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CMnemonicTo remember which charged state of iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+) can and cannot be readily absorbed, use your fingers to represent each charge. Fe2+ = two fingers = peace sign = good; Fe2+ is readily absorbed. Fe3+ = three fingers = “read between the lines” = bad; Fe3+ cannot be absorbed.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:29 PM
4869BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CMnemonicFe3+ can be reduced by Vitamin C, the 3rd letter in the alphabet. Color coded image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:34 PM
4970BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonic*E*xcess of Vitamin *E* increases risk of *E*nterocolitis in *E*nfants (infants).\ Highlight in red letter "E".Mnemonic01/11/19 7:50 AM
5070BiochemistryNutritionVitamin EIt's Mnemonicvitamin *E* ---> High-dose supplementation may alter metabolism of vitamin K : *E*nhanced anticoagulant effects of warfarin.Mnemonic01/11/19 7:58 AM
5172BiochemistryMetabolismEthanol metabolismOn the same page, next to the diagram, it says " Fasting hypoglycemia - decreased gluconeogenesis due to INCREASED OAA --> malate', which is correctThe DIAGRAM doesn't match with the caption. The diagram shows "decreased" OAA but it should be shown as "increased" OAAMinor erratum03/03/19 3:05 PM
5276BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexYou know thisI have a better way for remembering the 5 cofactors (please see the attached picture). “The FAmous Nerds Like CoenzymeA” goes in order (B1 thiamine pyrophosphate, B2 FAD riboflavin, B3 NAD niacin, Lipoic acid (and the L can be seen in part of the strokes for the number “4”), B5 CoA pantothenic acidMnemonic01/12/19 1:27 PM
5378BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's Mnemonicthermogenin in b*r*own fat (has mo*r*e mitochondria than white fat).Mnemonic01/11/19 8:09 AM
5478BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt's MnemonicN*O* ATP is produced because electron transport st*O*ps ----> *O*ligomycinMnemonic01/11/19 8:15 AM
5580BiochemistryMetabolismDisorders of galactose metabolismhttp://www.jbc.org/content/280/7/5510.fullThe metabolic pathway for galactose has an incorrect abbreviation for UDP-Glu when referencing glucose bound to UDP. The abbreviation for glucose is Glc, not Glu (glutamate), so the correct term to use is UDP-Glc.Minor erratum03/03/19 9:15 AM
5681BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketogenic_amino_acidThere are 5 Glucogenic/ketogenic amino acid: Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Threonine (some don't recognize it as ketogenic)Major erratum02/14/19 1:49 AM
5782BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cyclehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allosteric_regulation#Essential_activatorsN-acetylglutamate is an OBLIGATE/ ESSENTIAL allosteric activator of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I. Unlike allosteric activators, which induce enzymatic activity, obligate activators are required for enzymatic activity.Clarification to current text03/11/19 2:51 AM
5883BiochemistryMetabolismCatecholamine synthesis/tyrosine catabolismN/AA mnemonic for remembering the order of catecholamine synthesis I use is "tldr". Tyrosine --> L-dopa --> Dopamine --> noRepinephrine. You can also expand it if you want: "Please TLDR Ever" = Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> L-dopa --> Dopamine --> noRepinephrine --> EpinephrineMnemonic03/04/19 12:58 PM
5984BiochemistryMetabolismAlkaptonuriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/941530-overview#a5first aid says: "Congenital deficiency of homogentisate oxidase in the degradative pathway of tyrosine to fumarate".Major erratum01/25/19 6:02 AM
6085BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen regulation by insulin and glucagon/epinephrinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5195864/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase_kinaseGlycogen phosphorylase kinase has calmodulin as one of its subunits. Therefore calcium binds directly to the enzyme and activates it. Furthermore, calcium is released from the endoplasmic reticulum in both muscle contraction and a1 receptor stimulation. This relationship can be summarized with the following arrows: Muscle contraction or a1 receptor stimulation -> Ca2+ (from endoplasmic reticulum) -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase (has calmodulin subunit). In the current graph in the book, the following sequence of arrows “calcium released from the endoplasmic reticulum -> Ca2+-calmodulin complex -> glycogen phosphorylase kinase” is conceptually wrong and unnecessary, as it is already shown with an arrow that calcium directly activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase.Major erratum01/07/19 1:45 AM
6186BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiGlycogen debrancher is an enzyme with two catalytic activities (as already stated in the text). Cori disease is caused by congenital deficiency of glycogen debrancher, therefore none of these catalytic activities would occur. Thus, both steps 5 & 6 are inhibited (not only step 6).Major erratum01/07/19 1:51 AM
6286BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dextrin. "Depolymerization of glycogen by phosphorylase halts when glycogen branches have been reduced to two to four linked glucose molecules (limit dextrins). Glycogen debrancher enzyme has two catalytic activities. One is the cleavage of a dextrin branch from the remaining glycogen molecule (amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity). The other is the transfer of the dextrin to the free end of a dextran polymer (oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase activity). The transferred dextrin may then be further depolymerized by phosphorylase." 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiLimit dextrin refers to 2-4 residues, not 1-4. The smallest form of a dextrin is a disaccharide.Major erratum01/07/19 1:55 AM
6387BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. Already mentioned in the book on page 86, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-debrancher-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iiiCori disease is caused by glycogen debrancher deficiency, which has two catalytic activites (not only a-1,6-glucosidase).Minor erratum01/07/19 1:59 AM
6487BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseases1. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7864/glycogen-storage-disease-type-1a, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucose-6-phosphatase-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-i-von-gierke-disease, 3. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PEDS%2F54417Von Gierke disease refers to the most common subtype of glycogen storage disease type 1, termed 1A, that is caused by glucose-6-phoshatase deficiency. Type 1B is caused by G6P transporter deficiency and is NOT termed Von Gierke disease.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:01 AM
6587BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glycogen-branching-enzyme-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iv-andersen-diseaseDifferentiate Cori disease (GSD 3) from Andersen disease (GSD 4). A-B/C-D. Andersen- Branching enzyme/ Cori- Debranching enzymeMnemonic03/02/19 8:14 AM
6688BiochemistryMiscellaneousLysosomal storage diseasesN/ATay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick both have 2 parts in their names just like Cherry-Red which is present in both of themMnemonic01/04/19 3:26 AM
6788BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesFirst Aid 2019What is deficient and accumulated in Gaucher Disease? Gaucher = Groucher and needs sugar (glucose/glucocerebrosidase and glucocerebroside) What is deficient and accumulated in Krabbe disease? The krab is part of astrology/celestial galaxy signs, thus (galactocerebrosidae and galactocerebroside)Mnemonic03/12/19 12:37 PM
6889BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismFirst Aid 2019 pg 73.The rate determining enzyme for Fatty acid synthesis is Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (which is listed on pg 73). However it is not listed in the diagrams on page 89 and 74 despite its cofactor Biotin being listed.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 3:15 PM
6993BiochemistryMetabolismKey enzymes in lipid transportper figure in page 92Hepatic lipase; degrades TGs remaining in IDL and "Chylomicron remnants"High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:36 PM
7093ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associationsFirst Aid 2017 MaterialPara-Aortic Lymph Nodes - "you have a PAIR OF(para) testes, ovaries, kidneys"Mnemonic02/07/19 3:49 PM
7193BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.rosalindfranklin.edu/contents/image?imageKey=PC%2F112742&topicKey=PC%2F4560&search=hdl&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150Currently, it is listed that the B-100 apolipoprotein is only on particles originating from the liver. However, HDL is synthesized in the liver and doesn’t contain B-100 which would contradict this statement.Clarification to current text01/16/19 4:27 PM
7296ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodeNot neededReplace the term "Postcapillary venule" with "High endothelial venule" in the lymph node schematic. High endothelial venules are mentioned in the text but not in the schematic. This can lead to confusion.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:08 AM
7396ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1892634/Medulla consists of medullary cords (closely packed lymphocytes and plasma cells) must be changed to (closely packed B lymphocytes and plasma cells)Minor erratum01/07/19 1:56 PM
7498ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresSpleenMyself9 10 11, keep the spleen livinMnemonic02/22/19 7:36 AM
7598ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresThymushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121185text says; Medulla is pale with Mature T cells and Hassall corpuscles. I recommend adding "Hassall Corpuscles have lymphopoietin important for maturing T cells". And to add mnemonic "Thymus Medulla goes through the hassle (Hassall) to "Mature T cells utilizing lymphopoietin"High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 7:11 PM
76100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis (there is a s*C*ale lession) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/05/19 2:53 PM
77100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29072309In psoriasis, add the specific HLA-C allele that is strongly associated with the disease. All people have HLA-C in their genome. The specific allele that is associated with psoriasis is HLA-Cw6.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:13 AM
78100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesIt's MnemonicPsoriasis(Psoriati*C*) --->HLA subtype *C* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:18 PM
79100ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHLA subtypes associated with diseasesToxicity of NRTIs - First Aid 2019 Pg-203; Its good to have this fact together with the other HLA associated disorders.HLA-B*5701 - Increased risk of Hypersensitivity with Abacavir (Anti RetroViral)High-yield addition to next year01/26/19 9:52 PM
80100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseaseshttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra0808284?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3DpubmedT1DM also has a strong association with HLA DQ2 and DQ8. This is the reason patient with T1DM are at high risk for developing celiac disease (which is also associated with HLA DQ2 and 8) and the ADA recommends screening all patients T1DM for celiac disease once.High-yield addition to next year02/14/19 10:33 PM
81100ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHLA subtypes associated with diseasesn/aA better Mnemonic for DR2 associated disease is "DRive 2 multiple hay pastures."Mnemonic03/01/19 7:45 AM
82101ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsAs per information on p. 102Minor change to diagram. For Th17: add inhibited by IFN-gamma and IL-4. For Treg: add inhibited by IL-6.Spelling/formatting01/20/19 5:57 PM
83101ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsMnemonicTo remember which section of the thymus (cortex or medulla) is involved in positive vs negative T cell selection, think of the letter “t” as a plus sign (+) and the letter “l” as a minus sign (-). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/10/19 9:39 AM
84102ImmunologyCellularCytotoxic T cellshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2010/764542/They also fight against intracellular ListeriaHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 7:13 PM
85102ImmunologyLymphocytesMacrophage-lymphocyte interactionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7751026Macrophages, dendritic cells, and other APCs release IL-12, which stimulates T cells to differentiate into Th1 subtype. Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which enhances the ability of monocytes and macrophages to kill microbes they ingest. This function is also enhanced by interaction of T cell CD40L with CD40 on macrophage. (This also explains how macrophages favour differentiation into Th1)Clarification to current text01/27/19 2:38 AM
86105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-humoral-immune-responseMaternal IgG starts to wane by birth and is almost completely gone by 6 months of age. It does not "start to wane after 6 months". As it is stated on page 110, the half-life of preformed antibodies is around 3 weeks.Major erratum01/07/19 2:17 AM
87106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplement-C5b activates MAC mnemonic: Big-MAC; B from Big is to remember it's C5b not C5aMnemonic01/20/19 4:47 PM
88107ImmunologyPhysiologyComplement disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC15187/"decay-acclerating factor" should be replaced with "decay-accelerating factor"Spelling/formatting12/23/18 10:07 PM
89107ImmunologyPharmacologyComplement disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=kallikrein%20inhibitor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~22&usage_type=default&display_rank=4 - https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=kallikrein%20inhibitor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~22&usage_type=default&display_rank=4Benefit in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema: ECALLANTIDE : recombinant protein that inhibits plasma kallikrein.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:06 PM
90109ImmunologyImmune ResponsesRespiratory burst (oxidative burst)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-granulomatous-disease-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=chronic%20granulomatous%20disease&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~117&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under respiratory burst diagram it states that "phagocytes of patients with CGD can utilize H2O2" when it should be cannot utilize H2O2.Minor erratum01/25/19 4:28 PM
91111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationIt's Mnemonic*in*activated vaccine = typhoid (V*i* polysaccharide, *in*tramuscular).Mnemonic01/05/19 3:28 PM
92111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationPlotkin SA, Cam NB. A New Typhoid Vaccine Composed of the Vi Capsular Polysaccharide. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(21):2293–2299. doi:10.1001/archinte.1995.00430210041007The Vi typhoid vaccine is a subunit vaccine NOT an inactivated vaccine. Since it is composed of a capsular polysaccharide antigen and not the whole inactivated bacterium, it is by definition a subunit vaccine (similar to strep pneumo and H. influenza).Minor erratum02/07/19 10:52 AM
93113ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-antiretroviral-agents-used-to-treat-hiv?search=HLAB57%20ABACAVIR&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~70&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 AND UWORLDType IV hypersensitivity reaction EXAMPLES: 1- TOUCH Contact dermatitis (poison,ivy,sumac,latex,nickel) 2- TRANSPLANT: graft vs host disease 3- TESTS : PPD (tuberculosis infection) ; IGRAS (Interferon gamma release assay); Abacavir HLAB57 hypersensitivity (100%NPV); Patch test (cause of contact dermatitis),T CELL FUNCTION: Candida extract (T cell inmune function)High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:41 PM
94114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206885-overview https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?csi=e6afcaee-c28c-4e19-ab8d-320cbfd6a359&source=contentShare&imageKey=HEME%2F94399 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/immunologic-transfusion-reactions?csi=cf86246a-4478-4dfa-8128-e266eefc2666&source=contentShareAllergic/anaphylactic transfusion reactions do NOT present with fever, contrary to what the "clinical presentation" column says.Minor erratum01/10/19 4:42 PM
95114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction often present as DIC; as intravascular hemolysis is one of the causes of DIC.High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 2:27 PM
96115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-hashimotos-thyroiditis-chronic-autoimmune-thyroiditisIn Hashimoto thyroiditis, antimicrosomal & antithyroid peroxidase refer to the same antibody. Put one of them in a parenthesis next to the other one so this becomes clear. The way it is currently written can lead somebody to falsely believe that they are different antibodies.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:19 AM
97115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-in-adultsIn celiac disease, anti-tissue transglutaminase could also be IgG. This is useful because the IgG autoantibodies are used for the diagnosis of celiac disease in selective IgA deficiency.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:21 AM
98115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodiesUworld, Becker Q bank, USMLE First AidShould add to the list: Autoantibody: "Anti-myelin antibodies"; Associated Disorder: "Multiple Sclerosis"High-yield addition to next year01/26/19 2:18 PM
99116IndexIndex22q11 deletion syndromesN/ADiGeorge syndrome is not listed in the index. Thymic aplasia is there but many people will be looking for DiGeorge.Minor erratum02/19/19 2:14 PM
100116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesUSMLE-Rx (QID: 3718.10); https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1050956-treatmentTreatment: IVIG; bone marrow transplant is not curative (differentiation of B cells would still not occur).High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 5:32 PM
101116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesnot neededHighlight 22 in "22q11" to match mnemonic "CATCH-22".Spelling/formatting01/05/19 3:34 PM
102116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencies1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-diseases-specific-defects, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357480/I suggest renaming the IL-12 deficiency entry to Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD, mentioned on page 102 as well). IL-12 is the most common cause of MSMD (>50% of cases). Also list some other defects, especially INF-gamma receptor deficiency (seen it MULTIPLE times on different NBMEs and in UWorld).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:24 AM
103117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/137015-overviewWiskott-Aldrich syndrome: Mutation in WAS gene - should be WASpSpelling/formatting02/12/19 2:32 PM
104117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ataxia-telangiectasia?search=radiation%20ataxia%20telangiectasia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Hypersensitivity to radiation cause multiple Double strand DNA breaks . Instead of what is in the book , just to clarify .High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:27 PM
105117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/137015-overviewThe mnemonic WATER is already used for the symptoms of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. It is useful to point out that the A and E in it can also be used to memorize that IgA and IgE are increased in this disease.Mnemonic03/03/19 6:01 AM
106119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionN/AGVHD row, last column, line 9, the word "transfusion" is miss-spelled.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:12 AM
107119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionhttp://tpis.upmc.com/tpislibrary/kidney/KHAcuRej.html, also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrinoid_necrosisto add "Fibrinoid" necrosis under the hyperacute rejectionHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:54 PM
108120ImmunologyPharmacologyImmunosuppressantsSelf-made mnemonicBasiliximab mnemonic: The basilisk is in the 2nd Harry Potter movie (IL-2), when it bites someone they get scared (hypertension), swell up (edema), and shake in fear (tremor).Mnemonic02/11/19 1:44 PM
109120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantsminor missing detail in 2019 First Aid TextMissing Daclizumab on page/column with Basiliximab. It is in previous versions but was left out in 2019 version. Despite this it is still found in the Index and refers to page 120.Minor erratum02/22/19 5:21 PM
110121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical usesIt's MnemonicIFN-*β* --->Multiple sclerosis(demyelination of CNS (*B*rain and spinal cord)).\Highlight "β and letter B in Brain".Mnemonic01/02/19 2:08 PM
111121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical useshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-applications-of-thrombopoietic-growth-factors?search=oprelvekin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~38&usage_type=default&display_rank=1INTERLEUKIN - 11: AGENT: Oprelvekin MECANISM: stimulates megakaryocyte growth in vitro and increases platelet production in vivo CLINICAL USES: ly reduced the extent of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia and the need for platelet transfusions ADVERSE EFFECTS: luid retention with dilutional anemia, peripheral edema, pleural effusions, and atrial arrhythmiasHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:57 PM
112122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTherapeutic antibodiesIt's MnemonicE is the 5th letter alphabetically -->Eculizumab Complement protein C*5* .Mnemonic01/13/19 1:14 PM
113124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structuresNot needed.Last sentence in the second column which reads ‘Lipoteichoic acid (gram positive) only extend from membrane to exterior.’ should read ‘’Lipoteichoic acids (gram positive only) extend from membrane to exterior.’Spelling/formatting01/01/19 8:14 AM
114125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPleomorphic bacteriaMy brainCREAM does not have a shapeMnemonic01/12/19 6:50 PM
115125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyStainsNAPrimarily Intracellular Organisms Mnemonic: REAL intra-Cellular Body i.e. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, BartonellaMnemonic01/22/19 2:25 AM
116126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmenmonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Charcoa*L* for *L*egione*ll*aMnemonic01/04/19 8:39 AM
117126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmnemonic onlymnemonic for culture media: Thayer-Marti*N*for *N*eisseria.Mnemonic01/04/19 8:40 AM
118127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBordetella pertussishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264864/Bordetella Pertussis has a capsule and should be added to the Encapsulated bacteriaClarification to current text03/10/19 9:49 PM
119128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsI made this mnemonic.SHE PLANS BC (of her) Cat... that is a mnemonic that is more helpful for the catalase + organisms because all the letters (SHE PLANS BC) are bacteria. The current one is okay and relates to cats but everyone I know says it is hard to remember and this one is easier.Mnemonic01/10/19 1:09 PM
120131MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyMain features of exotoxins and endotoxinsN/Aunder "Chemistry" of "Exotoxins", edit it to become: "Polypeptide with A and B components. A (active) component produces toxic effects and B (binding) components binds to cell surfaces."High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 12:47 PM
121132MicrobiologyMolecularBacteria with exotoxinshttps://iai.asm.org/content/73/5/2698Text indicates "Pertussis Toxin Overactivates adenylate cyclase (t cAMP) by disabling C;, impairing phagocytosis to permit surviva l of microbe". However, it is misguiding as "Pertusis Toxin (PT) is an AB5 toxin that is uniquely produced by B. pertussis. It comprises an enzymatically active A subunit (S1) that ADP ribosylates the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric Gi proteins in mammalian cells, and a B heteropentamer that binds unidentified glycoconjugate receptors on cells. ADP ribosylation of G proteins by PT causes a wide range of effects on signaling pathways in mammalian cells and is responsible for the systemic symptoms of pertussis disease, such as lymphocytosis, insulinemia, and histamine sensitivity. PT is an important colonization factor for B. pertussis lower respiratory tract infection and that PT plays an early role in this host-pathogen interaction, including delaying the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. PT acts as a soluble factor that can enhance B. pertussis respiratory tract colonization. PT also suppresses serum antibody responses to B. pertussis after respiratory tract infection and may play multiple immunosuppressive roles in the host-pathogen interaction. "Major erratum01/21/19 3:07 PM
122132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinsN/Aunder mechanism of Diphteria toxin and Exotoxin A, edit it to: "Inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) by ADP-ribosylation"High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 12:48 PM
123133MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyEndotoxinn/aLipopolysaccharide is made of Lipid A + O antigen + polysaccharide. Lip + O + polysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide) --> Lipid A + O antigen + polysaccharideMnemonic02/21/19 12:30 PM
124136MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStreptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci)https://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticMajor criteria for rheumatic fever: J-Joint involvement ♥-Carditis N-Nodules, subcutaneous E-Erythema marginatum S-Syndenham chorea Minor criteria for rheumatic fever: H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 5:56 PM
125136MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyViridans group streptococciN/AStrep "M"utans and Strep "M"itis --> "M"outh --> dental cariesMnemonic03/01/19 9:05 AM
126137MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus anthracis1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-pathogenesis-and-epidemiology-of-anthrax, 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4041834/Multiple newer sources state that the anthrax toxin is not a single exotoxin composed of three molecules. Bacillus anthracis produces two anthrax toxins (exotoxins), edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT), each of which consists of two subunits. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the edema factor (EF), it gives rise to the edema toxin. When the protective antigen (PA) combines with the lethal factor (LF) it gives rise to the lethal toxin. So to summarize: LT = LF + PA, ET = EF + PA. Please correct this on page 132 (footnote) as well.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:39 AM
127138MicrobiologyToxicities and Side EffectsClostridiahttps://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093458?casa_token=ga1wCncZq4UAAAAA:6rU4x_nmFz-dAJ9q_iqIZOS1Ka0ezH43uV1IczlQ2Rihc7gqh_9WTsxvAaNCzuukflE2qSqiQDxygpJ-Toxin A was initially considered Enterotoxin and Toxin B as cytotoxin. However, consensus has changed in last 2-3 years. Both Toxin A as well as Toxin B have enterotoxicity.Minor erratum01/02/19 11:17 AM
128140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overviewMycobacterium tuberculosis DOES NOT stain with a gram stain. First Aid states that it is gram positive, this is falseMinor erratum01/09/19 2:35 AM
129140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/tuberculosis-transmission-and-control-in-health-care-settingsMode of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis --> airborneHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 9:49 AM
130141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1551&sectionid=94106931Enterobacteriaceae(E. coli, serrate, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter) are oxidate test negative. Of the bacilli given in table on page 141, only 'P'seudomonas is oxidase 'P'ositive.(both starting with P)High-yield addition to next year01/01/19 12:35 PM
131142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaeUWorld question id: 963 explanation; Koneman's Color Alas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology 6th ed, pg 446Haemophilus Influenzae can also be grown with S aureus, which provides factor V DIRECTLY, and provides FACTOR X via RBC hemolysis.Major erratum01/16/19 7:58 AM
132142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNeisseriahttps://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/lab/nmen.htmNeisseria are oxdiase + yet it is not mentioned as important information in their classification or in the diagram made for Gram negative bacteria in the previous pageMinor erratum02/24/19 11:23 PM
133144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLactose-fermenting enteric bacteriasee diagram on p.141Add that Citrobacter is also a weak fermenter.Clarification to current text01/20/19 5:53 PM
134144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocoliticahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-infectionsI found this to be mentioned alot in USMLE stem questions ""Conditions associated with iron-overload such as chronic liver disease, hemochromatosis, and thalassemias have been associated with an increased risk of invasive yersiniosisHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 5:42 AM
135144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyYersinia enterocolitica1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-and-pathogenesis-of-yersinia-infections 2. Uworld ID 15407 choice B explanationYersinia is NOT a rod, it is coccobacillus.Minor erratum02/22/19 11:53 PM
136146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacterial taxonomyUWorldV vulnificus has some interesting properties that would be beneficial to have in First Aid: Vibrio vulnificus grows in brackish coastal water and marine environments. transmission primarily occurs due to consumption of raw seafood or wound contamination. Manifestations are often mild but individuals with liver disease or iron overload are at very high risk of severe, fulminant infection (eg sepsis, necrotizing faciitis). Free iron acts as an exponential growth catalyst for the bacteriumHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:06 AM
137146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLyme diseasen/aChange the E for the FACE mnemonic to : Erythema migrans/EncephalopathyMnemonic01/20/19 5:52 PM
138147MicrobiologyMiscellaneousSyphilishttps://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/tests/vdrl-testVDRL False -ve possible in Syphilis less than 3 months. VDRL False +ve possible in Lyme disease, SLE, HIV, Malaria, Tuberculosis, certain types of pneumonia, and IV drug users.High-yield addition to next year01/22/19 2:46 AM
139148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVDRL false positiveshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3312652/ and https://www.ama-assn.org/residents-students/usmle/heres-most-missed-usmle-test-prep-question-and-right-answer"Drugs" here is referring to specific types of drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, procainamide) or to IV drug users? I've found reference to both of them, I just need some clarificationClarification to current text12/27/18 10:49 PM
140153MicrobiologyPharmacologyOpportunistic fungal infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-oropharyngeal-and-esophageal-candidiasis?search=nystatin%20swish%20and%20swallow&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the Candida section, it makes the treatment of esophageal candida ambiguous. It implies that nystatin can be used to treat esophageal candida. systemic therapy with fluconazole is required for esophageal candidasis, not topical therapy with nystatin.Minor erratum01/31/19 12:45 AM
141158MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—othersUWorld qid 15448Rod-shaped kinetoplasts can be found on biopsyHigh-yield addition to next year03/11/19 10:45 PM
142159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxocariasis-visceral-and-ocular-larva-migrans 2. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30331-6/fulltextMost pts w/ Visceral larva migrans (T. canis) are asymptomatic. MC occurs in children and results in hepatitis and pneumonitis (if symptomatic). Hepatic sx - hepatomegaly or nodular lesions. Lung sx - dyspnea, wheezing, and a chronic nonproductive cough in 20-80% of pts. Ocular larva migrans is common. CNS and cardiac involvement are rare but are potentially life-threatening complications. So the text should be corrected as "Most often asymptomatic. If symptoms arise (particularly in children), most commonly occur in lung (pneumonitis), eye (visual impairment, blindness - "Ocular larva migrans"), liver (hepatomegaly, nodular lesions). Disease can rarely affect heart (myocarditis) and CNS (seizures, coma)"Clarification to current text01/04/19 4:21 AM
143159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/loiasis/treatment.htmlLoa loa infection refractory to diethylcarbamazine may be treated with albendazole.High-yield addition to next year01/09/19 3:50 PM
144161MicrobiologyParasitologyEctoparasiteshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/scabies-management?search=scabies%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~88&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Sarcoptes scabiei: Treatment: Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin are the most common first-line treatmentsHigh-yield addition to next year02/06/19 1:39 PM
145163MicrobiologyVirologyNaked viral genome infectivitypage 167There are no naked -ssRNA, they all are enveloped according to table page 167Major erratum03/01/19 6:48 PM
146163MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viral genomesn/aFor RNA viral genomes, change mnemonic to: "I went to a positively retro (retrovirus), toga (togavirus) party, where I drank flavored (flavivirus) Corona (coronavirus) and ate hippie (hepevirus) California (calicivirus) pickles (picornavirus), man."Mnemonic01/20/19 5:49 PM
147164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesMyselfAdenovirus medical importance mnemonic "FAM Gets Pneumonia with Conjunctivitis" i.e. Febrile pharyngitis, Acute hemorrhagic cystitis, Myocarditis, Gastroenteritis, Pneumonia, ConjunctivitisMnemonic01/31/19 4:46 PM
148166MicrobiologyVirologyViral structure—general featureshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC112152/It is stated that CMV interacts with integrins such as heparan sulfate, but I believe this should be RSV. It has been recognized that the RSV G protein attaches to heparan sulfate on host cells.Minor erratum01/11/19 12:51 PM
149167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesn/aAll (+) RNA viruses are icosahedral, except for Corona. All (-) RNA viruses are helical, except for Delta.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 6:44 PM
150168MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/clinical.htmlPlease add that Rotaviruses are 'wheel-shaped' (this was a key feature in recognizing the virus in a NBME question). CDC also states that 'The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin word rota, meaning “wheel.”'High-yield addition to next year02/15/19 5:19 PM
151169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza viruseswww2.usmle-rx.comGenetic "S"hift is more "S"erious than Genetic driftMnemonic02/18/19 6:45 PM
152175MicrobiologyVirologyHIVpg 175 FAgp "(F)orty" for (F)usionMnemonic03/09/19 8:14 AM
153181MicrobiologySystemsUrinary tract infectionsMy brainUsual pathogens- KEEPS = Klebsiella, E.coli, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staph. Saprophyticus, SerratiaMnemonic02/01/19 12:24 PM
154182MicrobiologySystemsToRCHeS infectionsFA p. 182Go to IT to fix your PC (Intraventricular calcifications with Toxoplasmosis; Periventricular calcifications with Cytomegalovirus)Mnemonic12/28/18 11:11 AM
155183MicrobiologySystemsRed rashes of childhoodi have no hyperlinks, i came up with thatafter a Rad Party, CHug Milk and Sleep Vell ( Rubella virus , Parvovirus B19, Coxsackievirus type A, HHV-8, Measles virus, Strep. pyogenes, Vzv)Mnemonic12/25/18 1:44 PM
156184MicrobiologySystemsSexually transmitted infectionsN/AGranuloma inguinale --> The character "A" which cites the picture, has a different font compared to elsewhere in the book.Spelling/formatting12/29/18 3:32 AM
157187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457410/mecA gene originally identified in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) encodes a PBP of 668 amino acid residues which is responsible for beta-lactam resistanceHigh-yield addition to next year02/27/19 8:34 AM
158188MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsPenicillinase-resistant penicillinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517843/Kindly add methicillin to the list of penicillase-resistant penicillinsHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/18 3:11 AM
159189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases?search=Ceftolozane&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~12&usage_type=default&display_rank=3Add "Ceftolozane" in 3rd generation as it has enhanced activity against Pseudomonase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobactericeae. Used with tazobactamHigh-yield addition to next year02/07/19 6:16 PM
160189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsβ-lactamase inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/combination-beta-lactamase-inhibitors-carbapenems-and-monobactams?search=vaborbactam&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~6&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Add "vaborbactam" to the list as used in Meropenem-vaborbactam for KPCHigh-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:36 PM
161190MicrobiologyPharmacologyClostridiaUworldFidaxomicin is a macrocytic antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase and is bactericidal to C. difficile.High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 1:09 PM
162191MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAminoglycosideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aminoglycosides?search=aminoglycosides&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Add "Plazomicin" as a novel aminoglycoside used for KPC and ESBL-producing EnterobacteriaceaeHigh-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:42 PM
163191MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAminoglycosideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aminoglycosidesThe figure shows that aminoglycosides inhibit initiation complex formation. The following is from Uptodate: "The aminoglycosides primarily act by binding to the aminoacyl site of 16S ribosomal RNA within the 30S ribosomal subunit, leading to misreading of the genetic code and inhibition of translocation [3,4]. The initial steps required for peptide synthesis, such as binding of mRNA and the association of the 50S ribosomal subunit, are uninterrupted, but elongation fails to occur due to disruption of the mechanisms for ensuring translational accuracy".Major erratum03/13/19 4:34 AM
164192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNot needed.For mechanism of resistance: Tetracyclines are treated as Trash by bacteria. You dont want to bring Trash inside (reduced uptake) you want to throw it out (increased efflux)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:51 AM
165192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNoneTo remember that Tetracyclines are contraindicated in pregnancy you can use the mnemonic "tetrogen" or "tetragen" (teratogen)Mnemonic03/05/19 3:57 PM
166193MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsMacrolideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/azithromycin-clarithromycin-and-telithromycin?search=macrolides&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H12On aminoglycosides, it is mentioned that they can cause neuromuscular blockade and are contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis. Telithromycin, a macrolide, can also cause exarcebation and it is contraindicated for MG patients.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 7:59 PM
167196MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsRifamycinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rifamycins-rifampin-rifabutin-rifapentine/printCurrent text claims "Rifampin ramps up cytochrome P-450, but rifabutin does not." This is not true, as rifabutin is considered an inducer of CYP-450, although to a lesser extent than rifampin. I suggest the following rewrite: "Rifampin RAMPS up cytochrome P-450. So does Rifabutin, BUT less so."Minor erratum01/10/19 1:38 PM
168197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsEthambutolhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethambutol-an-overviewReplace "may be reversible" with "usually reversible". Optic neuritis is reversible in most patients.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:43 AM
169199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAmphotericin B1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacology-of-amphotericin-b, 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis-in-hiv-infected-patientsReplace "Intrathecally for fungal meningitis" with "Intrathecally for coccidioidal meningitis". Intrathecal administration is not used for cryptococcal meningitis.Clarification to current text01/07/19 2:45 AM
170199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyUWorld, UpToDateAzoles specifically blocks 14-alpha-demethylase (the cytochrome P450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol)High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 6:33 PM
171200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAnti-mite/louse therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pediculosis-capitis?search=lice%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~86&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H88337; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lindane-drug-information?search=Lindane&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~13&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Include topical ivermectin as treatment. Remove Lindane or clarify Lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane lotion has been discontinued in the US for more than 1 year. Only use lindane in patients who cannot tolerate or have failed first-line treatment.Clarification to current text02/06/19 1:51 PM
172201MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDrug namesUpToDate Docosanol: Drug informationDocosanol is a topical agent that prevents viral entry and replication at the cellular level. It is used for orolabial herpesHigh-yield addition to next year01/15/19 6:00 PM
173203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot neededFor abacavir association with HLA-B*57:01, highlight AB in abacavir red and highlight the A-B in HLA-B*57:01 red for memory aidMnemonic12/22/18 1:52 PM
174203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot needed"miraviroCXX"; (CXX is roman numerals for 120, gp120)Mnemonic12/28/18 8:48 AM
175203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773846/Maraviroc is not a fusion inhibitor. It is a co-receptor binding inhibitor. Both fusion inhibitors and co-receptor binding inhibitors are considered ENTRY inhibitors. I recommend changing "Fusion inhibitors" with "Entry inhibitors". This also applies to the chart on page 201.Minor erratum01/07/19 2:47 AM
176203MicrobiologyPharmacologyHIV therapymyselfNRTI mnemonic: TESLA DZ Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Stavudine, Lamivudine, Didanosine, ZidovudineMnemonic01/29/19 7:47 AM
177206PathologyPathologyCellular adaptationshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia; https://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.aub.edu.lb/contents/overview-of-benign-breast-diseaseAdd "BPH" as an exception to neoplastic potential of hyperplasia, and add "apocrine metaplasia of the breast" as an exception to neoplastic potential of metaplasia.High-yield addition to next year01/12/19 11:30 AM
178206PathologyCellularCellular adaptationsn/aTo remember the difference between hypertrophy and hyperplasia: the LARGEST cells will win a TROPHY (larger cells in hyperTROPHY). A cell wants MORE cell friends to PLAY with (make more cells in hyperPLAYsia).Mnemonic02/19/19 11:29 AM
179212PathologyPathologyAmyloidosishttps://watermark.silverchair.com/ajcpath108-0289.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAk0wggJJBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggI6MIICNgIBADCCAi8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMtlki02qZntdM7fHhAgEQgIICAKb0OCRLIttoA307SWFQyMWGFQoZqVdeyp0SkLJU_bBGQ1LsNYjblQkqprShv4Anu-BVtNaDFDb0rEbYMNMZXBtWrQDaA4M7c8yJnnw4foUc-bvHtLPYWVSVIC2Qh3PfD5EnrmDoXIXvTfGPHMM_J4sveANlPRx7tbznKpmhJR5k8_DeWhB77aU5zJVYBMbfbAxb-pC0mvK8IE68J81KaqBL6sUdXVfkrA29G3hFdi2LSLFJnrBw9IJ5eXtkcohaY7iCO5_U6tHizycQ6nPjk8FJIf13nexfkb_HL1YQ-MnPcpsgf5gwegWZQC59iJ6v9c8IVGi7q1dM9OGG7ePZJ09fVPlmJksMiE9Bz-dShJMh7FyzmJhUMd7HSwfkoB9X2_t1QjxJUKldo25HIUJrGbUvOMuoex97_F-_ZbBnv2GODQUnm-5J3_QwlCZLvQVulEJx9KiqvZrMn3ekybkZS0o9nNG8FNmOP62QnYUKeDCI2FTbQ9AUgIDjBeT5fhkRG0khUNeZo14hhMQqJAFMxni6KhS-W_Go6faMIsX6q6BTpOQDjbb4NTuNCtHgPC9KHPiWxV2izvxCKogPXbgAfa1V4sHICtoOHFr3DXWutRT4GFi5hVMjVIC7KY24T88bnaokEKP4xwWuKkIuhsd2B9fR-UZfh3JKoIpcBqK_HmtqCalcitonin amyloid is known as 'ACal' (There should be no space between 'A' and 'Cal')Spelling/formatting12/23/18 3:47 AM
180213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsNext to Fibrinogen, the addition of an "upwards" arrow before ESR would clarify the result of increased fibrinogen.Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:22 AM
181213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactantsThe addition of an arrow pointing upwards and ESR (*increases ESR*) would be helpful if placed next to "Positive (Upregulated)". Otherwise, it would be helpful if "*upwards arrow* Acute Phase Reactants" was placed on Page 214 next to Inflammation under "increased ESR".Clarification to current text01/02/19 4:25 AM
182213PathologyInflammationInflammationhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1048887-overview#a3 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ace-inhibitor-induced-angioedema?search=bradykinin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H4335305Cardinal signs of inflammation: Tumor (swelling): ADD bradykininHigh-yield addition to next year01/21/19 6:21 AM
183224PathologyPathologyBone formationhttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bone-metastasis/symptoms-causes/syc-20370191the pneumonic painful bones kill the lungs should be painful breasts kill the lungs instead.Mnemonic02/16/19 5:33 AM
184224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesFA 2019 Page 224remove highlight from these letters "ungs" in the word "Lungs" in the mnemonic(Painful Bones Kill The Lungs) , keep just "L" in red color.Spelling/formatting01/05/19 1:17 PM
185225PathologyNeoplasiaImportant immunohistochemical stainshttps://www.nature.com/articles/nrc3893S-100: is stated to be a target of Neural Crest cells in the table even though they can be seen to target more general Mesodermal tissue. You even specified on page 426 under the Islet Langerhans cells of Histiocytosis- t being mesodermal in origin in brackets. My supporting evidence is it staining breast cancer tissue as well!Clarification to current text02/26/19 11:40 AM
186225PathologyNeoplasiaNeoplasia and neoplastic progressionhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24310-5Neurofibromin (Ras GTPase activating protein) and in neurology section p 513 NF1 ((encodes neurofibromin, a negative RAS regulator )Clarification to current text02/14/19 5:20 AM
187225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19462461JAK2 is a "Non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. This is clarified in case of BCR-ABL - that it is a "non-receptor" tyrosine kinase. However, JAK2 does not have this clarificationClarification to current text12/23/18 3:29 AM
188225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23059849/RET associated neoplasm is familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Many students think medullary carcinoma alone which is excluded here but a clarification to familial would helpHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 9:51 PM
189225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesN/AFor Li Fraumeni syndrome, a better mnemonic than SBLA would be "Check your LABS: Leukemia, Adrenal gland, Breast, Sarcoma"Mnemonic02/22/19 8:56 AM
190226PathologyNeoplasiaCarcinogensN/A"Ionizing radiation" row --> please add "Blood" under organ column for "Leukemias"Clarification to current text01/09/19 8:07 AM
191229PathologyNeoplasiaHematopoiesishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237866Approximately 95% of patients with polycythemia have a V617F mutation involving the JAK gene. This mutation replaces valine with phenylalanine at the 617 position, rendering hematopoietic cells more sensitive to growth factors such as EPO and TPO. So PV is not only about increased level of EPO, but about increased sensitivity to EPOHigh-yield addition to next year02/01/19 5:35 PM
192232PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticsnot neededunder the Lineweaver section I recommend modifying the text to " The closer to zero on Y axis, the higher the Vmax, the closer to zero on X axis the higher Km" and high Km means low affinity. More convenient to rememberClarification to current text03/01/19 6:37 PM
193234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEfficacy vs potencyhttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharmUnder noncompetitive antagonist, it says that potency is decreased. Potency should remain unchanged.Major erratum01/30/19 9:43 PM
194234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindinghttp://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharmUnder agonist with noncompetitive antagonist it states that this would lead to a decrease in potency and efficacy. However, the ED50 would be equal for agonist alone or agonist with noncompetitive antagonist therefore the potency should be unchanged.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:32 PM
195234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingN/ANoncompetitive antagonist should not change potency.Major erratum01/21/19 10:35 AM
196234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingN/AI believe there is an error in the erratum: in the noncompetitive antagonist row, the potency column should be changed to "no change"; the efficacy column is correctMinor erratum03/09/19 4:37 PM
197234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsReceptor bindingNot needed. Suggested errata spreadsheet supports this point.Your recently posted official errata is incorrect. The proposed change to the text should be: “in the noncompetitive antagonist row, change potency from down arrow to no change”. The errata says to change efficacy to no change, but that would be incorrect.Major erratum03/10/19 12:54 PM
198236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsTherapeutic indexFA 2019 Page 251suggest making *The* in "Theophylline " and in the word "These" in mnemonic , in red color , like mnemonic in page 251.Mnemonic01/05/19 2:08 PM
199237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAcetylcholine receptorsUWorld Question ID 1360Nicotinic ACh receptors are ligand gated NA/K and "Ca" too. there was a question on that on UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:52 PM
200237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorshttps://web.archive.org/web/20060907231522/http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/cns/histo/systems/cranialnerves/main.htmon Diagram it is marked as Parasympathetic cell body located/ leave from "Medulla". Instead some paraSym nuclei originate from Midbrain (Edinger–Westphal nucleus) or in Pons (Super, inferior salivatory Nuclei). Suggest changing "Medulla" on Diagram to "Brainstem" to prevent confusion.Major erratum03/01/19 6:46 PM
201237PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorsKatzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 14e, https://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.arktos.nyit.edu/content.aspx?bookid=2249&sectionid=175216108#1148433103Skeletal muscle uses a nicotinic receptor (Nn) not a muscarinic receptor as indicated by the "M" subscript in the figure (bottom right)Minor erratum03/03/19 9:35 AM
202238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-spontaneous-preterm-birthMention in the caption of the diagram in the bottom that Myosin light-chain kinase causes vascular smooth muscle contraction. Also in the diagram , next to myosin light-chain kinase(smooth muscle) , add an arrow that says "vasodilation of blood vessels".Clarification to current text01/02/19 1:52 PM
203238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersN/AFor H1 a1 V1 M1 M3: *HAV*e *1* *stiff* *M*&*M* boozy *smoothie* (emphasizes smooth muscle contraction). For M2 a2 D2: *I*’m (inhibit) *2 (too)* MAD and need to *relax* (emphasizes inhibition results in relaxation of smooth muscle).Mnemonic01/21/19 1:48 PM
204238PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://www.cvpharmacology.com/vasoconstrictor/alpha-agonistThe major function of a1 receptors in FA (this year and last) says increase vascular smooth muscle contraction. Until Sketchy, I did not understand that that includes BOTH (a) arteriole/precapillary sphincter contraction w/ incr. MAP and (b) venous vasoconstriction & decreased capacitance / increased venous return. I wasn't aware of the veno-constriction effect from FA.Clarification to current text01/23/19 8:00 PM
205239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAnticholinesterase poisoningFA 2019 Index pg. 790 listed Vesamicol @ pg. 239.Vesamicol listed in index for page 239. It does not exist on this page. This must be from a previous edition and was not removed from the index.Minor erratum03/10/19 12:13 PM
206241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinenot neededDUMBBELSS in p240 is changed to DUMBBeLSS, I wonder if there is some story behind and suggest making it more clear.Mnemonic01/10/19 3:56 AM
207241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/anticholinergic-poisoning?csi=5f1accf7-931f-49fb-a327-fe153c4efcf2&source=contentShareThe "e" in the DUMBBELLSS mnemonic should be capitalized. In the 2017 Edition the "E" was correctly left uncapitalized since it was for "Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS" which is a nicotinic effect and is not blocked by Atropine. However in the 2019 edition the "E" is used for "Emesis" which is a muscarinic effect and is blocked by atropine.Minor erratum01/29/19 5:38 AM
208242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticsMnemonicMiraB3gron - B3 stops your peeMnemonic02/27/19 3:47 AM
209244PharmacologyPharmacologyα-blockershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2417047/Under ‘α2 selective’ please add Clonidine and Alpha Methyl dopa. These drugs cause a decrease in generalised sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Rebound hypertension is a concern with abrupt cessation. (The index of the book says these drugs can be found on page 240 and 244 but they are NOT there on these pages!)Clarification to current text12/31/18 5:46 AM
210245PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsHeart failureImprovisedWhen I survive (decr. mortality) HF, Buy Me a Car! (BIsoprolol = BUY / MEtopropolol = ME / CARvedilol = Car)Mnemonic01/23/19 5:55 PM
211245PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-cardiovascular-complications-of-cocaine-abuse?search=cocaine%20toxicity&sectionRank=2&usage_type=default&anchor=H9004423&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H9004423Under adverse effects, it is stated that there is unsubstantiated concern for unopposed alpha stimulation after giving beta blockers for cocaine toxicity. Multiple other times in the book there are mentions of this affect. I do not believe unsubstantiated should be used, since there are studies showing the vasoconstriction seen in this setting.Minor erratum03/01/19 12:20 PM
212246PharmacologyPharmacologyIngested seafood toxinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-shellfish-and-pufferfish-poisoning?csi=109e1dce-e711-45db-8f40-b18da1147c4b&source=contentShareIt’s stated in the text that tetrodotoxin effects sodium channels in cardiac/nerve tissue. Tetrodotoxin does not effect sodium channels in cardiac tissue. The Na v 1.5 channels in cardiac tissue are not effected by this toxin.Major erratum01/30/19 1:37 PM
213246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsIngested seafood toxinsNot needed.Tetradotoxin Terminates sodium channel activity while ‘Siguatoxin’ Starts sodium channel activity.Mnemonic01/01/19 6:55 AM
214246PharmacologyPharmacologySeizuresFirst Aid, sketchyDrugs that induce/lower the threshold for seizures: FABRICATE: (F)Flumazenil, (A) Amphotericin B, (B) Bupropion, (R) Reye's syndrome (aspirin), (I) Isoniazid, (C) Cocaine, Carbepenams, (A) antipsychotics, (T) Tricyclic antidepressants, (E) EnfluraneMnemonic02/06/19 3:29 PM
215249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicnot requiredDCP = Direct Coombs Positive = methylDopa Cephalosporins PenicillinMnemonic02/07/19 7:00 PM
216249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicFA 2019 Page 249Remove red color from the word "Coombs" , it's not needed.Spelling/formatting02/15/19 6:13 AM
217249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/thiazolidinediones-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus#H22Add thiazolidinedione drugs to list of medications that can increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture (albeit the risk is small and only proven in postmenopausal women). This risk is mentioned in Endocrine Drugs.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 1:53 AM
218249PharmacologyPharmacologyFluoroquinolonesmnemonicDrug reaction: tendon and cartilage damage with Fluoroquinolones; add mnemonic "FLOORoquinolone makes you drop to the floor without tendons and cartilage"Mnemonic03/06/19 3:51 PM
219250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologichttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449853Under Visual Disturbances, Isoniazid does not cause "optic neuropathy/color vision changes." Only Ethambutol is known to do this.Clarification to current text01/06/19 12:05 AM
220251PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)My brain"GRAMPPS CaN" -> See attachment for mnemonic breakdown. Everyone in my study group loves this mnemonic... People like mnemonics where every word means something!!!Mnemonic01/29/19 9:28 AM
221252PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesNot neededThe table is missing fluoroquinolones: -floxacin / fluoroquinolones/ ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:54 AM
222252PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesmy brainput the AR of -sARtan in red because it stands for Angiotensin-2 Receptor blockerMnemonic02/14/19 4:20 AM
223253PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug namesNot neededFor drugs ending in "-limus", the category is listed as mTOR inhibitor (sirolimus, everolimus). However, tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, also ends in "-limus". A more accurate description of the category would be to say that drugs ending in "-limus" bind to FK binding proteins.Minor erratum03/10/19 1:00 PM
224258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskSainani KL, Schmajuk G, Liu V. A caution on interpreting odds ratios. Sleep. 2009;32(8):976.The example of Odds Ratio should be written as 'lung cancer patients have 8 times higher odds of having a history of smoking.' An OR is not directly interpreted as a change in likelihood, chance, risk, etc.Minor erratum02/12/19 11:51 PM
225259Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsIncidence vs prevalencehttps://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR175/12Chapter12.pdfTherapy initiation may increase prevalence depending on what the disease is (eg, Cancer, Diabetes, HIV) as it prolongs survival time. Current text says it decreases prevalence.High-yield addition to next year01/29/19 3:32 AM
226266Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationshttps://www.deathwithdignity.org/terminology/The situation where a terminally ill patient requests physician assistance in ending his/her life is currently being referred to as "physician assisted suicide," which is widely viewed as a biased term, as "suicide" does not accurately describe a terminally ill patient wishing to hasten their death. It would be more appropriate to refer to it as "physician assisted death"High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 9:19 AM
227270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryCommon causes of death (US) by ageFirst aid 2019AIDSSpelling/formatting01/11/19 1:24 PM
228270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryMedicare and MedicaidIt's MnemonicThe 4(fou*R*) parts of Medica*R*e ,not Medicaid.Mnemonic01/06/19 3:19 PM
229273IndexIndexOrientationFA2019The page numbers in FA 2019 are still representative of FA 2018 on page 597 and do not align with page numbers in current editionSpelling/formatting02/03/19 10:28 AM
230277CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the hearthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiologic-and-pharmacologic-maneuvers-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-heart-murmurs-and-sounds?search=auscultation%20of%20heart%20sounds&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H2&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=4~150&display_rank=4#H2*I*nspiration increases intensity of r*I*ght heart sounds; *E*xpiration increases intensity of l*E*ft heart soundsMnemonic01/05/19 12:30 PM
231278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart embryologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5107421/The posterior CARDINAL vein, and not "posterior vein", gives rise to the IVC.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 2:56 AM
232278CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://www-uptodate-com.webproxy2.ouhsc.edu/contents/prenatal-assessment-of-gestational-age-date-of-delivery-and-fetal-weight?search=gestational%20age&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H12019 version states cardiac looping begins in week 4 of "gestation", but this should instead be week 4 of "development" or week 6 of gestation since gestational age is calculated from the date of last menstrual period (see page 619 of the 2019 First Aid)Minor erratum01/25/19 11:14 AM
233279CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/893798-overviewIn the figure showing the spiraling of the aorticopulmonary septum, the spiral is drawn in the wrong direction. The aorta should be spiraling over the pulmonary trunk, not under it.Minor erratum01/05/19 1:25 PM
234281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttp://www.vhlab.umn.edu/atlas/coronary-arteries/lad-left-anterior-descending-artery/index.shtmlLAD supplies the anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterior left ventricle, anterolateral papillary muscle, and provides collateral circulation to the Right ventricle. It is the most commonly occluded. The left circumflex (LCX) supplies anterior of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle, left atrium, and the posterior and lateral sides of the left ventricle.Major erratum12/27/18 5:58 PM
235281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartNot Needed. It's RepititiveLAD(arises from LCA) supplies anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum, anterolateral papillary muscle, and anterior surface of LV. Most commonly occluded.Clarification to current text01/26/19 7:30 PM
236281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartuworldaccording to UWORLD; Rt dominance is in 70%, Lt dominance in 10% and co-dominance in 20%Minor erratum03/01/19 6:23 PM
237281CardiovascularAnatomyCardiac and vascular function curveswww.usmle-rx.comIn Coronary Blood supply, there's a repeat on content regarding LAD supply.Clarification to current text12/27/18 9:36 AM
238281CardiovascularAnatomyMyocardial infarction complicationsN/AUnder CORONARY BLOOD SUPPLY on page 281, Cardiovascular - Anatomy, there is a description of the structures supplied by the LAD, followed immediately by a second sentence repeating the same information. It would help save space in the 2020 edition if these two sentences were condensed.Clarification to current text01/10/19 6:10 PM
239282CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variableshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/surgical-management-of-heart-failure?search=laplace%27s%20law%20hypertrophy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1LV compensates for ↑afterload by thickenin (hypertrophy) in order to ↓wall tension; wall tension should be changed into wall stressMinor erratum01/06/19 2:58 AM
240283CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output equationshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jsr.12156COPD also causes arterial stiffness leading to increased pulse pressureHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:25 PM
241283RenalEmbryologyPotter sequence (syndrome)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potter_sequence#CausesI think the text should clarify that bilateral Renal agenesis leads to potter sequence, in the book it is stared under multi cystic dysplastic kidneyClarification to current text03/09/19 11:42 AM
242285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253755/In the ventricular volume curve of the second graph, it is shown that during the atrial systole the ventricular volume increases gradually and then decreases to the level that it was prior to the atrial systole. This is wrong. The ventricular volume increases and remains at that volume (isovolumetric contraction) until the aortic valve opens.Major erratum01/07/19 3:01 AM
243286CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursSelf made mnemonicThe mnemonic BEAR for aortic regurgitation causes: Bicuspid aortic valve, Endocarditis, Aortic Root dilation, Rheumatic Fever (you can even put the R^2 for both the Root in Aortic Root and Rhuematic feverMnemonic03/01/19 1:43 AM
244288CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartnot neededI recommend adding 3 rules to help understand how different bedside maneuvers affects heart murmurs; 1) Increase in Preload leads to increase intensity of all murmurs (except HCM and MVP; later click); Same for the opposite. 2) Increase in Afterload leads to increase intensity of Regurgitant murmurs and decrease intensity of stenotic murmurs (again except for HCM and MVP); Same for opposite. 3) HCM and MVP murmurs intensity always go opposite to Preload and afterload. This can be applied to all murmurs and will work!High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:32 PM
245289CardiovascularPhysiologyCongenital cardiac defect associationsNot applicableRomano-Ward syndrome can have an associated pneumonic of "RomaNO-ward syndrome", as in NO deafness.Mnemonic02/25/19 9:47 PM
246290CardiovascularPhysiologyMyocardial action potentialRX express videosAdd in the image of the cardiac mm cell with the receptors that is used in the express videos. Makes easier to visualize and break down.High-yield addition to next year02/15/19 7:44 AM
247290CardiovascularPhysiologyPacemaker action potentialBoyett MR. Sophisticated architecture is required for the Sinoatrial node to perform its normal pacemaker function. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003In Phase 0 there is a slow Na/Ca inward current (Type T Ca channels open at -50). Theres a decrease in K efflux as K channels close. In the book you have: "there's a slow Na/K inward current" which makes it confusing. Should remove the K from that sentence and maybe add closure of repolarizing K channels .Clarification to current text03/11/19 11:28 AM
248291CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramhttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Arrhythmias/A003Speed of conduction is incorrect, it is listed in the text as: Purkinje >atria > ventricles> bundle of His >AV node. It should be His-Purkinje > atria > ventricles > AV nodeMinor erratum02/16/19 5:55 AM
249291CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramUWorldAV node blood supply comes from PDA (mostly from RCA), but in Left dominant hearts, AV node blood supply would come from LCAClarification to current text03/01/19 6:27 PM
250292CardiovascularPhysiologyElectrocardiogramhttps://step2.medbullets.com/cardiovascular/120019/supraventricular-tachycardiaParoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Specifically atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia was refrenced in Boards and Beyond and was tested on Uworld. High yield to know slow pathway of AV node is used also that there is slow conduction of AV node and prolongs AV node refractory period.High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 10:00 AM
251292CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157826-overview#a3The QT interval predisposes to the Torsades de point (FA2019). It would be good idea to add the normal value/range of QT interval as a reference to this information. Usually cQT interval <0.44 msec in males and <0.046 msec in females is considered normal.High-yield addition to next year02/28/19 2:10 PM
252295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangeNot needed.Used as an example of a great number of facts that are not listed correctly in the index. Page numbers are off by quite a bit.Clarification to current text01/12/19 9:17 AM
253295CardiovascularPhysiologyCapillary fluid exchangeMnemonicHydrostatic pressure pushes fluid out of a compartment/vessel = arrows pointing out from the tips of the "H". Oncotic pressure pulls fluid in to a compartment/vessel = arrows pointing in to the center of the "O" (like spokes on a wheel). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 9:17 PM
254296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/tricuspid-valve-tv-atresiaTricuspid atresia needs both an ASD and a VSD/PDA to survive (in patients without a VSD, a PDA is needed to get blood into the lungsMinor erratum02/27/19 7:13 PM
255296CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesnot neededIsolated Ebstein anomaly is not associated with any type of shunting, so I suggest putting it under the "other anomalies" along with the coarcation of Aorta on page 297Major erratum03/01/19 6:31 PM
256297CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetics-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy?search=Genetics%20of%20dilated%20cardiomyopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy could be familiar: defect in gene TTN that codes for protein titin.High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:33 PM
257298CardiovascularPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationsStep prep question on USMLE RX.The entry for Turner Syndrome under congenital cardiac defect associations should specify that these individuals are at risk for *juxtaductal* aortic coarctation.High-yield addition to next year01/11/19 2:40 PM
258298CardiovascularPathologyHypertensionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634904/ https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hypertension-in-adults?search=hypertension%20risk%20factors&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H8&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#Diabetes and smoking are not risk factors for hypertension. In fact, smoking is associated with lower blood pressureMinor erratum01/22/19 8:26 AM
259300CardiovascularPathologyAtherosclerosisAorta. COronary. POpliteal. CArotid.A COPy CAtMnemonic02/08/19 9:47 AM
260301CardiovascularPathologyIschemic heart disease manifestationshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview#showallSTEMI have characteristic of ST elevation and pathological Q wave. FA2019 mentions Q wave but is missing term "Pathological". It is very important to differentiate between pathological and physiological Q waves.Clarification to current text03/03/19 9:47 AM
261301CardiovascularPathologyKussmaul signhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/constrictive-pericarditis?search=Constrictive%20pericarditisConstrictive%20pericarditis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~95&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Constrictive pericarditis could be a complication of radiation therapy of non-honking lymphoma.High-yield addition to next year01/17/19 1:08 AM
262302CardiovascularPathologyEvolution of myocardial infarctionPathomaafter reperfusion due to influc of Ca leads to contraction; that is called (contraction band necrosis)Minor erratum03/01/19 6:28 PM
263303CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/08/14/12/31/eliminating-creatine-kinase-myocardial-band-testingCK-MB is no longer recommended in the diagnosis of reinfarction following acute MI (ACC/AHA 2013 Guidelines)Major erratum12/26/18 10:32 PM
264305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/23/3/586Important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy is coronary artery diseaseHigh-yield addition to next year01/08/19 9:51 AM
265305CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153153-overviewI recommend changing the ABCCCD mnemonic to ABBCCCD (i.e. add a B). The extra B stands for "birth" -- thus incorporating peripartum cardiomyopathy as a cause of dilated CM. This also improves the mnemonic such that there is 1 A, 2 B's, and 3 C's to make it more memorable as the number corresponds to the letter position in the alphabet.Mnemonic01/19/19 5:04 PM
266306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Failure/HF006Diastolic dysfunction causes Decrease in EDV and Increase in EDP according to the attached diagram , not normal EDVMajor erratum03/01/19 6:34 PM
267306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureMnemonicDrugs that decrease mortality : (ABC) 1)Ace inhibitors 2)Beta Blocker 3) CpironolactoneMnemonic03/05/19 9:04 PM
268307CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditisNot neededMnemonic -> Owsler nodes. Ow indicates pain and helps differentiating the hand lesions in endocarditis (Osler vs Janeway).Mnemonic01/07/19 3:05 AM
269308Rapid ReviewPathologyRheumatic feverhttps://reference.medscape.com/calculator/jones-criteria-diagnosis-rheumaticHALF (minor criteria for rheumatic fever): H-Heart block (↑PR interval) A-Arthralgia “L”-Elevated ESR/CRP, Leukocytosis F-Fever Need 2 major criteria or 1 major & 2 minor criteria for diagnosis. (2 HALF make up for 1 J♥NES)Mnemonic01/01/19 6:03 PM
270309IndexPathologyCardiac tamponadeN/AThe fact for 'Pulsus paradoxus' below cardiac tamponade is incorrectly said to be on page 315 in the index.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:34 AM
271309CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tamponadehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157096-overviewConstrictive pericardisit : Pericardium loses its elasticity, Stiff, Thickened, sticky. Results from : Pericarditis, Radiation, Heart surgery. Symptoms of congestion - Heart cannot fill properly: Dyspnea, Raised JVP, Edema. Pulsus Paradoxus & kussmaul sign. Rapid Y desent in Jugular venous pulse curveHigh-yield addition to next year01/10/19 1:55 PM
272309CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tamponadehttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsus_paradoxus&ved=2ahUKEwiw9qv7ovzgAhVC6RoKHV8fAG4QFjAHegQICBAB&usg=AOvVaw0q8O4IojznhFHl4KwkEiWsCauses of pulsus paradoxus. CHACOT (Cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, Hypovolemic shock, Asthma, COPD, Obstructive sleep apnea, Tension pneumothoraxMnemonic03/12/19 4:21 AM
273310IndexIndexVasculitidesFAS1 2019Giant cell arthritis is listed as being on page 315, but it is actually on 310.Major erratum01/08/19 12:18 PM
274310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23663684/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20457278/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23114585/It would be good to add that the production of cytokines, in particular Interleukin-6 (IL-6), appears to closely correlate with the severity of the Giant Cell Arteritis. A monoclonal antibody against IL-6 (tocilizumab) is effective in treatiing GCA.High-yield addition to next year01/30/19 12:11 AM
275310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesindex clariicationleukocytoclastic vasculitis is predominantly discussed on this page (310) but is only listed in the updated index as being on page 173. This should be corrected. Thank you.Clarification to current text02/15/19 2:13 PM
276310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesUWorld, Pathomafor polyarteritis Nodosa; due to different stages of lumpy fibrosis (Nodosa) it gives the appearance of "String of Pearls". This appearance also found in renal FibroMuscular Dysplasia.High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:29 PM
277310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesPathomafor Kawasaki disease: since Cardiac compication is such unique to know (kids with MI like pictures), suggest thinking of "kid on Kawasaki motorcycle"; their hands and feets are red and their heart is excited or beating fast same with disease.Mnemonic03/01/19 6:30 PM
278310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesFirst Aid 2019Vasculitis is listed as page 315, 316 in the index but it's covered on page 310, 311Major erratum03/03/19 12:19 PM
279311CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureN/AOn pg. 757 in the appendix, "heart failure" directs you to pg. 311. There is no mention of heart failure on pg 311. Additionally, under "heart failure - associations" on page 757, it directs you to page 690, which has no mention of heart failure.Spelling/formatting02/09/19 1:37 PM
280311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesSpelling errorImmunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with BERGER disease (i.e. IgA nephropathy) not BUERGER disease (i.e. thromboangiitis obliterans)Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:26 AM
281311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesN/APage 311 states that immunoglobulin A vasculitis is associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease) when it should be *Berger* disease. Confusing because Buerger disease is another vasculidity.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 9:16 PM
282311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239927-overviewIn Immunoglobulin A vasculitis, "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Buerger disease)" must be "Associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger disease)"Minor erratum01/09/19 8:35 AM
283311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/329255-overviewMixed cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis due to mixed IgG and IgA immune complex deposition. This is incorrect, mixed cryoglobulinemia contain rheumatoid factors (RFs), which are usually IgM and, rarely, IgG or IgAMajor erratum01/15/19 9:49 AM
284312CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tumorsFA2019 lists Myxomas as the most common primary cardiac adult tumor"Adults make myxed drinks" to remember that myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors in adults, vs. rhabdomyomas in children.Mnemonic01/03/19 9:19 PM
285312IndexPharmacologyKussmaul signN/AThe index incorrectly lists this fact to be on page 319.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 11:30 AM
286312CardiovascularPathologyUlcer complicationshttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/varicose-veinsVaricose veins: dilated tortuous veins most commonly found on the superficial system. cussed by chronic elevation of venous pressure or loss of the strength in vessel wall leading to incompetent of the venous valves. common complication includes. edema,infection, dermatitis, ski ulcer and poor wound healing.High-yield addition to next year02/10/19 2:48 AM
287313CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockers.Concerning dihydropyridines : MALO and NIMO are CLEaVIng and kNIFing each other in a CAR .All of them end with -dipine.Mnemonic01/02/19 2:57 PM
288313CardiovascularPharmacologyNitratesNot neededAdd methemoglobinemia to the side effects of nitrates. Already mentioned on page 648 of FA2018. Knowledge of this fact is HY (seen on NBMEs).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:07 AM
289314CardiovascularPharmacologySacubitrilhttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00886captoPRIL- ACE inhibitor, sacubiTRIL- neprilyson inhibitor, omaPaTRILat- both ACE and NEP inhibitor. (Name contaim both PRIL and TRIL- PaTRIL. )Mnemonic02/25/19 6:07 PM
290315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pcsk9-inhibitors-pharmacology-adverse-effects-and-use?search=pcsk9&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1063920136In the figure at the bottom of the page, an arrow going from PCSK9 to LDL receptor is marked with a ‘+’ which is misleading because PCSK9 works by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. Hence if PCSK9 is blocked, more LDLRs are recycled and are present on the surface of cells.Clarification to current text12/31/18 6:46 AM
291315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/861024Figure indicates that PCSK9 stimulated LDL-R. While in fact PCSK9 stimulated degradation of LDL-R. Text after arrow should read "LDL-R Degradation" to avoid confusionMinor erratum03/05/19 9:47 AM
292317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/quotation_marks/more_quotation_mark_rules.htmlThe mnemonic for Class IC is "'Can I have Fries, Please." It is a question, so it should end with a "?" instead of a "."Spelling/formatting02/03/19 8:31 PM
293317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://www.cvpharmacology.com/antiarrhy/sodium-blockerssodium channel binding strength is a CAB to fastest dissociation. IC>IA>IB.Mnemonic02/06/19 3:43 PM
294317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/159222-treatmentIt should be added to the Clinical Use section within Class 1A that such antiarrhythmics, like procainamide, are used to treat Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. I have had many questions inquire about this concept, including the USMLE-Rx question bank. No where in first aid 2019 is the treatment for this syndrome included.High-yield addition to next year02/23/19 2:10 PM
295317CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_BaeSalt Bae Kills Cows - Na block, B block, K block, Ca blockMnemonic03/13/19 6:27 PM
296322EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullaMnemonic"CorticOL" hormones are derived from "CholesterOL" (may also be placed on page 328)Mnemonic02/13/19 2:07 PM
297322EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullaIt's a mnemonic“The deeper you go, the sweeter it gets, and out comes the 1^o hormones in alphabetical order; Aldosterone, Cortisol, DHEA, Epi, Ne”. (A, C, D, E, N marked in bold/red)Mnemonic02/25/19 11:09 AM
298322EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid developmenthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/845125-overviewParafollicular cells are neural crest (ectoderm derived), not endoderm derivedMinor erratum12/28/18 6:57 PM
299323EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-clinicalIn the hyperpigmentation induced by primary adrenal insufficiency (Addisons Disease), First Aid states that a-MSH is released by corticotrophs which is responsible for stimulating peripheral melanocytes and stimulating melanin production. However after consultation with multiple texts and Dr. Kathleen Giangiacomo (whom I would like acknowledged should this erratus submission be accepted), I have come to understand that while aMSH is cleaved from POMC along with ATCH, that process occurs peripherally as adrenal corticotrophs lack the protease necessary. Furthermore in the pathology of adrenal insufficiency it is ACTH binding to MC1R receptors in the dermis causing hyperpigmentation. I have provided some textbook references in the images attached.Minor erratum03/08/19 7:39 AM
300324EndocrineAnatomy and PhysiologyInsulinN/AGLUT1= remember "RBC" -- R=RBC, B=baby (placenta), brain, C=cornea; GLUT3=the 2Bs of GLUT1 (=baby (placenta) and brain)-- remember this since 2+1=3Mnemonic02/18/19 2:40 AM
301325EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-adrenal-insufficiency-in-adults?search=addisons%20disease%20adult&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3195785943Under MSH. It is stated that MSH causes hyperpigmentation in Cushing's disease. This is only correct if it is ACTH hypersectretion is causing the excessive cortisol. The ACTH and MSH pathway is classically suppressed in Cushing's. Addison's Disease is classically associated with hyperpigmentation.Major erratum01/31/19 2:58 PM
302325EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormonesmnemonic for information already in text"S-eye-ADH" - ADH (elevated in SIADH) is produced in the supra-optic nucleus of the hypothalamusMnemonic02/07/19 8:30 AM
303326EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasCostanzo17a-hydroxylase --> DHEA via 17,20-lyase (NOT 17a-hydroxylase). Similarly, 17-hydroxyprogesterone --> Androstenedione via 17,20-lyase (NOT 17a-hydroxylase). This is correct on the online Rx flaschards, but incorrect in the book.Minor erratum02/26/19 1:12 PM
304326EndocrinePhysiologyProlactinNone neededIn the figure "Primary hypothyroidism" is misspelled as "Primary hypothroidism"Spelling/formatting01/15/19 4:11 PM
305327EndocrinePhysiologyAntidiuretic hormoneN/AMnemonic for remembering that ADH is produced in the supraOPTIC nucleus: "S-eye-ADH"Mnemonic03/12/19 2:19 PM
306328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overviewWrong enzyme mentioned when moving from zona fasciculata to zona reticularis, should say 17,20 lyase instead of 17 alpha hydroxylaseMajor erratum01/03/19 6:44 AM
307328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasn/a"Girls read Seventeen Magazine" i.e. individuals with 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency will be phenotypically female due to sex hormone deficiencyMnemonic02/17/19 3:23 PM
308328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920532-overview17,20 lyase instead of 17 alpha hydroxylase for 17 hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA and 17- hydroxyprogesterone to AndrostenedioneMajor erratum03/06/19 1:14 PM
309329EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920532-overviewThe reactions of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA and 17-hydroxyprogresterone to Androstenedione are catalyzed by 17,20 Lyase not by 17a-hydroxylase. They are both catalyzed by the same enzyme complex (P450c17). 17,20 Lyase deficiency presents similar to 17a-hydroxylase deficiencyClarification to current text02/14/19 6:02 AM
310330EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/papillary-thyroid-cancer?search=Papillary%20thyroid%20cancer&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Tall cell variant: folicular hiperplasia lined by tall epithelial cells, seen in adults with poor prognosis.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 6:46 PM
311331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/thyroid-hormone-synthesis-and-physiology?search=iodine%20thyroid&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H3&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=4~150&display_rank=4#H3It was stated in the first paragraph of this section, "organification of iodide...". However, the organification is with iodine (I2) not iodide.Clarification to current text02/07/19 4:20 PM
312331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)eMedicine: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089554-overview#a2The text says "decreased TBG in hepatic failure", however there is actually generally an increased TBG in chronic liver disease. (studies show increased TBG in all cases studied of liver disease, though eMedicine states it may be increased or decreased).Minor erratum02/27/19 9:39 PM
313331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormones (T3/T4)https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/452667_5Add dopamine (alongside somatostatin) as an inhibitor of TSH release. Dopamine is acknowledged as an inhibitor of TSH release in the schematic on page 325.Clarification to current text03/07/19 4:44 PM
314332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathway of steroid hormonesMnemonicV1 receptor and H1 receptor use the 1P3 (IP3) signaling pathway. Bold the 1s and I in IP3Mnemonic02/14/19 12:24 PM
315332EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesnot neededI think it is better to delete "Think Growth Factor" ,we don't need it because the new mnemonic "Get Found In the MAP" is clearClarification to current text12/30/18 1:19 PM
316333EndocrinePathologyCushing syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340771/The text indicates that Cushing Syndrome may have a finding of pseudohyperaldosteronism. That is true. But it will be good to specify that it is an transient increase in aldosterone level. As the disease progress, the aldosterone level decreases. Hypothetically, the pseudohyperaldosteronism is due to acute rise in ACTH wherease decreased aldosterone later will be due to direct actions of increased Cortisol.Clarification to current text02/25/19 7:08 AM
317334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/216821Adrenal insuffuciency metyrapone test-it says "In 1* adrenal insufficiency, ACTH is (arrow pointing up) but 11 deoxycortisol remains (arrow pointing down)" which I think should clarify that the ACTH is high before test even (not increased by metyrapone) and that after test it stays high too and the 11-deoxycortisol remains low after test.Clarification to current text01/03/19 11:17 AM
318334EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/metyrapone-stimulation-tests?source=autocomplete&index=0~1&search=metyrapone#H3541141777Under the metyrapone stimulation test, the text states that you would observe decreased ACTH if 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency. This is misleading; the ACTH response would still be elevated but just not as elevated as expected. It might also be useful to include a note that metyrapone stimulation test is most sensitive for detecting defects in ACTH secretion, whereas random serum ACTH is a better tool for differentiating between 1º and 2º/3º adrenal insufficiency.Clarification to current text01/16/19 10:31 AM
319334EndocrinePathologyHyperaldosteronismIt's MnemonicNormal K (potassium) = No Konn’s (Conn’s) syndrome .Mnemonic01/22/19 12:47 PM
320335EndocrinePathologyCarcinoid syndromemy brainCARCINOID 5yndrome mnemonicMnemonic01/12/19 11:45 AM
321335EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/91/3/1159/2843609 Radiology. 1993 Jul;188(1):115-8. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-graves-orbitopathy-ophthalmopathy?search=graves%20ophthalmopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2In ocular findings of Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease), lid lag/ retraction is due to either thickening of the Levator Palpebrae Superioris or fibrosis of the Superior Tarsal muscle. However, the innervation of the levator palpebrae is totally by oculomotor nerve instead of sympathetic nerve. And the Superior Tarsal is innervated by sympathetic nerve. Pathologic changes of the Levator Palpebrae is for sure, (Radiology. 1993 Jul;188(1):115-8.), however it's mechanism is still under debate. According to Uptodate, this is due to thyroid hormone excess. (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-graves-orbitopathy-ophthalmopathy?search=graves%20ophthalmopathy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2) And the pathologic change of the Superior Tarsal is also proved in this article. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/91/3/1159/2843609 I think FA2019 page337 fail to demonstrate the exact neurological innervation of these two closely related eyelid muscle :-).Major erratum03/09/19 8:54 PM
322336EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomaN/A"Rule of 10's:" 10% of MEdullary, Chromaffin cells, Be, Kids (10% Malignant, 10% Extra-adrenal, 10% Calcify, 10% Bilateral, 10% KidsMnemonic01/11/19 2:04 PM
323336EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomathis is just a mnemonic revision suggestion, not a citable content revision.Please change the Rule of 10's to the Rule of 90's: 90% are benign, 90% are unilateral, 90% are adrenal only, 90% are uncalcified, 90% occur in adults. It seems much more intuitive to describe the rule as that of the primary presentation the vast majority of the time (90%), and the exceptions to those rules are easy to remember as the 10% occurrences.Mnemonic03/01/19 5:45 PM
324336EndocrinePathologySomatostatinomahttps://www-uptodate-com.webproxy2.ouhsc.edu/contents/pathology-classification-and-grading-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-arising-in-the-digestive-system?search=somatostatinoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~21&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Also known to have psammoma bodiesHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 9:56 AM
325337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384127/Lid retraction is due to increased sympathetic stimulation of the SUPERIOR TARSAL MUSCLE (muller's muscle)Clarification to current text01/30/19 8:36 AM
326337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismNoneNo blue brackets present in image to indicate onycholysisSpelling/formatting01/02/19 8:47 PM
327337EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismwikiin Hyperthyroidism, lid lag is due to sympathetic stimulation of superior tarsal muscle or muller muscle, not levator palpebrae superiors, which is innervated by cranial nerve IIIMajor erratum01/19/19 2:23 AM
328337EndocrinePathologyVIPomaIt's MnemonicV*1*poma --> associated with MEN *1*.Mnemonic12/30/18 7:36 AM
329340EndocrinePharmacologyInsulinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/general-principles-of-insulin-therapy-in-diabetes-mellitus?search=General%20principles%20of%20insulin%20therapy%20in%20diabetes%20mellitus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1regular insulin start its effect at 30 minutes and peek 4=6 hr andaréis acting insulin star at 15 minutes and peek at 2=4 hr.High-yield addition to next year01/08/19 8:33 PM
330340EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancernot neededNew table to more deep understanding of the topicHigh-yield addition to next year01/22/19 6:14 AM
331340EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancernone neededRemember that Medullary Carcinoma is associated with MEN2A and MEN2B by writing it as "MENdullary" (with the two Ls highlighted to remember its association with type 2)Mnemonic03/11/19 4:14 PM
332341EndocrinePathologyParathyroid hormoneMade upPseudohypoparathyroidism (alliteration/Stress the S)---> G"S" protein defect resulting in "S"hortened stature, "S"hortened 3/4th digits & Subnormal PTH responseMnemonic02/15/19 12:38 PM
333343EndocrinePathologyHyperparathyroidismhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127351-overviewAdd that bone resorption in osteitis fibrosa cystica occurs in the SUBPERIOSTEAL layer of boneHigh-yield addition to next year03/07/19 6:16 PM
334344EndocrinePathologyDiabetes insipidusIt's Mnemonic*N*ephrogenic DI --->* N*ormal ADH levels.Mnemonic01/05/19 8:42 AM
335346EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitusPathoma page 166: "Due to autoimmune destruction of beta cells by T lymphocytes." Other authoritative sources include Robbins. Also research articles: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16280652; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119381/; and many, many other reviews and research articles.The autoimmune destruction of of beta cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus from T cells and macrophages, not the autoantibodies. The autoantibodies are present but they are not what causes the destruction. The text implies the antibodies cause the destruction.Major erratum02/16/19 10:35 AM
336346EndocrinePathologyHyperosmolar hyperglycemic statehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1914705-overviewIn this section, near the end where the "Labs" are reported. It says there is "ketone production inhibited by presence of insulin". However, there is no ketone production in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. It should state "NO ketone production". This is an important fact.Major erratum03/04/19 3:28 PM
337347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123447-overviewMEN 1(1 Person): Pituatry,Pancreas,Parathyroid. MEN 2(2 people=Male & Female): Feochromocytoma+Medullary thyroid. Male/Boy(2B) :(Mucosal neuromas/Marfanoid)Mnemonic01/09/19 4:05 AM
338347EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasFirst Aid 2019MEN 1: there is 1 pituitary gland (pituitary tumor), and 1 pancreas (pancreatic tumor). MEN 2: there are 2 adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma) and 2 thyroid lobes (medullary carcinoma of thyroid)Mnemonic02/06/19 10:44 AM
339349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620230/#!po=0.375940In the 4th row, the adverse effects column reads ‘Not recommended if kidney function is impaired.’ This text should be deleted or modified as acarbose is considered an ideal candidate for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.Clarification to current text12/24/18 11:51 PM
340349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus managementN/ADPP-4 inhibitors: "GLIPTIN suffix= GLP-1 LifTIN"Mnemonic02/18/19 9:20 AM
341350EndocrinePharmacologyCinacalcethttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-adult-nondialysis-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease?search=cinacalcet&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~31&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Under secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD should include the specification that it’s approved for dialysis patients only, as it’s not recommended, according to UpToDate, for nondialysis patients.Clarification to current text02/19/19 7:11 PM
342350EndocrinePathologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsIt's Mnemonicpronounce (Cinacalcet) like (Sena*Ca*lcet )= *Sen*sitizes *Ca*2+-sensing receptor.\highlight "sen" and "ca".Mnemonic01/05/19 8:58 AM
343350EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/947954-overviewIn addition to treatment of GH deficiency and Turner syndrome, GH is also used in Prader-Willi SyndromeHigh-yield addition to next year02/17/19 2:08 PM
344354GastrointestinalAnatomyPancreas and spleen embryologyFirst Aid 2019Pancreas and spleen embryology (that contains annular pancreas and pancreas divisum) is mistakenly placed in the first part of the anatomy section instead of the embryology section.Clarification to current text02/28/19 12:00 AM
345354GastrointestinalAnatomyPancreas and spleen embryologyBoards and BeyondAnnular pancreas complications include duodenal obstruction, polyhydramnios, and pancreatitis.High-yield addition to next year02/28/19 12:03 AM
346355GastrointestinalAnatomySpleenhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948863-overview#a2The fact "splenorenal ligament" says that it connects the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall. However, as per the name, the splenorenal ligament is known to connect the spleen to the anterior surface of the left kidney. Per emedicine "The splenorenal ligament extends from the hilum of the spleen to the anterior surface of the left kidney; it contains the tail of the pancreas and splenic vessels."Major erratum03/03/19 9:02 AM
347356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomynot neededTo help remember frequencies of basal electric rhythm, fast to slow: "digestion is slow (stomach), mixing is fast (duodenum), absorption is in between (ileum)"Mnemonic01/09/19 9:40 AM
348356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603487/ and Dr. Jason Ryan of Boards & BeyondSlow waves originate in the interstitial cells of CajalHigh-yield addition to next year01/20/19 7:28 AM
349356GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomyN/AFor Muscularis layers: Bold and color "i" in both inner and circular then bold and hi-light "o" for outer and longitudinal (for the different layers)Mnemonic03/09/19 9:32 PM
350357GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and branchesN/AOrder of anterior-branching arteries of the abdominal aorta = CSI [Crime Scene Investigation], for Celiac, SMA, IMA.Mnemonic01/10/19 10:29 AM
351358GastrointestinalAnatomyCeliac trunkNetter's Clinical Anatomy, 3rd Ed (p. 181); Essential Anatomy 5; https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Thorax-Abdomen-Pelvis/Digestive-system-Illustrations (slide 63)In the figure of the celiac trunk, the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery appear to wrap around the duodenum. Instead, they should wrap around the pancreas: (1) the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery would fit more appropriately at the current location of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and (2) the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery could be depicted as faded behind the pancreas, branching from the gastroduodenal artery at the branchpoint of the current anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.Minor erratum03/09/19 1:53 PM
352360GastrointestinalAnatomyPectinate lineThere was an erratun provided and approved for page 97 dated 2/14/18 for switching internal iliac to common iliac LNLymphatics for above the line drain into internal iliac LN; It should be Common iliac LNs based on newly approved erratumMajor erratum03/01/19 6:51 PM
353361GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architectureMnemonicDistinguishing which type of hepatitis (viral or alcoholic) affects which hepatic zone (Zone I or Zone III) = the # of single full downwards pen strokes made when writing the word “viral” or “alcoholic”, as if you are writing roman numerals of the affected Zone. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 7:42 PM
354361GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architecturehttps://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LIVEHTML/LIVER003.htmlAddition of a histological picture illustrating the zones of the liver, with accompanying text illustrating which area is affected by what. For example- the picture would be as attached, with under "zone 1"; viral hepatitis, ingested toxins, and so on.Clarification to current text02/27/19 10:52 AM
355364GastrointestinalAnatomyHerniashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-inguinal-and-femoral-hernias-in-adults?search=inguinal%20hernia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~119&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H4Move the most common in males to the top of the paragraph to read: "Most common in males. Goes through the...scrotum." Or, change the word scrotum to groin to reflect that it can occur in both sexes.Clarification to current text02/01/19 4:34 PM
356365GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal regulatory substanceshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiology-of-gastrin ,Negative regulation of gastrin is by somatostatin which is missing from the list of regulators. It is especially worth adding here in the table because of its clinical utility as treatment in gastrinomas.High-yield addition to next year02/11/19 12:25 AM
357367GastrointestinalPhysiologyCarbohydrate absorptionnot neededAll are t(2)ransported to blood by GLUT 2 .( Highlight "t" and "2")Mnemonic12/30/18 7:24 AM
358367GastrointestinalPhysiologyCarbohydrate absorptionNot needed.'Fructose' is spelt as 'Frutose' in the diagram of the enterocyte.Spelling/formatting02/10/19 8:21 AM
359367GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal secretory productshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10433005ECL cells are illustrated outside the stomach diagram and it gives the impression that they are not found in the stomach, when in fact, they are.Minor erratum02/06/19 11:05 AM
360367GastrointestinalPhysiologyPancreatic secretionsMnemonicThe only pancreatic enzyme that does not require cleavage/activation by trypsin is ɑ-amylase because “ɑ-amylase is ɑlways active” (or “ɑlready active”). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 8:34 PM
361371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesNoneThe 'New image' annotation box was left in next to the picture of pseudomembrane, on the bottom of the page. It is a yellow box in the margin. Just a formatting error, I don't believe this was supposed to be left in.Spelling/formatting12/22/18 8:53 PM
362371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesFirst AidPlumber DIES instead of Plumbers DIE. The S for increase risk for "S"quamous cell carcinoma.Mnemonic01/11/19 10:47 AM
363371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesFirst Aid 2018Boerhaave Syndrome along with its description is completely missing from the 2019 edition. It is indexed correctly but seems to be deleted.Major erratum01/30/19 8:41 PM
364371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2639970/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5387146/GERD does not show signs of dysphagia. Signs of dysphagia only appears when the patient has progressed to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as they also show signs of weight loss. I think this point should be stated clearly, as it can help students differentiate if a patient has GERD or cancer based on presentationMajor erratum02/04/19 1:28 PM
365371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesMnemonicTo remember that Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural esophageal rupture caused by excessive vomiting, think of it like all those episodes of vomiting have bored a hole through the esophagus and into the mediastinum; like miners drill boreholes into the wall of a cave or mine shaft.Mnemonic02/08/19 7:14 AM
366371GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/eosinophilic-esophagitis-eoe-genetics-and-immunopathogenesis?search=eosinophilic%20esophagitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=4For eosinophilic esophagitis, it is now known that many patients will respond to PPIs (it is not necessarily "typical"), From UpToDate: It is now appreciated that a substantial number of patients with esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, an entity that is now referred to as PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE)Minor erratum03/08/19 5:28 AM
367373GastrointestinalPathologyGastric cancerMnemonicKrukenberg tumors are metastases to the ovaries from gastric adenocarcinoma. There are two more common metastases (Virschow- supraclavicular node, Sister Mary Joseph- periumbilical metastases) and the locations are difficult to remember along with the names. If you remember "Krack the Eggs" then it helps to remember that Krukenberg tumor is a metastasis to the ovaries as eggs are made in the ovaries.Mnemonic02/07/19 10:20 AM
368373GastrointestinalPathologyMénétrier diseaseNot neededFor -Men-etrier think mens (Latin for mind) —> brain —> brain-looking stomachMnemonic02/02/19 11:43 AM
369374GastrointestinalPathologyPeptic ulcer diseasehttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/smallbowelbrunnersgland.htmlDuodenal ulcers are associated with Brunner gland hyperPLASIA NOT hyperTROPHY.Major erratum02/16/19 10:57 AM
370375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesPathoma (‎Fundamentals of Pathology) 2016mucosal absorption affects the jejunum (duodenum is less commonly involved)Minor erratum02/01/19 9:23 PM
371375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesMnemonicABCDE mnemonic for celiac disease: Ig”A” antibodies destroy intestinal “B”illi (villi) to cause “C”eliac disease. “D”uodenum is most commonly affected. May lead to “E”ATL.Mnemonic02/08/19 12:54 PM
372375GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesMnemonicTo remember what celiac disease is and that is it associated with HLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8: "People with CELIAC disease H8 2 eat GLUTEN"Mnemonic02/26/19 6:26 PM
373376GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseaseshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.med.nyu.edu/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-adults?search=ulcerative%20colitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1844647392In comparing UC and Crohns, the text says aphthous ulcers are found in both diseases. But we were taught (and UptoDate seems to confirm) that aphthous ulcers are only seen in Crohn's disease.Minor erratum03/05/19 9:06 PM
374376GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesN/ACrohn (1 word)= Th1 mediated vs Ulcerative Colitis (2 words)= Th2 mediatedMnemonic03/09/19 9:20 PM
375377GastrointestinalPathologyAppendicitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=SURG%2F115333&topicKey=SURG%2F1383&search=appendicitis&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150Treatment for appendicitis is only listed as appendectomy. However, treatment for appendicitis has now been shown to include either appednectomy ORMajor erratum02/11/19 10:15 AM
376380GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulusFirst Aid versions 2018, 2019, and this NCBI article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2780196/.Mnemonic suggestion: Midgut volvulus more common in infants/children (Midgut=Minors); Sigmoid volvulus more common in elderly (Sigmoid=Seniors)Mnemonic01/16/19 6:52 PM
377381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesIt's Mnemonic*P*eutz-Jeghers syndrome ----> hyper*p*igmented .\highlight "P".Mnemonic01/11/19 11:19 AM
378381GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peutz-jeghers-syndrome-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=peutz%20jeghers%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~47&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2Gene mutations associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: STK11High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:33 PM
379382GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromeuworld, uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=lynch%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~99&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H345552210Gene mutations associated with Lynch syndrome: MSH2/6, MLH1High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 8:25 PM
380382GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromeN/a (Just a mnemonic, not stating any new facts)I think of this is as: you CLOSE the genes involved in DNA mismatch repair, where CLOSE is an acronym standing for: (C)olorectal, (L)ynch Syndrome, (O)varian, (S)kin, and (E)ndometrial cancer.Mnemonic02/17/19 9:09 AM
381383GastrointestinalPathologyCirrhosis and portal hypertensionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/185856-overviewCirrhosis increases estrogen effects (which is the cause of gynecomastia, palmar erythema, testicular atrophy and impotence)High-yield addition to next year02/25/19 9:59 AM
382386GastrointestinalPathologyHepatocellular carcinoma/hepatomahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7694895Polycythemia is just listed as a finding of HCC, while the other findings can be inferred based on the decreased function of the liver, polycythemia is not. It should be added that the proposed mechanism is increased EPO from the malignant cells (also referred to in PCV section in secondary causes).High-yield addition to next year02/27/19 1:44 PM
383386GastrointestinalPathologyOther liver tumorsUWorldPer UWorld, cavernous hemangiomas are described as "abnormally dilated capillaries separated by thin connective tissue septa" and can occur in both the liver and brain.High-yield addition to next year02/05/19 5:21 PM
384389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseRobbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease ninth edition , page 858 , table 18 - 11- Most common autoimmune association with Primary biliary cholangitis is Sjogren syndromeHigh-yield addition to next year01/23/19 2:43 PM
385389GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseasebrainprimary (S)clerosing cholangitis (= Sperm for Men) // primary (B)iliary cholangitis (= Breasts for Women) .|| only way I can differentiate the twoMnemonic01/31/19 8:26 AM
386389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/177216-differentialHemochromatosis is associated with increased susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio vulnificus and Yersinia enterolitica infections.High-yield addition to next year01/25/19 6:00 PM
387389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisMnemonicTo remember that Prussian blue stains iron deposits, imagine a Russian weightlifter turning blue while “pumping iron”. (Also may be applied to the “Sideroblastic Anemia” section on pg. 411). Colored image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 11:05 PM
388389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnot neededcurrently H"FE" is highlighted in red to reflect "iron", but down the road this can be forgotten especially with too many genes to memorize as you study the book. I suggest changing it to; HFE stands for human “Ferrous Enterocytes” and by that you remember that the problem with intestinal enterocytes absorbing Fe!Mnemonic03/01/19 6:13 PM
389389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnot neededmedications: deFERasirox, deFERoxamine, deFERiprone for ferrous, is for FeMnemonic03/01/19 6:13 PM
390389GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseMnemonicTo remember Wilson Disease results from impaired copper transport/excessive deposition, picture 28th U.S. President Woodrow Wilson on the penny. Image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 11:33 PM
391390GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/gallstones-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-prevention?search=tpn%20gallstone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2608614826TPN is mainly a risk factor for cholesterol stones not pigment stonesMinor erratum02/09/19 8:57 AM
392392GastrointestinalPharmacologyHistamine-2 blockershttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00455The mnemonic currently is "table for 2" because H2 blockers have "dine" in it and block H2 receptors. The issue is that Loratadine and Terfenadine also have "dine" in it and are H1 blockers. I would suggest just changing it to include the "idine" to add accuracy. So the new mnemonic can be "I dine with H2o" because most of us do have water when we eat or "I dine at 2" which is a bit weird since 2 is a weird time to eat. Either way, you get the drift.Mnemonic01/17/19 11:38 AM
393394GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativesN/ASenna turns the colon black like Henna (melanosis coli). Colonoscopy pictures of melanosis coli actually look strangely like they are coated with Henna!Mnemonic02/18/19 1:58 AM
394397Hematology and OncologyPathologyBlood groupshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/red-blood-cell-antigens-and-antibodies?search=Red%20blood%20cell%20antigens%20and%20antibodies&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the table , row “Antibodies in plasma” , column “Rh-“ , replace the image of the anti-D igG with None. In fact the Anti-D igG is an immune antibody and not a natural antibody like anti-ABO antibodies. It’s clearly stated in the paragraph “Rh antibodies” of the UpToDate article “Red blood cell antigens and antibodies”.Major erratum01/23/19 4:57 AM
395397Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_systemAnti-A and anti-B antidodies that RBC Type O are most likly IgG and not IgM as the text picture indicatesMinor erratum02/23/19 5:00 PM
396397Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemolytic disease of the newbornnot neededType O mother; typer A or B fetus. To add Type AB fetus tooMajor erratum03/01/19 6:19 PM
397398Hematology and OncologyAnatomyHematopoiesishttps://books.google.com/books?id=zolYg-SsVhQC&pg=PA358&lpg=PA358&dq=myeloblast+lineage&source=bl&ots=pLKZqP70bt&sig=ACfU3U3TlfSFnczw3ff4w0zIiK-MBtBrXg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipmuHE-PzgAhUHP6wKHQ6LCAcQ6AEwFnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=myeloblast%20lineage&f=falseMost people use BEN (basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil) to remember myleoblast lineage - next year's book can list the cells in that order, and add the mnemonic!Mnemonic03/12/19 10:45 AM
398399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388527It mentions that Langerhans cells are macrophages derivatives. Whereas in old first aid (2016) and on uworld it says that Langerhans cells are dendritic cells.Major erratum01/14/19 6:37 PM
399399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)14323-1/fulltextChange Langerhans cells to Langhans cell. Langhans cells is a are large cells found in granulomatous conditions. They are formed by the fusion of epithelioid cells (macrophages), and this cells is different than langeRhans cells, which are mononuclear epidermal dendritic cells derived (like Langhans cells) from monocytes.Major erratum01/30/19 12:10 PM
400399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16405098to add "Langhans cells" when describing granuloma formation, and to remind not to mix it with "Langerhans" dendritic cells in skinHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:57 PM
401399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)not neededplatelet factor *f*our (4) \suggest writing "four" and highlight *f* or highlight *4* to match mnemonic.Mnemonic12/31/18 2:30 PM
402399Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)N/AThink DenCe granules ( aDp, Ca )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:31 AM
403400Hematology and OncologyAnatomyEosinophilshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/embolism-from-atherosclerotic-plaque-atheroembolism-cholesterol-crystal-embolism PS* photo attached is from Pocket Medicine, 6thCholesterol emboli syndrome is a cause of eosinophilia. Add to one of the causes and add to the mnemonic: PACCCMANHigh-yield addition to next year02/08/19 11:59 PM
404402Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresismy brainCan Santa Fly Around the world ?Mnemonic02/03/19 2:33 PM
405403Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyThrombogenesisuptodate.com, UWorldadd Desmopressin activate release of vWF from endothelial cellsHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:01 PM
406404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hemostasis?search=hmwk&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~17&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Add HMWK = High-molecular-weight kininogen to the image captionClarification to current text01/02/19 12:29 PM
407404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/bloodjournal/100/3/743.full.pdf?sso-checked=trueFactor XIII requires calcium to convert to XIIIa.Minor erratum01/11/19 7:13 AM
408404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysUWORLD question banksFor Fibrinolytic system: to add the following thrombolytics (Urokinase, Kallikerin, Hageman faxtor XII), also both tPA and Urokinase are inhibited by PAI( Plasminogen activator inhibitor). Also the following are direct PLASMIN inhibitors (Tranexamic Acid, Aprotinin, alpha 2 microglobulin, alpha 2 atitrypsin)High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 5:59 PM
409404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906870under anti IIa (tmrombin) meds box: it say heparin (greatest efficacy). Actually there is obvious conflict in literature regarding the effictivness of H vs LMWH and the general sense is that there is no superiority in effectivness of one over the other although many practitioners claim that LMWH is more effective than Heparin. LMWH is associated with less HIT. I recommend removing "Greatest Efficay"Major erratum03/01/19 6:10 PM
410404Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysn/aI remember that Hemophilia B is aka as Christmas disease and is due to factor IX deficiency, by the mnemonic "NINE Before CHRISTMAS" = factor NINE, hemophilia B, CHRISTMAS diseaseMnemonic03/04/19 1:08 PM
411405Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulation componentshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19141161The inactive vitamin K dependent coagulation factors are listed as II, VII, IX, C, S. Factor X was neglected. It is, however, listed as a mature, carboxylated factor.Minor erratum01/04/19 11:15 AM
412405Hematology and OncologyAnatomyVitamin K–dependent coagulation componentsFa 2017Factor 10 should be included for the inactive stateMinor erratum02/22/19 10:15 AM
413408Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaInformation taken from First AidBurkitt Lymphoma, a t(8:14) of C-myc with a starry sky appearance. "At 8:14pm look up and SEE(c-myc) the STARRY SKY"Mnemonic02/07/19 3:45 PM
414409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/780334-overview ; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2086146-overviewConsider adding "acute blood loss" to the graphic depicting the differential diagnosis of anemia. Acute blood loss typically presents as a normocytic anemia with an elevated reticulocyte index. This addition should be considered since acute blood loss is stated as "the most common cause of acute anemia seen in the emergency department (ED)" in Medscape. Links provided in the "supporting references" section.High-yield addition to next year01/04/19 6:42 PM
415409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-adult-with-anemia?search=Approach%20to%20the%20adult%20with%20anemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In normocytic hemolytic anemia, the bone marrow response is usually normal so the reticulocyte index is > 3% and not > 2% according to the UpToDate article “Approach to the adult with anemia”, paragraph “decrease in effective red cell production”, line 4. So In the diagram, under “hemolytic”, replace reticulocyte index > 2% with > 3%.Minor erratum01/23/19 4:28 AM
416409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hereditary-spherocytosis?search=hereditary%20spherocytosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~87&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1623571274'Hereditary Spherocytosis' is listed as an Intrinsic (Intravascular) Hemolytic, Normocytic Anemia. I believe it is more properly categorized as an 'Extrinsic' (Extravascular) Hemolytic, Normocytic Anemia. While progressive cell membrane loss does impair RBC ability to traverse microcirculation, the spleen is where the ultimate destruction (phagocytosis) of the Spherocytes takes place.Minor erratum02/19/19 3:27 PM
417409Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasFA 2017Sideroblastic Anemia is not included among Microcytic Anemias in the chartMinor erratum02/22/19 12:12 PM
418410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Alpha thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 16High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:31 AM
419410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22200/Beta thalassemia is more commonly due to defect on chromosome 11High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 2:32 AM
420410Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202333-overview#showall (as well as Pathoma [2018] pg. 42 . Dr. Husain Sattar)Hookworms (namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator Americanus) cause Iron Deficiency AnemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:41 PM
421411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasN/AExposure risk in Lead Poisoning should include exposure to batteries (like workers in a factory), or exposure to ammunition. Both of these exposure risks are included in the Lead Poisoning section on page 417.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:38 PM
422411Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasDr. Sattar's PathomaClarify the increase in RBC protoporphyrin for lead poisoning as inhibited ALAD should lead to a decrease (hence why lead poisoning can lead to a sideroblastic anemiaClarification to current text01/06/19 5:57 PM
423413Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningmnemonicTo remember intermediates in heme synthesis and porphyrias: Pour Hot Ugandan Coffee Pronto (Porphobilinogen, Hydroxymethylbilane, uroporphyrinogen III, Coproporphyrinogen III, Protoporphyran)Mnemonic12/22/18 1:31 PM
424414Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206107-overviewUnder Intrinsic hemolytic anemias there is hereditary spherocytosis listed. Hereditary spherocytosis is an intrinsic defect in the RBC but it is an extravascular hemolytic anemia. I suggest moving hereditary spherocytosis to page 415 under extrinsic anemia.Minor erratum01/20/19 1:48 PM
425416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studiesGoljan 4th edition page 295, Pathoma 2018 edition page 43For anemia of chronic disease the % transferrin saturation is decreased.Major erratum01/12/19 10:48 PM
426416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-and-diagnosis-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-adults?search=iron%20deficiency%20stages&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the table it’s indicated that the first disturbance of iron deficiency is decreased serum iron. In fact, the first disturbance of iron deficiency is low ferritin (iron stores) , so the down arrow next to ferritin should be in red and the one next to serum iron should be in black. It is clearly specified in the UpToDate article (Causes and diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in adults) in “Progressive Iron depletion” and illustrated in table 4.Minor erratum01/23/19 3:56 AM
427416Hematology and OncologyPathologyInterpretation of iron studiesMnemonicTo remember which iron storage molecule is exclusively intracellular and which is found in serum, remember that HemoSIDErin “Hides inSIDE” the cell, while FERRitin is FREE to Float in the serum. Color coded image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 10:51 PM
428417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningUpToDate: Porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis; https://www-uptodate-com.proxy1.lib.tju.edu/contents/porphyria-cutanea-tarda-and-hepatoerythropoietic-porphyria-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=porphyria%20cutanea%20tarda&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~58&usage_type=default&display_rank=1acquired not autosomal dominantMinor erratum01/17/19 7:56 AM
429417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/heme-porphyrin.php#synthesisleaD poisoning= ALA(D) deficiency. Vitamin B Six deficiency= ALA(S) deficiencyMnemonic02/07/19 2:26 AM
430417Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningn/aTo remember the enzymes related to the two main porphyrias (PBG for AIP and UROD for PCT): It is INTERMITTENTLY necessary to Pull out the Big Guns. U were TARDy (tarda) becase U ROD the bus to stay out of the sun.Mnemonic02/22/19 2:12 PM
431418Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersN/AHemophilia A is deficient in factor Aight ( 8 )Mnemonic01/04/19 3:29 AM
432418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoninghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215844/Replace "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary ) " to "Seen in patients with 1 (hereditary hemochromatosis)".Clarification to current text01/04/19 1:45 PM
433418Hematology and OncologyPathologyIron poisoningnot neededIron (Ferrous) chalting agents: IV deFERoxamine, oral deFERasiroxMnemonic03/01/19 6:20 PM
434418Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.medlib.uits.iu.edu/contents/epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-burkitt-lymphoma?search=burkitt%20lymphoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~74&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Burkitt Lymphoma - t(8;14) - translocation of c-myc (8) and heavy-chain Ig (14). "C-my-crush? We had our first kiss (EBV) when we were in 8th grade, at age 14."Mnemonic03/08/19 2:35 PM
435419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4989643/ as well as Dr. Hussien Satar (Pathoma)IgG against the platelet antigens (GpIIb/IIIa) can cross the placenta and cause a short-lived thrombocytopenia in the newbornHigh-yield addition to next year01/03/19 4:59 AM
436419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUWORLD, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/platelet-dysfunction-in-uremiaUremic Platelet Dysfunction: Excessive bleeding in patients with renal dysfunction due to accumulation of uremic toxins that impair platelet aggregation and adhesion. Increase BT with normal PC. Patients improve with dialysisHigh-yield addition to next year01/04/19 3:42 AM
437419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersUptodate and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136592/Add in: "Treatment dependent on severity of thrombocytopenia; observation only for those with mild cases." Also note that ITP is most commonly caused by IgG against GPIIb/IIIa (there are other platelet glycoproteins that can be targeted resulting in ITP as well as T-cell/cell-mediated route opposed to just antibody mediated).Clarification to current text01/11/19 6:23 PM
438419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersN/ASymptoms of TTP mnemonic: FAT RN (Fever, microangiopathic hemolytic Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Failure, Neurologic symptoms)Mnemonic01/12/19 10:53 AM
439419Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acquired-ttp-initial-treatmentA new drug has been approved in Europe for acquired TTP (US FDA most likely to approve on Feb 6th, 2019 - currently on fastrack) - Anti-von Willebrand factor Caplacizumab (Cablivi™) is set to become the first line treatment for acquired TTP (vs existing plasmapheresis). *The target action date for the FDA decision is February 6, 2019.*High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 2:53 PM
440420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMixed platelet and coagulation disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Transfusion is too generic. DIC often occurs in the setting of intravascular hemolysis, often due to an Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (AHTR).Clarification to current text01/16/19 2:31 PM
441420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMixed platelet and coagulation disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-adults?search=DIC%20causes&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H255175&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H255175Intravascular hemolysis is one of the causes of DIC (e.g., AHTR and malaria).High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 2:32 PM
442421Hematology and OncologyPathologyBlood transfusion therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/red-blood-cell-transfusion-in-infants-and-children-selection-of-blood-products?search=irradiated%20blood%20SCID&usage_type=default&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~145&display_rank=2Irradiated packed RBCs: Preserve RBCs, platelets, but remove any inmune cells which may cause a reaction. CLINICAL USE: SCIDHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/19 11:15 PM
443422Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BCL6for the Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma please include that "BCl-6 is on chromosome 3"High-yield addition to next year12/30/18 11:48 PM
444422Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphoma1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma 2. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-i-virology-pathogenesis-and-epidemiology1. Only approximately 25% of the adult T-cell lymphoma patients will have skin lesions at diagnosis. So the text should be corrected as "Adults may present with cutaneous lesions", as 75% of the patients do not experience this symptom. 2. HTLV-I is primarily transmitted by breastfeeding, although spread via blood transfusion, sharing of needles, and sexual intercourse also occurs. So authors should add "breastfeeding" to the "associated with IV drug abuse" sentence, as it is the most common method of transmission.Clarification to current text01/25/19 2:48 PM
445423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMultiple myelomahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204369-overview#a3; Dr. Jason Ryan of Boards and Beyond mentions this as an important fact in his reputable board-review series.Multiple Myeloma, and the growth of myeloma cells, is highly dependent on IL-6. It is required required for myeloma cell proliferation.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 5:08 AM
446423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMultiple myelomahttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/17/9/2533; uworldThe filtered light chains may cause intrarenal obstruction in the distal nephron by co-aggregating with the carbohydrate moiety of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, which is produced in the thick ascending limb of the loop of HenleHigh-yield addition to next year02/27/19 8:20 AM
447423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMyelodysplastic syndromeslecture slidesWould be helpful to mention that MDS has increased bone marrow cellularity (cells don't leave marrow). and the 100-age for normal cellularity estimation. This is in contrast to aplastic anemia which is hypocellular.High-yield addition to next year01/16/19 11:14 AM
448423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMyelodysplastic syndromeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-the-myelodysplastic-syndromes?search=myelodysplastic%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H37if Blast in bone marrow is high but less than 20% so it suggests MDS. Bone marrow blasts of >20% suggest AML. improtant way to diffrentiate between them.High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:15 PM
449424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasMnemonicAML - "A*uer rods, M*yeloperoxidase positive, myeL*oblasts" (bolded pathognomonic signs)Mnemonic01/11/19 6:01 AM
450424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1300874arsenic +ATRA treatment is specific to acute promyelocytic leukemiaClarification to current text01/16/19 11:01 AM
451424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30030507; https://www.astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2018/us-fda-approves-lumoxiti-moxetumomab-pasudotox-tdfk-for-certain-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-hairy-cell-leukaemia.htmladd in Moxetumomab pasudotox for treatment for relapse/ refactory hairy cell leukemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/16/19 9:31 PM
452424Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasPathomaHairy cell leukemia; stain positive for TRAP. these cells get TRAPped in spleenic redbulb causing spleenomegaly. so less Lymphadenopathy found, also bone marrow gets dry (fibrosis) as they are TRAPped in SpleenMnemonic03/01/19 6:17 PM
453425Hematology and OncologyPathologyChronic myeloproliferative disordersFA2018I saw that the JAK2 mutation (V617F) was removed from FA2019. While it makes sense that it was removed from the general section description as it does not pertain to ET or myelofibrosis, it should be readded under the subsection of polycythemia vera as it is present in ~95% of cases)Clarification to current text01/16/19 12:36 PM
454426Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosisFirst Aid p 228, Uworld"Cells express S-100 (mesodermal origin)" should say "Cells express S-100 (neural crest origin)" because Langerhans cells are of neural crest origin, not mesodermal origin. The stain S-100 also only stains for cells of neural crest origin.Major erratum02/06/19 9:11 PM
455426Hematology and OncologyPathologyTumor lysis syndromeN/APUcK for remembering the electrolytes imbalances in TLS. Capitalization means hyper and lowercase means hypo. P (hyperphosphatemia) U (hyperuricemia) c (hypocalcemia) K (hyperkalemia)Mnemonic01/14/19 11:26 AM
456426Hematology and OncologyPathologyTumor lysis syndromeN/ATumor lysis syndrome is associated with chemotherapy which often makes you vomit/puke: so remember hyperPUKe for TLS--> hyperPhosphatemia, hyperUricemia, hyperKalemiaMnemonic01/14/19 2:19 PM
457427Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect thrombin inhibitorshttps://reference.medscape.com/refdrug-srch/angiomax-angiox-bivalirudin-342137bivaliruDIN - direct inhibitor of thrombin., dabigaTRAN- ThRombin antagonist.Mnemonic02/25/19 6:14 PM
458427Hematology and OncologyPathologyHemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis?search=lymphohistiocytosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~86&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Add "Associated with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome", as this is nogted in the Chediak-Higashi section in the Immunology section in first aid on page 117.High-yield addition to next year01/22/19 2:24 PM
459427Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinUWorldProtamine is isolated from Salmon Sperm; contraindicated in case of shell-fish allergy. Causes HSR type IHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:03 PM
460427Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinuptodate.comAntithrombin decrease the action of activated IIa, IXa, Xa, XIIa and XIIa (not only IIa and Xa)Major erratum03/01/19 6:06 PM
461429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyADP receptor inhibitorsnot neededmechanism is inhibiting platelets "activation" (no expression of p2y12 R) which leads to inhibition of platelets "aggregation"Minor erratum03/01/19 6:05 PM
462429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect factor Xa inhibitorsnot neededApixaban, rivaroxaban (Api-Xa-BAN because it bans Xa)Mnemonic01/09/19 12:35 PM
463429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect factor Xa inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-bleeding-in-patients-receiving-direct-oral-anticoagulants?sectionName=Rivaroxaban,%20apixaban,%20edoxaban,%20betrixaban%20(reversal)&search=direct%20factor%20Xa%20inhibitors&topicRef=1370&anchor=H3105446&source=see_link#H3105446Antidote for rivaroxaban and apixaban toxicity was FDA approved in 2018. It's called Andexanet.High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 12:23 AM
464429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect factor Xa inhibitorshttps://reference.medscape.com/refdrug-srch/xarelto-rivaroxaban-999670rivaroxaban- RIVAR-read like reversible O- oral, XA- XA , B- blocker, or AN - antagonist.Mnemonic02/25/19 6:20 PM
465429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyGlycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitorsMnemonicTEA at 2 or 3? (Tirofiban, Eptifibatide, Abciximab bind to Gp2b3a)Mnemonic02/20/19 7:54 AM
466429Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyGlycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitorsnot neededIIb/IIIa is a FIBrinogen receptor; to highlight eptiFIBatide and tiroFIBanMinor erratum03/01/19 6:02 PM
467430Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCancer drugs––cell cycleFirst AidCladribine is not S-phase specific. It is cell-cycle independent. This is clarified on page 432 but the current diagram is not consistent with the clarification.Minor erratum12/26/18 11:37 PM
468431Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntitumor antibioticshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3461790/Bleomycin is also used as an intra-lesional sclerotherapy agent in lymphangiomas. Add this clinical use will also reinforce the idea that it promotes fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis).High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 1:41 AM
469432Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntimetaboliteshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fluoropyrimidine-associated-cardiotoxicity-incidence-clinical-manifestations-mechanisms-and-management5-fluorouracil-induced coronary artery spasm is a potentially lethal side effect that needs to be addressed here.High-yield addition to next year01/10/19 11:50 AM
470434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyEtoposide, teniposideN/AMove II the -side. To memorize that etoposide and teniposide are topoisomerase II inhibitors.Mnemonic01/13/19 5:50 AM
471434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyImatinib, dasatinibN/A"Im -abl to inhibit tyrosine kinase". In order to remember that IMatinib is an inhibitor of bcr-abl.Mnemonic01/13/19 5:56 AM
472434Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyIrinotecan, topotecanN/A"I -can". To memorize that Irinotecan and Topotecan are topoisomerase I inhibitorsMnemonic01/13/19 5:53 AM
473435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTamoxifen, raloxifenehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mechanisms-of-action-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-and-down-regulators "Both raloxifene and tamoxifen also induce hot flashes (an estrogen antagonist effect)"Hot flashes can be caused by raloxifene as well, not only tamoxifen.Clarification to current text01/07/19 3:10 AM
474435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTrastuzumabhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/herceptin-ogivri-trastuzumab-342231In adverse effects, it says that "Heartceptin" damages the heart. I didn't understand what heartceptin was referring to so I googled and found out it is another name for trastuzumab. In First Aid 2018 there is herceptin written next to the fact title but in First Aid 2019 there isn't.Clarification to current text12/28/18 3:51 PM
475436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyKey chemotoxicitiesFA 2018 page 431, Antitumor antibiotics sectionAdd daunorubicin next to doxorubicin (same format with the D capitalized and in red color).High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:12 AM
476438Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyRotator cuff muscleshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teres_minor_muscle. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/rotator-cuff-tendinitis-and-tear-beyond-the-basics#H1Rotator cuff muscles: Teres minor: (axillary nerve) Adducts* and externally rotate arm I would like to suggest a correction over here, it should be abduction, I have gone through multiple resources and it confirms that it should be Abduction. Referred Books: Textbook of Orthopedics by JOHN EBNEZAR,HARRISON MEDICINE ,GRAYS ANATOMYMinor erratum02/14/19 10:43 PM
477438Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySpinal cord—lower extenthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-low-back-pain-in-adults?search=Evaluation%20of%20low%20back%20pain%20in%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Differential diagnosis of back pain.High-yield addition to next year01/15/19 11:52 PM
478439Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyWrist regionFA 2019 for Usmle step 1 Text Book, Page 439on line 11th, after the phrase "the radial artery", there are two dots: (..) instead of one at the end of the sentence.Spelling/formatting01/06/19 6:32 PM
479440Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nerveshttps://teachmeanatomy.info/upper-limb/muscles/upper-arm/ https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-upper-extremity-peripheral-nerve-syndromes?search=musculocutaneous%20nerve&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H7507770The musculocutaneous nerve supplies the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm, not the triceps and thus the triceps reflex should not be affected although it is supplied by C7 (radial nerve)Major erratum01/13/19 3:23 AM
480440Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nervesZorrilla S. de Neira, J., Prada-Cañizares, A., Marti-Ciruelos, R. et al. International Orthopaedics (SICOT) (2015) 39: 2287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-015-2975-4Supracondylar fractures that are anterolateral may damage the radial nerve. If it is anteromedial, it will affect the median nerve.Clarification to current text02/04/19 5:58 PM
481440Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nervesZorrilla S. de Neira, J., Prada-Cañizares, A., Marti-Ciruelos, R. et al. International Orthopaedics (SICOT) (2015) 39: 2287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-015-2975-4Supracondylar fractures that are anterolateral may damage the radial nerve. If it is anteromedial, it will affect the median nerve.Clarification to current text02/04/19 7:40 PM
482440Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyUpper extremity nervesMnemonicTo remember the directional movements of supination and pronation, use your left hand and position it with your palm facing the floor. From this position, thumbs up = supination (“super”nation) and thumbs down = pronation (your hand makes the shape of a “P”). Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/08/19 7:22 AM
483441Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMovement disordershttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510573_9under erb palsy, the teres minor muscle and serratus anterior are also affected but it is not mentioned under muscle deficit.Major erratum01/19/19 7:49 PM
484442Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyDistortions of the handhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1243669-overviewTo remember that clawing is best elicited with distal lesions while extending the fingers: "The lion must EXTEND his CLAWS to catch DISTAL prey."Mnemonic02/14/19 11:13 AM
485444Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyLower extremity nervesGray's Anatomy for Students, http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/413852, https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780702051319000067?scrollTo=%23hl0003000While the pectineus is part of the adductor muscle group of the medial thigh, it is not innervated by the obturator nerve. It is in fact majorly innervated by the femoral nerve and should be classified as such. Anatomical literature reflects conflicting evidence as to the existence of an accessory obturator nerve (AON), which is believed to contribute to pectineus function. However the AON is an anatomical variant infrequently expressed among the population. While obturator nerve damage will result in loss of adduction and medial thigh sensation, the vats majority of this pathology will be caused by denervation of the other adductor muscles, not the pectineus.Clarification to current text01/30/19 5:55 PM
486445Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyActions of hip musclesNetter AtlasUnder the flexors category, rectus femoris is listed, which is one of the muscles considered part of the quadriceps. Although, under the femoral nerve section the innervated muscle is the "quadriceps"- without explanation that this is actually 4 muscles, or that one of these is the rectus femoris (which is the flexor the hip), which is listed later. In short- suggestion to make consistent either just using quadriceps, or saying rectus femoris (quadriceps)- so that it is clear what its innervation is.Clarification to current text02/27/19 6:56 PM
487448Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyAchondroplasiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/achondroplasia?search=achondroplasia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~114&usage_type=default&display_rank=1"Membranous ossification is affected", should instead be "Membranous ossification is NOT affected". Endochondral ossification is affected while membranous ossification is not affected, hence leading to a large head relative to limbs.Minor erratum12/27/18 7:50 AM
488449Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteopetrosishttp://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-73/issue-9/839.htmlAlso known as "Marble Bone Disease". was a question about in UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year12/22/18 9:35 PM
489450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMuscle proprioceptorsnot neededthe title "Muscle proprioceptors" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:15 AM
490450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMuscle proprioceptorsFAMuscle Spindle--- bold in red the LE at the end of muscle and spindle and the LE of length. Golgi Tendon organ-- Golgi "Tension" organMnemonic02/27/19 7:14 PM
491450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteitis deformanshttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/713989_9Pagets disease is caused by: Paramyxovirus (measles and RSV)High-yield addition to next year12/24/18 5:37 PM
492451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOveruse injuries of the elbowMyselfGolfer's try to put ball in Middle of the holes. Tennis players try to hit balls in Lateral court. Hence, Golfer's have medial epicondyle injury while tennis players have lateral epicondyle injury.Mnemonic01/31/19 9:08 AM
493451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyWrist and hand injuries1- https://www.uptodate.com/contents/metacarpal-neck-fractures , 2-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer%27s_fracture , 3-https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060459/ ,, 4-https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/boxers-fracture#1boxer's fracture :most commonly seen in 5th metacarpal ,then in 4th metacarpal .(to be more precise).Clarification to current text01/24/19 1:22 PM
494452Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431095/In the description of the "unhappy triad" it is described as "due to lateral force applied to a planted foot" and the zoomed out (full leg) picture next to it shows that described "lateral force". HOWEVER, the force is actually a medially directed force applied to the lateral leg. The zoomed in picture correctly shows this. Technically the medial foot has a lateral force from friction against the ground, but that isn’t what the picture is describing. So the zoomed in picture correctly shows a medially directed force to the lateral leg, however the full-leg picture shows the opposite. The best description of this would be a “Valgus force” which is equally accurate for both the lateral force applied to the medial ankle, and medial force applied to the lateral knee. Both result in Valgus stress that would tear the MCL. (The importance of this is that in the abnormal passive abduction test for MCL tear on page 443, the force is correctly described as a lateral force, so the force description on page 452 would directly contradict that)Clarification to current text03/03/19 1:23 AM
495453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imhI6PLtGLcThe text mentions "Ortolani and Barlow maneuvers" but by convention it is named "Barlow and Ortolani Maneuvers". The reason for specific order lies in fact that Barlow Maneuver is always performed before Ortolani maneuver to confirm the developmental dysplasia of hip. Also, this maneuver is usually performed at the age 0-3 months as it comes negative usually after the age of 3 months.Minor erratum01/10/19 6:41 AM
496453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionshttps://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-scfeSlipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis indicates age as approximately 12 yo. and does not provide direction. Usually, the age of occurrence is 12-16 yo for Boys and 10-14 yo for girls. The Epiphysis is shifted downwards compared to femoral neck.Minor erratum01/10/19 7:05 AM
497453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionsnot neededthe phrase "Patellofemoral" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:17 AM
498455Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteitis deformansIt's MnemonicPaget disease --> 4 H's : Hat size , Hearing loss , High-output cardiac failure , High risk of osteosarcomaMnemonic01/22/19 12:47 PM
499455Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteopetrosishttp://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-73/issue-9/839.htmlAlso known as "Marble Bone Disease". was a question about in UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:59 PM
500456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsIt's MnemonicosteoBlastoma : verteBrae , Big size( > 2cm) , Bad response to NSAIDS.Mnemonic01/22/19 12:49 PM
501456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1255364-overviewThe Giant cell tumor is locally aggressive benign tumor in most cases but they have potential of metastasis (NCI as well as Robbins Pathology text book). The chances of metastasis to distant sites is 1-9% (Medscape)Minor erratum02/02/19 6:11 AM
502456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsMyself.Osteoblastomas vs. Osteoid Osteomas. "osteoBlastomas are Bigger, Badder, and Backer than Osteoid Osteomas" Meaning= Bigger: Osteoblastomas (>2 cm vs. <2 cm=Osteois Os); Badder: OBs don't respond to Aspirin but OstOmas do respond; Backer: OsteoBs located in VertebraeMnemonic02/17/19 5:54 PM
503457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsFA 2019 Page 457white arrow*s* in (F).Spelling/formatting01/04/19 12:33 PM
504457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27265835Ewing sarcoma was originally thought to be neuroectodermal in origin but is now believed to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell.Major erratum02/04/19 2:16 PM
505457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsUW question #15635Ewing Sarcoma is of mesenchymal stem cell origin (previously thought to be neuroectodermal in origin)Major erratum02/05/19 1:43 PM
506458Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hla-and-other-susceptibility-genes-in-rheumatoid-arthritisRheumatoid Arthritis is associated with HLA-DR4. However, it will be good to specify the gene locus HLA-DRB1 too. It will help reduce the confusion if question asks about gene locus.High-yield addition to next year02/16/19 10:54 AM
507458Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisn/aHand joints affected by each type of arthritis: O, BRO starting from fingertips and moving proximally. DIP joints = O (osteoarthritis), PIP joints = B (both osteo and rheumatoid arthritis), MCP joints = R (rheumatoid arthritis), CMC joint of thumb = O (osteoarthritis). See figure for clarification.Mnemonic02/17/19 3:31 PM
508459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyGoutn/a"Get OUT is an INDY film" i.e. treat gout with indomethacinMnemonic02/17/19 3:26 PM
509461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritisnot neededthe phrase "spondylarthritis" is highlighted in yellow ,I suggested removing the highlight , It's not in the book style.Clarification to current text01/01/19 10:21 AM
510461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/heel-pain-in-the-active-child-or-skeletally-immature-adolescent-overview-of-causes; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-axial-spondyloarthritis-ankylosing-spondylitis-and-nonradiographic-axial-spondyloarthritis-in-adultsadd that "Enthesitis presents as heel pain"High-yield addition to next year02/06/19 11:48 AM
511462Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySystemic lupus erythematosushttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000991209290354U?via%3Dihub # https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561694/drug induced lupus : autoantibodies to nuclear histone present in 95% of cases, less renal and neural symptomsHigh-yield addition to next year02/19/19 1:46 PM
512463Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNeuromuscular junction diseaseshttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjx4_mah5HgAhUMTY8KHeDZC7wQFjAAegQIChAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.uptodate.com%2Fcontents%2Flambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-treatment-and-prognosis&usg=AOvVaw3o4iXbgW-ZZND2oy_ugYdPFDA approved Amifampridine (oral potassium channel blocker) as the first drug for the treatment of Lambert Eaton syndrome.High-yield addition to next year01/28/19 12:08 PM
513463Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPolymyositis/dermatomyositisFirst AidDermatomyositis is CD4 mediated. D is the 4th letter of the alphabet.Mnemonic03/04/19 6:51 PM
514466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyDermatologic macroscopic termshttps://courses.washington.edu/hubio567/lang/vesicle.htmlThe text mentions vesicle<1cm and Bulla>1cm. However several references mentions Vesicle size < 0.5 cm and Bulla size > 0.5 cmMinor erratum01/17/19 11:49 AM
515466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyDermatologic macroscopic termshttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/skinnontumoracanthosisnigricans.htmlOrthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (NOT ACTUALLY ACANTHOSIS ) and papillomatosis of stratum spinosumMinor erratum02/13/19 6:26 PM
516466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyDermatologic macroscopic termshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=DERM%2F70809The image letter C seems to be referring to a nevus currently but the image shows an acne pustule (as seen in attached reference), so the letter C should be moved after acne.Minor erratum03/04/19 5:21 PM
517468Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyCommon skin disordersI have seen this mentioned in other resources including Pathoma and Boards & Beyond. I will include this paper from Nature as well as an earlier characterization of this association published in the American Journal of Human Genetics. (1) https://www.nature.com/articles/ng.694 (2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16642438Psoriasis has been found to be associated with HLA-CHigh-yield addition to next year01/24/19 9:13 PM
518469Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyVascular tumors of skinhttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6234/cystic-hygromacystic hygroma - cavernous lymphangioma of the neck,assoiated with turner syndromeMajor erratum02/06/19 9:00 PM
519470Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin infectionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/910570-workupThe histologic picture of Molluscum Contagiosum cytoplasmic bodies is very high yield to know for step1High-yield addition to next year01/10/19 10:33 AM
520470Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin infectionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/788199-overview ALSO SEE Vivian H Chu, MD, MHS. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. https://www.uptodate.com (Accessed on February 24, 2019.)The majority of clinically reported cases of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome are due to S. aureusMinor erratum02/24/19 8:42 PM
521470Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/oral-leukoplakia?search=hairy%20leukoplakia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~138&usage_type=default&display_rank=2It is inferred that Hairy Leukoplakia is non-cancerous by the last sentence of "Contrast with thrush (scrapable) and leukoplakia (precancerous)", but it is not stated that hairy leukoplakia is not pre-cancerous, as it is stated that it cannot be scraped away. Possibly add after "cannot be scraped off", "not-precancerous". Then the last sentence would be more clear.Clarification to current text02/28/19 8:51 AM
522471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordersFirst AidVulgar words come from the mouth so there's oral involvementMnemonic01/11/19 1:56 PM
523471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-pemphigus?search=pemphigus%20vulgaris&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~43&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Pemphigus vulgaris always has desmoglein-3 antibodies with or without desmoglein-1. However, it cannot be desmoglein 1 without desmoglein 3 as that would be a different entity (pemphigus foliaceous)Minor erratum01/29/19 12:14 PM
524471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordersMnemonicTo remember which skin blistering disorders stimulate specific IgG vs IgA antibodies, just look at the letters in the name of each disease. DermAtitis herpetiformis produces specific IgA antibodies, while bullous pemphiGoid and pemphiGus vulGaris both produce specific IgG antibodies (don’t let the lone “A” in “vulgaris” fool you; “pemphigus vulgaris” has two “G”s to emphasize production of IgG antibodies).Mnemonic02/08/19 12:16 PM
525471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyOther blistering skin disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathogenesis-classification-and-clinical-features-of-epidermolysis-bullosaInclude information about epidermolysis bullosa, which is one of the topics specifically mentioned in the USMLE content outline (https://www.usmle.org/pdfs/usmlecontentoutline.pdf, page 12). I think mentioning that the simplex type is the most common, involves blisters in areas of trauma or mechincal stress, and involves an autosomal dominant mutation in keratin genes.High-yield addition to next year03/10/19 7:26 PM
526472Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyMiscellaneous skin disordersn/aLichen grows on GRANite = Lichen planus results in increased thickness (growth) of the stratum GRANulosum.Mnemonic02/22/19 9:20 AM
527474Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyArachidonic acid pathwaysMyselfNon-selective NSAID mnemonic: KIDIN i.e. Ketorolac, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Indomethacin, NaproxenMnemonic02/02/19 7:28 PM
528474Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyArachidonic acid pathwaysNot neededall prostaglandin agonists have "PROST" in their name short for PROSTaglandin or PROSTacyclin; to make "prost" in RED. Same for "LEU" or "LUK" in LEUKotrienes antagonists. Makes it easier to rememberClarification to current text03/01/19 5:50 PM
529475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8397891Under side effects of Aspirin, tinnitus is listed. In parenthesis it says CN 7. However, the tinnitus is due to CN 8.Minor erratum12/22/18 8:46 PM
530475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948907-overviewin adverse effect part, after the word "tinnitus", CN VII should be corrected as: CN VIIIMajor erratum01/02/19 9:30 PM
531475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinN/Atinnitus would be caused by CN VIII instead of CN VIIMinor erratum01/19/19 3:18 PM
532475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyBisphosphonatesFirs Aid itselftHighlight the suffix "dronate" as it is common suffix to bisphophonatesMnemonic02/02/19 8:01 PM
533475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugsmyselftNSAID mnemonic: KID IN My Picture i.e. Ketorolac, Ibuprofen, Diclfenac, Indomethacin, Naproxen, Meloxicam, PiroxicamMnemonic02/02/19 7:49 PM
534475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyPharmacokineticshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8397891in asprin side effects: tinnitus (CN VII) but it's VIII not VIIMinor erratum02/21/19 7:21 AM
535476Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyGout drugshttps://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/allopurinol-azathioprine-interaction-mechanism-wbcText says "increase concentrations of xanthine oxidase active metabolites, azathioprine, and 6-MP.". This text is confusing. It should be replaced by "Increases the concentrations of drugs metabolized by xanthine oxidase e.g. 6-MP (and it's prodrug Azathioprine) and increases the potential toxicity of these drugs if their concentration is not reduced"Clarification to current text01/12/19 6:07 PM
536479Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologyHoloprosencephalyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815046/Trisonomy 18 accounts for 1-2% cases of holoprosencephaly.High-yield addition to next year02/14/19 8:32 PM
537481Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeuronsFirst Aid 2018 vs First Aid 2019 (p. 481)In the index, you stated information on Wallerian degeneration was located on p. 481. It's missing in the new 2019 First Aid section.Clarification to current text01/20/19 6:54 PM
538482Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySensory receptorsCurrent first aid 2019Instead of “pacinian corpuscle” call it a press-in-ian corpuscle, because its for pressure and vibrationMnemonic02/12/19 3:23 PM
539483Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeurotransmitter changes with diseasehttps://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.vcom.idm.oclc.org/content.aspx?sectionid=147035958&bookid=1969&jumpsectionID=147036058&Resultclick=2#1137636972In this section, the location of serotonin synthesis is written as Raphe Nucleus (medulla). I have found other resources that say that the raphe nuclei are located in both the medulla and the pons. In fact, some resources have said that they are more substantial in the pons.Clarification to current text01/16/19 6:48 PM
540485Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySleep physiologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC181172/According to Kaplan, Benzos only suppress REM sleep at very high (beyond clinical) doses and therefore are less likely to cause REM rebound. The article I linked seems to contradict this so I'm unclear. Regardless, would be great if you could include something in this section next year about REM rebound since it is a pretty testable concept.High-yield addition to next year02/03/19 9:39 AM
541487Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyLimbic systemn/aNeural structures involved in: Emotion, Behavior modulation, Olfaction, Long-term memory, ANS function. Mnemonic: EBOLA (first letter of each function)Mnemonic03/04/19 7:23 AM
542488Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyBasal gangliahttps://neurology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1049&sectionid=59138673The basal ganglia figure and text need to updated to reflect that the primary input to the striatum is cortical rather than from the SNc through the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway (see figure 43-2 in Principles of Neural Science 5th edition)Clarification to current text02/01/19 5:24 AM
543488Neurology and Special SensesAnatomyBasal gangliahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/etiology-and-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-disease?search=basal%20ganglia%20indirect%20pathway&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H3&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=2~150&display_rank=2#H3In indirect pathway> SNc input to the striatum via the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway stimulates D2 receptors in striatum which in turn "SHOULD DECREASE" the release of GABA from striatum which further cannot inhibit the GPe resulting in continuous inhibition of STN resulting in NO inhibition of movements, It concludes the inhibition of inhibitory pathway via SNc. But its mentioned in FA19 in indirect pathway SNc input to the striatum would release GABA from striatum ( which is basically an Excitatory input that comes from Cortex which results in decreased movements) which in further would inhibit the GPe resulting in disinhibition of STN>stimulates GPi>inhibits thalamus>decreased movements. ( contrary to what's supposed to be the function of the D2 pathway that's stimulating the movements).Major erratum03/09/19 3:26 AM
544490Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyIschemic brain disease/strokehttp://revistaneurociencias.com.br/edicoes/2009/RN%2017%2002/10.pdfthere is NO lower extremity weakness in man in barrel syndrome. man-in-the-barrel syndrome” (MBS) is characterized by bilateral upper extremity paresis with intact motor function in the lower extremities. The patient is unable to move his arm to any stimulus, appearing as if the upper limbs are confined within a barrel. It was originally attributed to cerebral infarctions in the watershed zones between the middle and anterior cerebral artery distributions . [seen as the blue area in the first aid picture]Major erratum01/28/19 2:27 PM
545491Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCircle of Willishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1877617-overview https://radiopaedia.org/articles/anterior-choroidal-artery?lang=usOn the Circle of WIllis diagram on page 491, the ant. choroidal A. comes from the MCA, but in reality it is a branch of the ICA.Minor erratum01/07/19 11:40 AM
546494Neurology and Special SensesAnatomyCranial nerveshttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/cranial-nerves-mnemonic?lang=usMnemonic: Oof, Oop, Ouch, Touch Try And Feel Very Good Velvet Accessing Heaven! Description: First 3 words are in alphabetical order and give idea of first 3 Cranial Nerves i.e. Oof (Olfactory), Oop (Optic), Ouch (Oculomotor) Next comes other nerves: Touch (Trochlear), Try (Trigeminal), Feel (Facial), Very (vestibulocochlear), Good (Glossopharyngeal), Velvet (Vagus), Accessing (Accessory), Heaven (Hypoglossal). This mnemonic is an improvisation of existing online mnemonic (that was confusing to most) Adding alphabetical order and caring for similar phonetics helped improve existing mnemonic. For your reference online mnemonic was " Ooh Ooh Ooh to touch and feel very good velvet! Such Heaven". You can notice the the difference and use whichever one you find better.Mnemonic01/02/19 11:26 AM
547494Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyVagal nucleiJust a mnemonic suggestion"In aMbiguus situations, be safe and call 9-11" --> Cranial nerves 9, 10, and 11 belong to the nucleus ambiguusMnemonic03/08/19 2:16 PM
548495IndexAnatomy and PhysiologySpinal nervesFirst Aid 2019Index Indicates that "Vertebral Disc Herniation" is on page 495. However, there is nothing related to vertebral disc herniation on that pageMajor erratum02/04/19 9:14 AM
549498Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyClinical reflexeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1147993-overviewMnemonics are missing from reflexes.Spelling/formatting12/30/18 11:13 AM
550499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyBrain stem—ventral viewMnemonicDecerebrate posturing has extension of both upper and lower extremities (dEcErebrate - two E's means double extension) while Decorticate has an E and an O with only extension of the lower extremitiesMnemonic02/07/19 10:28 AM
551499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionsnot neededin frontal eye lid lesion, (or at the hemiplegia) should be changed into "away from the hemiolegia"Major erratum01/08/19 12:36 AM
552499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/internuclear-ophthalmoparesis?csi=4e09571d-2500-4a0e-b534-f89be1463f01&source=contentShareParamedian pontine reticular formation should read: Eyes looks AWAY FROM side of hemiplegia.Major erratum01/14/19 12:13 PM
553499Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeuronshttps://www.verywellhealth.com/what-are-the-effects-of-a-frontal-lobe-stroke-3146431frontal eye field lesion: eyes look toward the side of lesion (or at the hemiplegia) that's not right it looks at the opposite side of hemiplegiaMajor erratum02/21/19 7:32 AM
554502Neurology and Special SensesPathologyEffects of strokesReferencing symptom from the PICA infarct 'symptom' columnThe addition of "wobbly (vertigo, ataxia)" to mnemonic about Lateral Medullary (Wallenberg) Syndrome: "Don' t pick a (PICA) wobbly (nystagmus, ataxia) horse (hoarseness) that can't eat (dysphagia)."Mnemonic01/23/19 2:33 PM
555504Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyAneurysmsUpToDate and Boards and Beyond. UpToDate link: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage?search=saccular%20aneurysm&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~32&usage_type=default&display_rank=4Berry Aneurysms rupture hemorrhage DOES NOT cause focal neurologic symptoms except after several days when vasospasm occurs "Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia".Major erratum02/22/19 4:32 AM
556505Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://www.epilepsy.com/article/2016/12/2017-revised-classification-seizuresThe operational classification of seizure types on this page is outdated. As of 2017, according to the ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy), there is a new classification of seizure types (Focal, Generalized, Unknown) and a new set of features to focus on when differentiating between seizures (Onset, Awareness, and "other features" such as motor/non-motor onset). Both the organization and diagram needs to be updated to reflect this revision.Major erratum01/21/19 2:32 AM
557505Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-adults-classification-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=status%20epilepticus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Status epilepticus: continuous (>=5 min) or recurring seizures BETWEEN WHICH THERE IS INCOMPLETE RECOVERY OF CONSCIOUSNESSClarification to current text01/30/19 1:25 PM
558505Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizuresN/AWithin the figure, under tonic-clonic seizures, there is a spelling error. Alternating is spelt altenating. Missing the R.Spelling/formatting03/13/19 12:01 PM
559506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadachesIt's Mnemonic*T*ension ---> *Bi*lateral =Two lateral.Mnemonic01/04/19 5:56 AM
560506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadacheshttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2720121?guestAccessKey=dc65fc07-7bc7-4530-b864-94399937b0e7&fbclid=IwAR1JSsJK_PtyafnAnqJ6ipp8itIDNzeU_pP0vj0sgvZmLqBN_mwlPEBx-voFremanezumab and Erenumab, 2 newly FDA approved antimigraine CGRP monoclonal antibodies, should be reserved for patients with disabling high-frequency episodic migraine or Chronic migraine who have not benefited from or cannot tolerate 1st-line preventive treatments, like propranolol or topiramate (for episodic migraine) or botulinum toxin (for chronic migraine).High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 10:08 AM
561506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadaches1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-treatment-of-migraine-in-adults 2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/head.12835 (American Headache Society)Antiemetics acting as dopamine receptor antagonists are also among effective treatment options for acute migraine, particularly prochlorperazine (IV) and metoclopramide (IV). Both very commonly used in ERs, and their effectiveness are based on high quality of evidence (see references). Chlorpromazine also seems to be effective, although data are more limited compared to the other two drugs. These dopamine receptor antagonist antiemetics should be added to the text in the acute migraine rx table.High-yield addition to next year02/26/19 5:47 AM
562506Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadaches1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-treatment-of-migraine-in-adults 2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/head.12835 (American Headache Society)When added to standard acute migraine therapy, parenteral treatment with dexamethasone reduces the rate of early headache recurrence (from 24 to 72 hours after treatment). Both UpToDate and American Headache Society recommend adjunctive therapy with parenteral dexamethasone for patients with acute migraine headaches, so it should be added to the acute migraine rx (note that even though it doesn't provide immediate pain relief).High-yield addition to next year02/26/19 6:06 AM
563507Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMovement disordersMnemonicTo remember asterixis is the “flapping” motion of uncontrollable repeating wrist and upper extremity extension, picture an asterisk and imagine it as a person flapping their arms like wings. Images attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 11:19 PM
564510Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyHypothalamusboards and beyonds , https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4436859/ ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560696 ;the effect on lateral and medial hypothalamic areas are mediated via orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons of arcuate nucleus respectively. These mediate their effects via NPY and POMC respectively. I am submitting an original simplified illustration showing the same. Also mentioned is the control of leptin and ghrelin on hunger and satiety . You are free to modify the illustration and use as per convenienceHigh-yield addition to next year02/05/19 8:32 PM
565511Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMultiple sclerosishttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/spasticity6th line on this page (3rd bullet) I believe there is a spelling error. Instead of 'Spasticity', currently, the word is spelled as "spacticty."Spelling/formatting02/06/19 2:08 PM
566512Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyAcute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/guillain-barre-syndrome-pathogenesisCauses of Guillain-Barre: MC CHiVE Mycoplasma, Campylobacter jejuni, Cmv, Hemophilus influenzae, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-barr virus.Mnemonic12/28/18 10:19 AM
567512Neurology and Special SensesPathologyOther demyelinating and dysmyelinating diseasesMnemonicCharcot-Marie-Tooth disease: Charcot-Marie-Foot associated with Foot deformities and Foot dropMnemonic02/12/19 4:00 PM
568513PathologyNeoplasiaNeoplasia and neoplastic progressionhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24310-5Neurofibromin (Ras GTPase activating protein) and in neurology section p 513 NF1 ((encodes neurofibromin, a negative RAS regulator )Clarification to current text02/14/19 5:15 AM
569513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurocutaneous disordersFA 2019 Page 513Highlight the letter *T* and *S* in "Tuberous sclerosis" to match the mnemonic.Mnemonic01/04/19 8:22 AM
570513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurocutaneous disordersnilNF1 chromosome can be remembered as chr 17 by writing F1 as a mirror image (inverted). This is a better memory aid as no one will count the letters in von recklinghausen during examMnemonic02/12/19 12:47 AM
571516Neurology and Special SensesPathologyChildhood primary brain tumorsI just tried to find a way to differentiate between Pilocytic astrocytoma and Medulloblastoma"Pilocytic" astrocytoma is Cystic+Solid (vs Medulloblastoma), just like a "Pillow" stuffed with cottons!Mnemonic01/05/19 2:08 PM
572516Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyNeuroblastomahttp://www.ajnr.org/content/27/3/488The histology picture of Homer-Wright Rosettes in the referenced picture in part D does not have an adequate depiction of what these structures look like in regards to a Medulloblastoma/PNET or a Pinealoma. When I researched a Homer Wright Rosette in the American Journal of Neuroradiology I came across an image that I feel would be a better representation.High-yield addition to next year01/22/19 8:21 AM
573517Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHerniation syndromeshttp://www.uptodate.com.medproxy.hofstra.edu/contents/evaluation-and-management-of-elevated-intracranial-pressure-in-adults?search=kernohan+notch&sectionRank=1&anchor=H8&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~1#H8You say Kernohan Phenomenon would lead to contralateral blown pupil. However it is still the ipsilateral blown pupil, and the side of hemiparesis flips only.Major erratum01/27/19 4:00 PM
574517Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHerniation syndromeshttp://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-and-management-of-elevated-intracranial-pressure-in-adults?search=kernohanKernohan’s notch is not an anatomic structure that’s compressed against by the cerebral peduncle. Kernohan’s notch equals Kernohan’s phenomenon. It results from compression of contralateral cerebral peduncle against the free edge of the tentorium.Clarification to current text03/08/19 7:12 AM
575520Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon cranial nerve lesionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239699/#S11titlechange to "weak side of palate collapses" -- current language is ambiguous and makes it seem like weak side of uvula collapses, which would lead the uvula to deviate towards lesionClarification to current text02/26/19 3:21 PM
576520Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyMeningeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-adultsAdd a new section on "Meningitis" in Neuropathology. Microbiology section covers common pathogens and lab findings but Neuropathology should cover clinical aspects of meningitis. I attached a picture of the information I added on my First Aid while watching Boards & Beyond Videos (by Dr. Jason Ryan).High-yield addition to next year01/08/19 11:09 AM
577522Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmology22q11 deletion syndromesIntra university exams;It wouldn't let me pick NEW FACT; but it is a high yield addition to add explanations of stye and chalazion to structural eye disorders. Especially since they are tested in normal in-medical school exams and are very common conditionsHigh-yield addition to next year03/11/19 10:42 AM
578522Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyVertigohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441861/need to differentiate the direction of nystagmus (horizontal vs any direction) associated with each kind of vertigo (peripheral vs central respectively). And also whether it occurs immediately (central vertigo) or delayed (peripheral). These facts are mentioned for central vertigo but have been skipped for peripheral vertigo. My proposal is to present them in a tabular format (see the file attachment). Also I am suggesting a mnemonic to remember the peripheral vertigo characteristics : PHD Peripheral Horizontal DelayedHigh-yield addition to next year02/25/19 2:56 AM
579522Neurology and Special SensesOtologyVertigoboards and beyond ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441861/Peripheral vertigo is associated with delayed nystagmus occuring in horizontal direction Mnemonic : PHD Peripheral Horizontal DelayedHigh-yield addition to next year02/25/19 3:04 AM
580524Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyAge-related macular degenerationnilto remember dry AMD is a/w gradual decrease in vision vs Wet AMD sudden ---- mnemonic 1 . Dry = graDual ; 2. It takes longer for clothes to DRY but get WET quicklyMnemonic02/24/19 4:55 AM
581524Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyUveitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/uveitis-etiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=uvea&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~16&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the description of uveitis- there is discussion on what components make up the uvea (therefore it can somewhat be inferred that the iris, choroid, retina make up the uvea)- but there is no clarification of this saying exactly what is considered the uvea.Clarification to current text02/26/19 4:23 PM
582526Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinitisFirst AId 2018Entry on Retinitis excludedHigh-yield addition to next year01/07/19 5:08 PM
583527Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyMarcus Gunn pupilFirst AID 2019You really should talk about Argyll-Robertson pupil on the same page as Marcus-Gunn pupil as they are both common pupil disorders. It makes sense to put them next to each other.High-yield addition to next year02/11/19 9:27 PM
584527Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyMarcus Gunn pupilFirst AID 2019You should include Adie Pupil as a condition. Adie pupil is a unilaterally dilated pupil that reacts sluggishly to light, but better to accommodation. A result of ciliary ganglion lesion.High-yield addition to next year02/11/19 9:39 PM
585527Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyPupillary controlMnemonicTo remember miOsis is pupillary cOnstriction, think of how your mouth shrinks in size when pronouncing the letter “O”. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 9:49 PM
586527Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyPupillary controlMnemonicTo remember that MYDRIasis is pupillary dilation, think “MY eye “dri”lates”. To remember that the sympathetic nervous system dilates the pupil (mydriasis) and decreases lacrimation, think “my dry eye dilates”. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic02/06/19 9:54 PM
587528Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyOcular motilityhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1189759-overviewThe image on the right shows incorrect eye movements for SO, SR, IR, and IO. Both the superior and inferior rectus muscles adduct the eye, not abduct. Also, both the superior and inferior oblique muscles abduct the eye and not aduct. The image could also be demonstrating the torsion directions, but those would also be pointing incorrectly if that was the case.Major erratum02/28/19 10:50 PM
588531Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.pharma.us.novartis.com/sites/www.pharma.us.novartis.com/files/comtan.pdfFirst Aid states that Entacapone acts centrally and peripherally. However, my schools resources, Boards and Beyond, and Novartis (the company who makes the drug) state that it only acts peripherally. It is TOLCAPONE that acts both centrally and peripherally, NOT Entacapone.Major erratum03/03/19 6:08 PM
589532Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy drugsnot neededvigabatrin = "Irreversible GABA TRansaminase INhibitor" (moa)Mnemonic01/14/19 1:51 PM
590532Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy drugsFA 2019 chartTo remember that valproic acid and lamotrigine both treat all 3 types of seizures (excluding status epilepticus) you can remember them as vALLproic acid and lamictALL (brand name of lamotrigine).Mnemonic01/27/19 12:39 PM
591533Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyIntravenous anestheticsopinionEtomidate should be included in this listHigh-yield addition to next year01/30/19 6:48 PM
592534Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyTriptanshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathophysiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-migraine-in-children?search=sumatriptan%20mechanism&source=search_result&selectedTitle=5~25&usage_type=default&display_rank=5Under mechanism, it reads that triptans induce vasoconstrition, which is a typo meaning to say induce vasoconstrictionSpelling/formatting02/12/19 7:43 AM
593535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyDrug nameshttps://livertox.nih.gov/Entacapone.htm"Entacapone inhibits COMT activity only peripherally, unlike tolcapone which acts both peripherally and centrally."Major erratum01/10/19 12:23 AM
594535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Tasmar-tolcapone-1605Entacapone does not inhibit central COMT. The current text states that it does under the heading 'Prevent dopamine breakdown.' This drug should be Tolcapone NOT Entacapone. The diagram is correct but the current text is not.Major erratum12/23/18 3:57 AM
595535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone%20peripheral%20COMT&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under the strategy "Prevent dopamine breakdown," Entacapone is said to inhibit central COMT and block dopamine conversion to 3-MT. However, Entacapone works in the periphery and converts dopamine to 3-OMD. Instead of Entacapone, Tolcapone would be a more appropriate correction since this drug blocks the conversion of dopamine to 3-MT via inhibition of central COMT. Also, in another strategy on the same page, “increase L-DOPA availability,” Entacapone is already mentioned to prevent peripheral L-DOPA degradation, which is the correct mechanism of action.Major erratum01/04/19 4:38 PM
596535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entecapone%20tolcapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~8&usage_type=default&display_rank=4#H204803Under prevent dopamine breakdown it says entecapone works by inhibiting central COMT but only tolcapone inhibits central, entecapone just does peripheral (which is correct in the diagram)Minor erratum01/10/19 4:55 PM
597535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~3&usage_type=default&display_rank=1On prevent dopamine breakdown, entacapone is listed as a central COMT inhibitor but it should be peripheral COMT inhibitorClarification to current text01/18/19 3:03 PM
598535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacologic-treatment-of-parkinson-disease?search=entacapone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~3&usage_type=default&display_rank=1On prevent dopamine breakdown, entacapone is listed as a central COMT inhibitor but it should be peripheral COMT inhibitor. I think FA meant to say Tolcapone in it's placeClarification to current text01/18/19 3:07 PM
599535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugsUworld and UpToDate - https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-diseasePsychotic symptoms are a frequent complication in Parkinson disease (especially when dopaminergic drugs are used, which are first line for PD), and are the strongest predictor for nursing home placement of patients with PD. Drugs for psychosis in PD are Quetiapine, Clozapine and Pimavenserin (other antipsychotics worsen underlying Parkinson disease due to their extrapyramidal symptoms). Definitely high yield for what-drug-would-you-use kind of questions on the USMLE.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 4:56 PM
600535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11440283Text is right in specifying "Entacapone- blocks conversion of dopamine to 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) by inhibiting central COMT." Howver, it will be good to specify that Entacapone is only a weak inhibitor of COMT in CNS. Tolcapone is stronger inhibitor of COMT in CNS and hence can be used to produce effect both centrally as well as in periphery.High-yield addition to next year02/14/19 7:28 AM
601535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9917075Under the strategy "increase the L-DOPA availability," Tolcapone should be added as an agent that prevents peripheral L-DOPA degradation. It is added in the diagram but not the text.Major erratum02/26/19 6:17 PM
602535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugsmnemonicParkinson disease drug strategy "curb excess cholinergic activity"; mnemonic "Park your Mercedes-Benz". Suggestion: Add to existing mnemonic: " Mercedes-Benz by the CURB". (since the drug strategy is "Curb excess cholinergic activity"). May also add: "...Benz with TRIpointed emblem" in reference to TRIhexyphenidylMnemonic03/06/19 4:03 PM
603535Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease drugshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12573869 eMedicine mentions these drugs, but it does not mention peripheral vs central actions as this paper does.Under "Parkinson Disease Drugs", it mentions that Entacapone prevents peripheral break down of L-DOPA by inhibiting COMT (which is correct), but underneath that, it mentions entacapone as acting centrally to inhibit COMT as well. From my understanding, entacapone's effects are mostly limited to the periphery, while tolcapone is more noted for inhibiting both peripheral *and* central degradation of L-DOPA through inhibition of COMT. I hope I am not splitting hairs with this point, but I thought it may be worth reaching out and notifying you. Thank you for the great material!Minor erratum03/11/19 9:18 AM
604536Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyNeurodegenerative disease drugsMnemonicTetrabenazine for huntington disease. TETRAbenazine (4): Hunting 4 food, Chromosome 4Mnemonic02/12/19 4:07 PM
605537Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyInhaled anestheticshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324809 and https://www.openanesthesia.org/cbfcmro2_drug_effects/N20 does not cause an increase in cerebral metabolic demand, but it does cause an increase in cerebral blood flow. The fluorinated inhaled anesthetics (eg. halothane, desflurane) cause an increase in cerebral blood flow and a decrease in cerebral metabolic demand.Clarification to current text02/18/19 5:48 PM
606538Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyOpioid analgesicshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/sublimaze-fentanyl-343311In the index it is stated that the drug Fentanyl is on page 538 when it is not. It is a potent opioid which has a short duration but can also be used transdermally for chronic pain.Clarification to current text02/02/19 11:31 AM
607538Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologySpasmolytics, antispamodicsIt's MnemonicTiz*a*nidine --> *α*2 *a*gonist .\highlight "a" in red color.Mnemonic01/04/19 9:47 AM
608538Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologySpasmolytics, antispamodicshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519505/ ,, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TizanidineTizanidine is more Tolerable than baclofen .(*T*izanidine -->*T*olerable).Mnemonic01/04/19 9:52 AM
609545PsychiatryPathologyChildhood and early-onset disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis#H5ADHD has Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a comorbidity (prevalence is very high at 50-80%). Can be listed as a comorbid association.High-yield addition to next year01/20/19 6:12 PM
610545PsychiatryPathologyOrientationhttps://www.english.illinois.edu/-people-/faculty/debaron/essays/epicene.htmWording is "patient's ability to know who he or she is, where he or she is..." We should instead consider using less binary pronouns and having the text read, "patient's ability to know who they are, where they are..." as the use of singular "they" is now widely accepted and was even made word of the year in 2015 by the American Dialect Society.Spelling/formatting02/24/19 5:26 PM
611549PsychiatryPathologyMajor depressive disorderhttps://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/atypical-depression#1It is important to specify that Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) need to be present only for 1 year in children for diagnosis. The adults patients need to have symptoms lasting 2 years or more.High-yield addition to next year02/10/19 2:10 PM
612553PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639232/ ,,,First aid 2018you should put these paragraph "Paranoid Pervasive distrust (Accusatory) and suspiciousness of others and a profoundly cynical view of the world."High-yield addition to next year01/04/19 11:00 AM
613553PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordersSee First Aid 2018 - pg 549 which includes Paranoid personality disorder vs pg 553 First Aid 2019 does not include "paranoid"; however mnemonic on First Aid 2019 pg 553 still includes "Accusatory".Cluter A personality disorders - mnemonic includes Accusatory; however, "Paranoid personality disorder" has been removed in First Aid 2019 pg 553.Minor erratum12/30/18 3:37 PM
614553PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-personality-disordersThis year's version has missed explanation of "paranoid" concept in cluster A personality disorderHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 10:17 PM
615553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityFirst Aid 2018 has the disorderParanoid personality disorder omitted from the bookMajor erratum01/02/19 11:19 AM
616553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294307-overviewParanoid Personality Disorder is missing from the Cluster A personality disordersMajor erratum01/18/19 12:15 PM
617553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/294307-overviewCluster A Paranoid Personality Disorder is missingMajor erratum02/15/19 1:24 PM
618553PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityFA 2018Paranoid Personality Disorder was removedMajor erratum02/24/19 6:39 PM
619554PsychiatryPathologyMalingeringFAA 2x2 table comparing the disorders- malingering vs. factitious vs. somatic symptom would be useful in having a visual to aid with the new added bolded words- see attached pictureClarification to current text02/27/19 9:00 AM
620554PsychiatryPathologySomatic symptom and related disordershttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htmConversion disorder are neurological symptoms that cannot be explained by neurological diagnosis. Later part is not there in First Aid 2019Clarification to current text02/10/19 11:17 AM
621560RenalPathologyRenal clearanceN/a, this is tested even throughout USMLE-Rx relatively frequently. You could even make the First Aid as short as the one on this Rx question explanation (image attached, image belongs to USMLE-rx not me), with a quick list of expected lab findings.A few students and myself feel there should be, either in the renal or MSK section, a short outline of Rhabdomyolysis and expected findings. Aside from it's current and minimal mention in renal under "potassium shifts." This concept presents frequently and seems worth of its own short discussion.Clarification to current text02/22/19 9:34 AM
622561PsychiatryPharmacologyAtypical antipsychotics1- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459248/ . 2-http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/disease-health/differences-between-dyslipidemia-and-hyperlipidemia/Replace "hyperlipidemia" with "dyslipidemia" , it is more accurate because dyslipidemia( abnormal amount, whether higher or lower, of lipids) associated with metabolic syndrome (elevated triglyceride level, low HDL level, and elevated low-density lipoprotein level) . Hyperlipidemia, on the other hand, is a condition wherein the level of fat and cholesterol in your body is too highMinor erratum01/22/19 8:54 AM
623561PsychiatryPharmacologyAtypical antipsychoticsUWorld and First Aid page 557On page 557, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is caused by "antipsychotics + genetic disposition". However, on page 561, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is only listed for typical antipsychotics but not for atypical antipsychotics. Please add Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome to the list of adverse effects for atypical antipsychotics. This was also a question on UWorld. Thank you.Clarification to current text02/06/19 5:44 PM
624562Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyOpioid analgesicshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0955395914000887 (another: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/words-matter-language-addiction-life-saving-treatments-2016081510130)"Heroin addicts" is a stigmatizing term (see references below) that is generally not accepted by the harm reduction community as well as most people who use drugs. PWUD (people who use drugs) and PWID (people who inject drugs) are preferred alternatives.Major erratum01/22/19 11:37 PM
625563PsychiatryPharmacologyTricyclic antidepressantshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/tricyclic-antidepressantThe text indicates "3° TCAs (amitriptyline) have more anticholinergic effects than 2° TCA5 (nortriptyl ine)." It may be confusing for students and it would be better to clarify that Text is talking about tertiary (amitriptyline, doxepine, and imipramine) and secondary (desipramine and nortriptyline) amine respectivelyClarification to current text02/10/19 1:59 PM
626565RenalAbbreviations and SymbolsRenal clearancehttps://academic.oup.com/ajh/article/30/4/339/2623060 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00440/fullThroughout the renal section, the Term "AT-II Receptor Blocker" is used to denote Angiotensin II receptor blocker medications. However, although the term AT-II can imply Angiotensin II, to denote ARBs as AT-II Receptor Blocker is incorrect. This is because the notation “ATII-R” does not signify the only “Angiotensin II receptor blocker.” More-so, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers actually block AT1R bringing. This is a common misnomer, but is crucial in clarifying receptor binding, as new medications regarding which receptors bind are in clinical trials. Regarding the physiology, Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II via ACE (and is inhibited by ACE-Inhibitors). Angiotensin II, however, binds to 2 receptors, AT1R (which is the target site of ARB’s), and ATIIR. The AT1R is actually the interaction targeted by ARBs. The notation “AT-II receptor blocker” denotes the incorrect binding, and as such, the common notation is rather: Ang-II receptor blocker. In summary: If you wish to denote Angiotensin II receptor blockers as ARB's, the abbreviation Ang-II must be used, rather than the misleading AT-II, as the latter denotes a separate entity Please reference Figure 1 in Carey, 2017, for visual clarification, as well as the distinction noted in Gebre et al., 2018.Clarification to current text01/08/19 12:02 PM
627568RenalAnatomyKidney anatomy and glomerular structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29083626The lobar artery of the kidney is neither mentioned in the text nor shown in the picture: The text should change to read like this "Segmental artery -> lobar artery -> interlobar artery -> ..."High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:14 AM
628568RenalAnatomyKidney anatomy and glomerular structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29494007 https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948775-overviewIn the figure showing a cross-section of the kidney, the renal vein is shown between the renal artery and renal pelvis. However, the renal vein should be the most anterior structure, with the renal pelvis most posterior and the renal artery traveling between the two.Minor erratum01/23/19 11:42 PM
629568RenalAnatomyKidney anatomy and glomerular structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459158/The image shown for the kidney anatomy and glomerular structure suggests that the renal artery is anterior to the renal vein. However, the correct anatomical position in the following order of anterior to posterior should be the renal vein, then the renal artery, and the renal pelvis as the most posterior. Since there is no text clarifying this, the image in First Aid makes it incorrectly seem that the renal artery is most anterior in terms of kidney anatomy.Minor erratum02/04/19 5:47 PM
630570RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration rateMy recommendation + First Aid 2019The formula indicates P & pi value used for GFR. Even though most students understand what they are but it will be better to specify that they are hydrostatic and oncotic pressure. It will be helpful to save time for those students who do not remember itHigh-yield addition to next year02/12/19 5:28 AM
631570RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration rateMyselfHighlight CRE of Creatinine and secreted. It will help learn CREatinine is seCREted and hence overestimates GFR.Mnemonic02/12/19 5:40 AM
632571RenalPhysiologyFiltrationmy self + First AidIn the diagram, the equation for net filtration pressure, It will be good idea to specify that P & pi are hydrostatic & Oncotic pressure respectively.High-yield addition to next year02/12/19 6:12 AM
633572RenalPhysiologyGlucose clearancenot neededon Diagram I suggest to add to Y axis parameter the "filtration load" to make it easier to understandMinor erratum03/01/19 6:39 PM
634574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsnot neededI think we don't need to highlight the letter "a" in "Fanconi" ,in red color, in the table and in the image.Spelling/formatting01/03/19 2:50 PM
635574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsnot requiredOrder of disorders: the FAN speed at the BAR GOT a LIDDLE EXCESSIVEMnemonic02/01/19 1:11 PM
636574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsnot requiredGitelman syndrome: GET ALL MEN DOWN to CAMP: levels of Calcium-Acid-Magnesium-Potassium go DOWNMnemonic02/01/19 1:13 PM
637574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsnot requiredAcid, Potassium, and Aldosterone levels go down to "just a LIDDLE bit"Mnemonic02/01/19 1:16 PM
638576RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemMnemonicRAAS activation RAAiSes blood pressureMnemonic02/20/19 10:57 PM
639576RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemFirst Aid for the USMLE Step 1, 2019 editionRENAL - Receptor effects (angiotensin II receptor type I), Efferent arteriolar constriction, Na/H exchange, ADH secretion, "L"dosterone secretionMnemonic03/01/19 10:17 AM
640577RenalPhysiologyJuxtaglomerular apparatushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17686376The text mentions "In addition to vasodilatory properties, ~-blockers can decrease BP by inhibiting ~1-receptors of the JCA - I renin release." However, not all beta blockers cause vasodilation. It will be better to clarify that text is talking about Beta blockers with additional alpha blocking properties such as labetolol & CarvedilolHigh-yield addition to next year02/12/19 9:37 AM
641578RenalPhysiologyPotassium shiftsnot neededNice way to remember hyperkalemia states; Imagine a chronic Diabetic Heart Failure Hypercholestronemia patient; 1/ for HF: taking Beta blocker and Digoxin (both can increase serum K). 2/ DM: Low insulin high Glc cause high K, also Diabetic ketoacidosis, as acidosis causes high K, also in DKA there is high osmolarity which also causes elevated K. 3/ statins cause rhabdomyolysis which will remind you with cell lysis which in turn causes elevated K!High-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:43 PM
642579RenalPhysiologyElectrolyte disturbancesIt's a mnemonic. Information taken from UWorld question bank, april 2018.Sodium = 6 Letters, Eq Na+ = +60 mV. Potassium = 9 letters, Eq K+ = -90 mV. Eq = Equilibrium potential.Mnemonic02/25/19 9:58 AM
643579RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/bartter-and-gitelman-syndromes#H53269181In the renal disorders table, there should be a column for urinary Magnesium. Both barter and gitleman syndrome have renal magnesium wasting. The urinary magnesium wasting column for gitleman can read 'severe', while that for bartter can read 'mild/moderate'. In addition, the serum magnesium entry for bartter can read 'normal or mildly reduced'. This can help people use just the urinary magnesium values when trying to differentiate between gitleman and bartter when the urine calcium is not given, and it also helps in understanding the pathophysiology behind bartter since it makes sense that it involves urinary magnesium wasting.High-yield addition to next year01/18/19 4:17 AM
644580RenalPhysiologyAcid-base physiologyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/simple-and-mixed-acid-base-disorders?search=acid-base%20physiology,%20metabolic%20vs%20respiratory%20acidosis%20vs%20alkalosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1CO2 + H2O <=> HCO3- + H+ (This is a very important equation that helps understand acid-base physiology. Could additionally include: CO2 is maintained by lungs, HCO3- is maintained by kidneys, and H+ determines pH)High-yield addition to next year02/18/19 8:16 AM
645581RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeUworldShould clarify that good pasture targets type IV collagen AND is a type 2 hypersensitivityClarification to current text12/26/18 12:50 AM
646581RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosisFA page 594RTA type 2 (Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor will alkalanize urine compared to other causes of RTA II)Minor erratum03/01/19 6:44 PM
647583RenalPathologyGlomerular diseasesMyself, First AidNephrItic syndrome mnemonic: MARIA: i.e. MPGN, Alport Syndrome, RPGN, IgA nephropathy, APSGN. Also, highlight I in NephrItic as well as MARIA for easy association.Mnemonic02/25/19 8:53 AM
648583RenalPathologyGlomerular diseasesMyself, First Aid 2019NephrOtic Syndrome mnemonic: FOcus Minimum on Membrane in Diabetic Amyloidosis i.e. O is highlighted for Nephrotic. Conditions included are FSGN, MCD, MPGN, Diabetic glomerulonephropathy, AmyloidosisMnemonic02/25/19 8:58 AM
649583RenalPathologyGlomerular diseasesMyslef, FA2019Correction of mnemonic explaination for one I just submitted: NephrOtic Syndrome mnemonic: FOcus Minimum on Membrane in Diabetic Amyloidosis i.e. O is highlighted for Nephrotic. Conditions included are Focal segmental Glomerulosclerosis, MCD, Membranous Nephropathy, Diabetic glomerulonephropathy, AmyloidosisMnemonic02/25/19 9:03 AM
650584RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeHaving Nephiritic on the left on both pages would make recalling facts easier.Page 585 and 584 should be switched in order to match the position of Nephritic and Nephrotic syndromes in the diagram on page 583.Spelling/formatting02/01/19 4:25 PM
651584RenalPathologyNephrotic syndromeMnemonicmInImal CHange disease - caused by "I"nfection or "I"mmune (-ization/stimulus) in "CH"ildren. (bold the I's and CH in minimal change disease)Mnemonic02/03/19 6:38 AM
652585RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeI just thought of it one day.ALPORT met his eX (-linked dominant) gf at a BASKET-WEAVING class in an IVy COLLAGEn.Mnemonic02/01/19 11:06 AM
653585IndexPathologyNephritic syndromeN/AAlport syndrome is not in the index at all; page 585 is the main entry. It is also mentioned in a couple other placesMinor erratum02/15/19 1:15 AM
654585RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeSuggestionI think it would be helpful if abbreviations used on a page could be included on that page as a footnote in small font. On the page in question LM, IF, and EM are used frequently. It would be convenient for the reader to have quick access without having to flip to the back of the book to the acronym section.Clarification to current text02/21/19 7:33 AM
655585RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeNAFor both RPGN and IgA Nephropathy- the formatting for the microscopic findings if missing a tab down- as seen with the other disorders. Specifically, for both the LM findings are given, and then there is a semicolon and the EM findings are given in the same line- as opposed to their own new line as seen in the other disorders.Spelling/formatting02/22/19 4:44 PM
656587RenalPathologyAcute kidney injuryMy brainMnemonic for the causes of nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis is CLEAR: Cisplatin, Lead, Ethylene glycol, Aminoglycosides, Radiocontrast agentsMnemonic01/14/19 1:17 PM
657588RenalPathologyNephroblastomaFirst AidAddition of W11ms tumor as a mnemonic (since i and l look like 1s). " "Loss of function" mutations of tumor suppressor genes WTJ or WT2 on chromosome 11 (W11ms tumor)"Mnemonic02/24/19 10:09 AM
658589RenalPathologyAcute cystitisnot needed+nitrates (indicate gram - organisms). Surrgest changing it to + "N"itrates indicates gram "N"egative organismsMinor erratum03/01/19 6:41 PM
659591RenalPathologyAcute tubular necrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238064-overviewThere is a loss of tubular cell polarity in ATN due to Na/K ATPase switching from basolateral side to lumenal side. This also increases sodium reabsorption which affects macula densa cells and further exacerbate constriction of afferent arteriole.High-yield addition to next year12/27/18 4:01 PM
660591RenalPathologyDiffuse cortical necrosisno linkmisspeling the word CORTICAL, in the boook it's written as ORTICALSpelling/formatting01/13/19 2:52 AM
661592RenalPathologyGenetic disorders by chromosomeMnemonicADPKD can be caused by a mutation in PDK1 (chromosome 16) or PKD2 (chromosome 4) - 4^2 = 16 and 16*1=16 allows you to remember the locations of PKD1 and PKD2Mnemonic02/07/19 10:34 AM
662592RenalPathologyRenovascular diseaseIt's Mnemonic*F*ibromuscular dysplasia ---> *F*emales.Mnemonic01/04/19 5:21 AM
663593RenalPharmacologyDiuretics site of actionDude trust meChange "Thiazide" to "Thiazide diuretics".Spelling/formatting01/07/19 3:16 AM
664594RenalPharmacologyLoop diureticshttp://austinpublishinggroup.com/nephrology/fulltext/ajnh-v1-id1025.phpLoop diuretics do not cause PGE release, but rather prevent its degradation by inhibiting prostaglandin dehydrogenase. "Loop diuretics have been shown to decrease renal vascular resistance and therefore increase renal blood flow. This is likely due to the inhibition of prostaglandin dehydrogenase by loop diuretics, resulting in diminished breakdown of PGE 2 (a potent vasodilator), subsequently resulting in decreased renal vascular resistance and increased renal blood flow [17]."Major erratum01/07/19 3:18 AM
665597RenalPhysiologyNephron transport physiologyFirst Aid 2019Principal cells Pump Potassium into PeeMnemonic03/08/19 3:44 PM
666598ReproductiveEmbryologyImportant genes of embryogenesisnot requiredHCSAWD = HaCkSAWeD = Homeobox (craniocaudal axis), Sonic Hedgehog (anteroposterior axis), Wnt-7 (dorsal-ventral axis)Mnemonic01/29/19 6:11 PM
667598ReproductiveEmbryologyImportant genes of embryogenesishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/presentation-diagnosis-and-staging-of-wilms-tumor?search=PAX%206&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~17&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 AND UWORLDADD--------->PAX GENE (PAX6): Key regulatory gene for gene of eye and brain development. Associated with ocular defects (aniridia) ------>Homeobox genes (HOXA 13) : Hand-foot -genital syndrome. Malformation of distal limbs(hypoplastic first digits), mullerian fusion anormalities (uterus didelfos)High-yield addition to next year02/19/19 12:07 AM
668598ReproductiveEmbryologyNeural tube defectshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathophysiology-and-clinical-manifestations-of-myelomeningocele-spina-bifida?sectionName=EMBRYOLOGY%20OF%20THE%20NEURAL%20TUBE&search=neural%20tube%20close&topicRef=460&anchor=H2&source=see_link#H2Neural tube being closed would be more helpful in the week 4 section than 3-8 weeksHigh-yield addition to next year02/11/19 7:39 AM
669599ReproductiveEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativesDon't have one, made it upSurface ectoderm mnemonic: GOOAALEE Glands (parotid, sweat, mammary), Oral cavity epithelial lining, Olfactory epithelium, Adenohypophysis, Anal canal below pectinate line, Lens of eye, Epidermis, Ear (sensory organs)Mnemonic01/18/19 12:45 PM
670599ReproductiveEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativesnot neededin "neural crest" subsection, "tracheal" lining" has been mentioned in the 2nd column as derivative of neural crest, which means tracheal epithelium , and that's incorrectClarification to current text03/06/19 8:26 PM
671600ReproductiveEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativeshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614953/To remember that caudal regression syndrome (colloquially known as mermaid syndrome) is caused by maternal diabetes, use the mnemonic "Maternal diabetes Makes Mermaids"Mnemonic02/20/19 11:51 PM
672606ReproductiveEmbryologyPharyngeal arch derivativesMnemonicTo remember that the GREATER horn of the hyoid is a derivative of the 3rd pharyngeal pouch and the LESSER horn of the hyoid is a derivative of the 2nd pharyngeal pouch: "3 is GREATER than 2"Mnemonic03/04/19 9:45 PM
673606ReproductiveEmbryologyPharyngeal arch derivativesMnemonicTo remember that the GREATER horn of the hyoid is a derivative of the 3rd pharyngeal arch and the LESSER horn of the hyoid is a derivative of the 2nd pharyngeal arch: "3 is GREATER than 2"Mnemonic03/04/19 9:48 PM
674606ReproductiveEmbryologyPharyngeal arch derivativeshttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Cranial_Nerve_Development#CN_VII_FacialThe sensory nerves of the cranial nerves in the pharyngeal arches derive from neural crest cells (NCCs), not the neuroectoderm that the motor nerve portions derive from.Minor erratum03/06/19 12:49 AM
675608ReproductivePathologySexual differentiationhttps://www.medscape.com/answers/252928-32489/what-is-the-pathogenesis-of-swyer-syndrome and Dr. Ryan of Boards and BeyondAbsence of Sertoli cells/lack of mullerian inhibitory factor is called Swyer Syndrome (or XY gonadal dysgenesis). The primary high-yield symptom is streak ovary.Clarification to current text03/01/19 7:23 AM
676610ReproductiveAnatomyCongenital penile abnormalitiesmeWhen you have "H"ypospadias you pee on your "H"igh tops (shoes) or you pee down a "h"oleMnemonic02/16/19 11:20 AM
677610ReproductiveAnatomyCongenital penile abnormalitiesmeH mnemonic for "h"ypospadias; "h"idden testes and bowels (cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia); "H"ooked shape penis (chordee); pee on "h"eelsMnemonic02/16/19 11:30 AM
678610ReproductiveAnatomyGonadal drainageIt's MnemonicCerv*i*x* ---> *I*nternal and e*X*ternal iliac nodes.Mnemonic12/30/18 7:41 AM
679610ReproductiveAnatomyGonadal drainageUWorld Q ID 2021Glans penis drains to deep inguinal nodes; Also "Clitoris" does according to UWORLD. which makes sense as they both originates from Urogenital TubercleHigh-yield addition to next year03/01/19 6:54 PM
680615ReproductivePhysiologyHuman placental lactogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233258/Maternal hyperglycemia from insulin resistance leads to lipolysisMinor erratum12/29/18 5:58 AM
681616ReproductivePhysiologyEstrogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4397276/Estrogen causes closure of epiphyseal plates. This is mentioned under Testosterone on page 622 ("via estrogen converted from testosterone"), but not under Estrogen itself.High-yield addition to next year01/06/19 12:29 AM
682623ReproductivePhysiologyTanner stages of sexual developmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2020314/The first mound formation in females occurs in stage II NOT in stage III.Minor erratum12/31/18 4:57 AM
683626ReproductivePathologyPlacentahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/placenta-previa-epidemiology-clinical-features-diagnosis-morbidity-and-mortality?search=partial%20placenta%20previa&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Placenta Previa: attachment of placenta OVER the internal cervical os. A placenta <2 cm away from the internal cervical os but NOT over it is now known as a "Low-lying placenta"Minor erratum01/29/19 10:04 AM
684627ReproductivePathologyAmniotic fluid abnormalitiesmade this up"O"ligohydraminos=can't pee it "O"utMnemonic02/16/19 11:14 AM
685628ReproductivePathologyHydatidiform molehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673583For the karyotypes for a complete mole, FA lists 46 XX and 46 XY as the main types which is partially correct. It should be both 46 XX and 46 YY. The reason being, If one sperm fertilize an empty ovum and the Paternal DNA is replicated twice it would only be XX or YY and not XY. If two sperm fertalize and empty ova then you can achieve an XX or XY karyotype but the text is unclear in this regard and this last from is much more rare.Clarification to current text02/28/19 10:37 PM
686629ReproductivePathologyHypertension in pregnancynot neededsuggest making this mnemonic "Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine" like this mnemonic ,in Page 312, "He likes my neonate" ,i think it's simpler .Mnemonic01/01/19 12:52 PM
687631ReproductivePathologyCervical pathologyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-terminology-incidence-pathogenesis-and-prevention#H8037165Current First Aid text (2019) says that the #1 risk factor for cervical dysplasia is multiple sexual partners. Article from UptoDate and a question on another question bank indicates that the #1 risk factor is HPV infection with a high-risk serotype.Minor erratum01/21/19 8:34 PM
688631ReproductivePathologyPolycystic ovarian syndromeMade up.PCOS needs PCOS treatments oK. P=Playing/Weight reduction; C=Clomiphene citrate; O=OCPs; S=Spironolactone; K=KetoconazoleMnemonic02/15/19 12:07 PM
689632ReproductivePathologyOvarian neoplasmsUWorld Question ID: 6441 (UWSA1)Mature cystic teratomas are derived from "totipotent germinal cells". That's why they can form meso/endo/ectodermal tissue.High-yield addition to next year02/08/19 9:54 AM
690632ReproductivePathologyOvarian neoplasmsMade upCystic teratoma-Struma Ovarii causes Over-yyy acting Thyroid hormone (Hyperthyroidism)Mnemonic02/15/19 12:11 PM
691633ReproductivePathologyCancer epidemiologynoneYolk Sac tumors: SAC: S(Schiller-Duval), A (AFP tumor marker), C (children/young)Mnemonic01/24/19 5:34 PM
692633ReproductivePathologyOvarian neoplasmsMade up(Alliteration) Young Yolk-sac tumor (=most common in young children)Mnemonic02/15/19 12:15 PM
693633ReproductivePathologyOvarian neoplasmshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605680Granulosa cell tumors will have "coffee bean nuclei" as seen with Brenner tumors.High-yield addition to next year03/06/19 6:40 AM
694634ReproductivePathologyTesticular non–germ cell tumorshttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/testis.htmlThe information for Leydig cell tumors and Sertoli cell tumors are switched i.e. Sertoli cell tumors commonly present with gynecomastia and precocious puberty.Major erratum02/14/19 8:45 PM
695634ReproductivePathologyUterine conditionshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/ashermans-syndrome ; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/intrauterine-adhesions-clinical-manifestation-and-diagnosisCauses secondary amenorrhea. Loss of basalis layer (decreased regenerative capacity)High-yield addition to next year02/21/19 8:55 PM
696636ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathology-of-breast-cancerTubular & mucinous carcinomas are NOT subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma, but rather subtypes of breast cancer (invasive carcinoma).Major erratum01/07/19 3:21 AM
697636ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628841/Inflammatory breast cancer usually presents with a palpable mass in at least 70% of cases. This contradicts what the text is saying ("usually lacks a palpable mass"). "Underlying tumour masses might be palpable in IBC, but up to 30% of patients will present with no underlying masses."Major erratum01/07/19 3:22 AM
698640ReproductivePharmacologyControl of reproductive hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cyproterone-united-states-not-available-drug-informationDelete cyproterone. It is not mentioned anywhere else in the book. Also this drug is not available in the US. It is very unlikely that it will come up in the exam.High-yield addition to next year01/07/19 3:25 AM
699641ReproductivePharmacologyTamoxifen, raloxifeneas per UworldTamoxifen causes hot flashes due to anti-estrogen effects on the anterior hypothalamus causing thermoregulatory dysfunction.High-yield addition to next year01/19/19 8:55 AM
700643ReproductivePharmacologyTestosterone, methyltestosteronehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-burn-injury-in-older-patientsI suggest deleting the phrase "stimulate anabolism to promote recovery after burn or injury" because neither testosterone nor methyltestosterone are indicated for the stimulation of the anabolism in catabolic conditions (eg, burn injuries). Oxandrolone is used instead for these conditions.Minor erratum01/07/19 3:27 AM
701647RespiratoryPhysiologyLung and chest wallN/AThe description is redundant with "inward pull of lung is balanced by outward pull of chest wall, and system pressure is atmospheric" written twice.Clarification to current text02/03/19 12:15 PM
702648RespiratoryPhysiologyHemoglobin modificationshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281520/Under Carboxyhemoglobin; Causes decrease in oxygen binding capacity with left shift in oxygen curve. I suggest modifying it to "for the reminder of Hb (not bound to CO) the affinity becomes higher to oxygen so the curve will shift to the Left in the presence of CO in blood". this will prevent confusion that might arise by the original parapgraphClarification to current text12/22/18 1:24 AM
703648RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyParagraph above, previous editions of First AidThe bronchioles are made up of columnar epithelium, not cuboidal epithelium. The text next to the illustration mislabels the illustration.Minor erratum01/09/19 4:15 PM
704649RespiratoryAnatomyDiaphragm structuresIt's a mnemonic.The *C*ommon *C*arotid bi*four*cates at *C*4. • The *T*rachea bi*four*cates at *T*4. • The abdomina*L* aorta bi*four*cates at *L*4.Mnemonic01/26/19 1:28 PM
705649RespiratoryAnatomyDiaphragm structuresNot needed.A mnemonic for "Structures perforating the diaphragm" could be: "I 8 (ate) 10 Eggs At 12" IVC at T8, Esophagus (Eggs) at T10, Aorta (At) at T12.Mnemonic01/28/19 8:37 AM
706649RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyhttps://www.anatomyatlases.org/HumanAnatomy/Topography/Lungs.shtmlposterior border of the lung ends at the 10th rib not the 9th as illustrated in the diagramMinor erratum03/11/19 1:18 PM
707649RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/353329-overviewIf you aspirate a peanut: - while supine: usually enters superior segment of right lower lobe "or posterior segment of right upper lobe"High-yield addition to next year03/12/19 9:25 AM
708651RespiratoryPhysiologyLung and chest wallthe information is correct, just duplicated.Inward pull of lung is balanced by outward pull of chest wall, and system pressure is atmosphere was duplicated in this section.Spelling/formatting01/18/19 8:25 PM
709651RespiratoryPhysiologyLung and chest wallhttp://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/sect9.htmThe graph showing lung and chest wall compliance is labeled "transpulmonary static pressure" on the x-axis. However, transpulmonary pressure is defined as alveolar pressure minus intrapleural pressure. For the chest wall, this would not represent the pressure difference across it, which is more accurately the pressure at the body surface minus the pleural pressure. Therefore, I believe the label of the x-axis should read "transmural pressure," not transpulmonary static pressure.Minor erratum03/11/19 4:17 PM
710651RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curven/aTo remember right shift: "O2 falls right off"Mnemonic02/23/19 7:02 PM
711652RespiratoryPhysiologyCyanide vs carbon monoxide poisoninghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281520/Under Carboxyhemoglobin; Causes decrease in oxygen binding capacity with left shift in oxygen curve. I suggest modifying it to "for the reminder of Hb (not bound to CO) the affinity becomes higher to oxygen so the curve will shift to the Left in the presence of CO in blood". this will prevent confusion that might arise by the original parapgraphClarification to current text03/01/19 6:57 PM
712652RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curvehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499818/Given as "decreased oxygen-binding capacity with left shift", but it should be "increased"Major erratum02/06/19 4:42 PM
713652RespiratoryPhysiologyResponse to high altitudehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/structure-and-function-of-normal-hemoglobins#H9"increased 2,3-BPG (binds to Hb causing left shift so that Hb releases more O2)" should be "increased 2,3-BPG (binds to Hb causing right shift so that Hb releases more O2)"Minor erratum01/26/19 11:21 AM
714653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen content of bloodhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoning% O2 Saturation of Hb is, of course, decreased in CO poisoning; however, in CO poisoning, this decrease in O2 saturation is not reflected in the pulse oximetry, which cannot be used for diagnosis of CO poisoning. Pulse oximetry can even be elevated in CO poisoning, because pulse oximetry cannot differentiate between Hb bound to O2 (oxyhemoglobin) and Hb bound to CO (carboxyhemoglobin). The chart reads that in CO poisoning there is a decrease in % O2 Saturation of Hb, which can mislead students to believing that this decrease would be revealed via pulse oximetry, the standard measure of O2 saturation. Suggestion/Correction to remove this misunderstanding: place a “*” or “a” in the chart that leads to a note below the chart that states: “This decrease in % O2 saturation is not seen via pulse oximetry, which cannot be used for diagnosis of CO poisoning, because pulse oximetry cannot distinguish between oxyhemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin. An arterial blood gas sample is needed to confirm diagnosis of CO poisoning.”Clarification to current text02/13/19 6:17 AM
715653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curvehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195245/ ,, https://media.lanecc.edu/users/driscolln/RT127/Softchalk/Oxygen_transport_softchalk/Oxygen_Transport_Lesson4.htmlsuggest adding "HbS" in the column of "Right shift" .High-yield addition to next year01/03/19 10:05 AM
716653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's MnemonicLe*F*t shift = Hb*F* .Mnemonic01/03/19 10:07 AM
717653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's Mnemonic*R*ight shift =*R*ise.Mnemonic01/03/19 10:08 AM
718653RespiratoryPhysiologyOxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveIt's MnemonicRight shift =Ri*S*e =Hb*s*Mnemonic01/03/19 10:10 AM
719654RespiratoryPhysiologyPulmonary circulationhttps://books.google.com/books?id=xZswDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=diffusion+and+gas+%3D+A+x+D+X+p1-p2&source=bl&ots=jcKLyVYnCe&sig=NpTNtppgNg3Dzw4iz3aNVVv915w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiyhOL35NHfAhUHKuwKHehgCtYQ6AEwEnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=diffusion%20and%20gas%20%3D%20A%20x%20D%20X%20p1-p2&f=falseReplace( *T* ↑ in pulmonary fibrosis )with (* ∆x * ↑ in pulmonary fibrosis ).Minor erratum01/03/19 8:22 AM
720655RespiratoryPhysiologyVentilation/perfusion mismatchhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PULM%2F103089&topicKey=PULM%2F101436&search=physiologic%20dead%20space%22&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=1~150For blood flow obstruction the text parenthetical names the defect "physiologic dead space". Without clarification that this includes both anatomic and alveolar dead spaces this description is confusing. I propose that it should read "alveolar dead space" since this is more specific to the defect. Thank you for your consideration!Minor erratum01/02/19 6:41 PM
721657RespiratoryPathologyEpistaxishttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/kiesselbach-plexusKiesselbach drives his Lexus with his LEGS: superior Labial artery, anterior and posterior Ethmoidal arteries, Greater palatine artery, Sphenopalatine artery. HERE , POSTERIOR ETHMOID ARTERY IS NOT A CONTRIBUTOR OF KIESSELBACH PLEXUSMinor erratum01/27/19 2:27 PM
722657RespiratoryPathologyRhinosinusitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-bacterial-rhinosinusitis-in-children-microbiology-and-treatmentIt has been mentioned on FA 2019 that S pneumoniae is the most common cause of Rhinosinusitis, but due to the replacement of PCV7 by PCV13 in 2010, it is no longer the leading cause. H influenza takes the first spot now as per new guidelines (Nov 18, UpToDate). H influenza (40-50%), S Pneumo (20-25%), M catarrhalis (25%). This is very high yield for most common organism type of questions on USMLE.Clarification to current text01/13/19 4:37 PM
723658RespiratoryPathologyFlow-volume loopshttps://obgynkey.com/respiratory-pathophysiology-and-regulation/Flow voume loop is correct but adding a directional arrow will be helpful to identify inspiration and expiration loop direction.Clarification to current text03/07/19 9:58 AM
724658RespiratoryPathologyPulmonary embolinot neededchange order of images from " A--C--B " to "A--B--C" in accordance with alphabet.Spelling/formatting01/03/19 1:14 PM
725658RespiratoryPathologyPulmonary emboliN/AS1Q3T3 -> "if you SQuaT 133 pounds, then you'lll get a PE" OR just "SQuaT 133 pounds"Mnemonic03/09/19 11:05 AM
726659RespiratorySystemsMediastinal pathologyhttps://teachmeanatomy.info/thorax/areas/posterior-mediastinum/Middle mediastinal mass: esophegeal cancer !! esophegus located in posterior not middle mediastinumClarification to current text02/14/19 5:25 AM
727660RespiratoryPathologyMesotheliomahttp://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=741Nearly all mesotheliomas stain +ve for cytokeratin and may also stain +ve for calretininHigh-yield addition to next year01/26/19 5:59 PM
728660RespiratoryPathologyObstructive lung diseasesnot neededchange order of images from " D--A--B--C--E--F--G " to "A--B--C--D--E--F--G" in accordance with alphabet.Spelling/formatting01/03/19 1:32 PM
729661RespiratoryPathologySarcoidosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521279/Sarcoidosis also has hepatic involvement including cirrhosis, granulomas in the liver and abnormal Liver function tests.High-yield addition to next year02/08/19 2:59 AM
730662RespiratoryPathologySarcoidosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521279/Sarcoidosis is A Bad Harsh GRUELING Disease. A- African American women, elevated ACE enzymes. B- B/L adenopathy, Bells palsy. Harsh- Hepatic granulomas, cirrhosis. G- Gammaglobulinemia. U- Uveitis, E- erythema nodosum. L- Lupus pernio, I- Interstitial fibrosis. N- noncaseating, G- granulomas. D- increased Vit. DMnemonic02/08/19 3:38 AM
731662RespiratoryPathologySarcoidosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-sarcoidosis?csi=6a5e09dd-58eb-452f-8767-38ea380d40d8&source=contentShareACE has been found to be of unclear or limited use in Sarcoid diagnosis although helpful in disease progressionHigh-yield addition to next year03/02/19 10:03 AM
732665RespiratoryPathologySleep apneahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-obesity-hypoventilation-syndromeIn Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome the PaO2 can be decreased during the day when the patient is awake. This is unclear in the text as the introduction to Sleep Apnea section states "normal PaO2 during the day". Would be good to highlight that PaO2 can be low in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome.Clarification to current text03/06/19 9:13 PM
733666RespiratoryPathologyAtelectasishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/atelectasis-types-and-pathogenesis-in-adultsAtelectasis :Alveolar collapse, which can be due to multiple etiologies: • Obstructive -airway obstruction prevents new air from reaching distal airways, old air is resorbed (eg, foreign body, mucous plug, tu mor) • Compressive-external compression on lung decreases lung volumes (eg, space-occupying lesion, pleural effusion) • Contraction (cicatrization) -scarring of lung parenchyma that distorts alveoli (eg, sarcoidosis) • Adhesive-due to lack of surfactant (eg, NRDS in premature babies) Now I would like to suggest few changes in it. Instead of "ALVEOLAR COLLAPSE" it should be "LOSS OF LUNG VOLUME" because when there is external compression like pleural effusion it pushes the lung inside and due to that pressure alveoli collapse. What I mean to say is with alveolar collapse it could be either few alveoli or more the term gets generalised but what happens at the end is that lung loses its volume either one whole lobe or entire lung. Now coming to causes it could be Divided into: A) Obstructive Causes B) Non Obstructive Causes Compression Adhesive Cicatrization Relaxation : loss of contact between parietal and visceral tissue (Pneumothorax) C) Post-op Atelectasis: Most common cause within 48-72 hours post-op. D) Rounded Atelectasis: As in asbestosis, folding of lobe with fibrous band and adhesion there is loss of lung volume.High-yield addition to next year02/14/19 11:48 PM
734682Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewVasculitidesn/aOn page 682, the index references page 585 for Wegener granulomatosis but page 585 is on renal pathologyMinor erratum02/18/19 1:18 AM
735684Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewClostridiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridioides-formerly-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-treatment-and-preventionMetronidazole is no longer recommended as any initial treatment of Clostridium Difficle. Recommended first line treatment for C. Difficile is now oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for both severe and non-severe CDIMinor erratum01/01/19 2:19 PM
736685Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewSyphilisn/aPage 685 Under the Heading condition: Degeneration of dorsal column Fibers Under the heading Common Treatments: Tabes dorsalis.... This point should probably be under Disease/finding and Most common/important associations insteadClarification to current text02/18/19 12:39 AM
737685Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewWarfarinhttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.lib.utah.edu/contents/reversal-of-anticoagulation-in-warfarin-associated-intracerebral-hemorrhage?search=warfarin%20reversal%20pcc&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H168423846&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~100&display_rank=1#H168423846In addition to reversing warfarin with FFP and vitamin K. Reversal also includes administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) for immediate reversal.High-yield addition to next year01/29/19 12:17 PM
738690Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewChildhood primary brain tumorsSee UWORLD and pg 516 of First AidPage 690 says that the most common supratentorial brain tumor in kids is a medulloblastoma, but both page 516 and UWORLD say that the most common tumor of childhood is the pilocytic astrocytomaClarification to current text02/22/19 5:01 PM
739732IndexIndexAcute pericarditisN/AListed in the index to be on page 314 but is found on page 308.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 6:32 PM
740734IndexIndexAndrogensPage 644 in First Aid 2019 is a notes pageAndrogenetic alopecia is indicated in the revised index to be on page 644 when it is actually on page 643.Spelling/formatting03/03/19 8:55 AM
741736IndexIndexAortic dissectionno reference neededThe wrong page number is listed in the index for aortic dissection. The main "aortic dissection" section is on page 301, but in the index it is listed as 306. However, there is no mention of "aortic dissection" on page 306.Spelling/formatting01/19/19 1:45 PM
742736IndexIndexHereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasiaN/ATwo issues. 1) In the index, "hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia" is written twice under Arteriovenous malformations (AVM). 2) The reference page number is wrong, it should be to page 312 instead of page 319.Spelling/formatting01/13/19 6:29 PM
743737IndexIndexAtrial natriuretic peptideN/AANP is listed as being on page 298, when it is actually on page 294.Spelling/formatting03/04/19 12:12 PM
744737IndexIndexAutoregulationFirst Aid 2019 pg. 295Every time autoregulation of blood flow appears in the index (737, 739, 740, 752, 757) it is listed as pg. 300, however it is actually on pg. 295Spelling/formatting01/18/19 1:14 AM
745737IndexIndexSyphilishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/syphilis-screening-and-diagnostic-testing?search=syphilis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Syphilis is spelled "syphillis" in the indexSpelling/formatting01/27/19 3:56 PM
746738IndexMiscellaneousDiffuse axonal injuryFirst AID 2019Axonal Injury, Diffuse is actually talked about on page 503Spelling/formatting02/10/19 5:06 PM
747739IndexPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-turner-syndrome?search=turner%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Under the Bicuspid aorta valve-->Turner syndrome sub-listing page 303 is one of the pages listed but should be replaced by 298Spelling/formatting03/11/19 2:08 PM
748741IndexIndexCardiomyopathiesN/AThere are many errors in page numbering for the index. This is particularly true for pages in the Cardiovascular section. For example, in the index "Cardiomyopathy" is listed as page 310 but the entry for cardiomyopathy is on page 305. There have been several similar errors of incorrect page numbering in other sections as well, including microbiology.Spelling/formatting02/26/19 11:08 AM
749742IndexIndexAcute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/guillain-barre-syndrome-in-children-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=cerebrospinal%20fluid%20albuminocytologic%20dissociation&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H603783422&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H603783422Currently is spelled "Cerebrospial fluid (CSF) albuminocytologic dissociation" but should be "Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albuminocytologic dissociation"Spelling/formatting03/05/19 3:02 PM
750742IndexIndexBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsN/ACarotid Massage is listed as being on page 299, when it is actually on page 294.Spelling/formatting03/04/19 12:10 PM
751743IndexIndexBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsN/AChemoreceptors are listed in the index as being on page 299. This section is actually found on papge 294Spelling/formatting01/12/19 10:38 AM
752744IndexIndexSympatholytics (α2-agonists)Not requiredClonidine can be found on Page 242 and under Tourette syndrome on Page 545 but not on Pages 240 and 244Spelling/formatting12/31/18 7:45 AM
753744IndexIndexVasculitidesn/aPage 744 Churg-Strauss syndrome index notes page 317 but page 317 is on cardiovascular pharmacology.Spelling/formatting02/18/19 12:46 AM
754746IndexIndexCystic fibrosisFA page 437Cystic hygroma is not on page 437 as indicated * it was not available in the drop down menu to choose from*Spelling/formatting02/28/19 4:10 PM
755751IndexIndexSympathomimeticsN/AUnder Epinephrine it states "for anaphylactic reaction, 114" but there is no mention of epinephrine's use in anaphylaxis on that page.Spelling/formatting03/05/19 11:56 AM
756753IndexIndexFibromyalgianone (index error)"Fibromuscular dysplasia, 303" does NOT appear on page 303Spelling/formatting02/06/19 8:34 PM
757758IndexIndexHepatitis virusesPage 683: Chronic hepatitis B or CHepatitis B treatment is referenced to page 684, when it is actually on page 683Spelling/formatting03/05/19 11:53 AM
758758IndexIndexVasculitidesFirst Aid pg. 676Henoch-Schonlein purpura is erroneously listed as pg. 318, however it is actually on pg. 311Spelling/formatting01/13/19 6:10 AM
759760IndexIndexHydralazineNoneOn p 760 within the index, under "Hydralazine", it says p. 311 and 319 however there is no mention of the drug on either of those pages, instead "Hydralazine" can be found on p. 313Spelling/formatting02/26/19 2:52 PM
760763IndexIndexTorsades de pointesnoneThe index states that Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is on page 297, when it is actually on page 292.Spelling/formatting01/11/19 2:29 PM
761763IndexSystemsVasculitidesnafix page number for kawasaki disease to 310 and also rheumatic fever to 308Spelling/formatting02/17/19 4:09 PM
762772IndexIndexRNA virusesN/AIn the index under "Norovirus" in the first column, "medical importance" is spelled incorrectly. It is spelled "medical improtance"Spelling/formatting03/10/19 7:36 PM
763774IndexPathologyPersonality-On page 774, the index references "Paranoid Personality Disorder" as being on page 541, which is the title page for the Psychiatry section. From looking at the edition, I see that the "Paranoid Personality Disorders" section has been completely omitted, hence the index reference is quite misleading. I even checked the newer published index with corrections and it was still showing that said entry can be found on page 541. It took me some time of scouring around the section and book to realize there is no such entry, hence I would like to formally request you to remove it from the index. Thank you!Spelling/formatting03/12/19 2:30 PM
764775IndexIndexDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuen/aPage 775 Penicillamine related myopathy is listed as page 250 but it's 249Spelling/formatting03/06/19 7:05 AM
765778IndexIndexProtein synthesishttps://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/24-4-protein-metabolism/Under the category of protein synthesis, "metaboilic site" is listed, this should be spelled correctly as metabolic siteSpelling/formatting01/09/19 12:17 AM
766779IndexIndexReceptor bindingNot neededon page 779, it says receptors are on page 231 but they are actually on page 238Spelling/formatting01/05/19 6:47 PM
767781IndexIndexUrinary tract infectionsNoneIndex says Sabouraud agar is found on pg 153 but there's no mention of this on pg 153.Spelling/formatting02/10/19 1:12 AM
768785IndexIndexSyphilitic heart diseaseN/AListed to be on page 315 in index but is found on page 309.Spelling/formatting01/04/19 6:31 PM
769785IndexIndexTriptansNoneOn p 785 within the index, under "Sumatriptan", "coronary vasospasm with" reads p 248 and it should be p 247Spelling/formatting01/07/19 12:32 PM
770788IndexIndexCongenital cardiac defect associationsN/AIn the index, Turner's Syndrome cardiac association is said to be found on page 303 but it is found on page 298.Spelling/formatting01/11/19 2:36 PM
771791Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeuronsFirst Aid 2019Information on Wallerian degeneration is actually on page 483, not 481 as implied by the 2019 indexSpelling/formatting01/20/19 7:01 PM
772566,569.00RenalEmbryologyKidney stoneshttps://www.emjreviews.com/urology/article/renal-stones-a-clinical-review/Clarify that the ureteropelvic junction is the most common site of obstruction IN THE KIDNEY. The ureterovesical junction is narrower and a more common site of obstruction. "The three narrowest parts of the ureter are at the pelvo-ureteric junction, the mid-ureter, where the ureter crosses the iliac vessels, and the vesico-ureteric junction (VUJ). The VUJ is the most common site of obstruction."Spelling/formatting02/16/19 2:00 AM
77346-47BiochemistryCellularRough endoplasmic reticulumaaaN-glycosylation occurs in the eNdoplasmic reticulum; O-glycosylation occurs in the gOlgi apparatusMnemonic03/02/19 2:34 AM
774588 (based on 2018 edition)RenalPathologyRenal cyst disordersSaw it in class/UW QID 3Adults are dominants (autosomal dominant) and infants are not (autosomal recessive)Mnemonic01/15/19 5:51 PM
775590 and 591RenalPathologyAcute tubular necrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238064-overviewBUN/Cr ratio increases in phase 2 of ATN and decreases in phase 3. The text has it as only decreased in phase 3 on page 591. The text also has it decreased in general on page 590 under intrinsic renal failure. This should be clarified that it is only phase 3 that the ratio decreases and it increases in phase 2.Spelling/formatting12/27/18 3:56 PM
776IndexIndexIndexCardiomyopathiesnot neededI think the whole book's Index needs to be re-made, I've recorded too many errors to keep submitting errata.Spelling/formatting01/11/19 7:04 PM
777IndexIndexIndexHeart failuren/aThe page numbers in the index are grossly incorrect -- often off by 6 or more pages. Which makes the entire index difficult to use. For instance paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is listed as page 312 but it on page 306.Spelling/formatting01/16/19 6:08 PM
778p.328EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overviewI submitted for the 2018 and it was ignoredHigh-yield addition to next year02/02/19 10:32 AM
779Pg 379GastrointestinalPathologyIntussusceptionUworld question, https://step1.medbullets.com/gastrointestinal/110050/intussusception,Treatment should be added to Intussuseption- Barium enema is diagnostic/therapeutic and surgical intervention is mandated if intussusception does not resolve with enemaHigh-yield addition to next year03/10/19 12:43 PM
780Pg72BiochemistryMetabolismEthanol metabolismhttps://step1.medbullets.com/biochemistry/102041/ethanol-metabolismIn ethanol metabolism under point number 2 it reads - “ 2) Fasting hypoglycaemia - decreases gluconeogenesis due to increased OAA—> malate. The correction is a decrease in OAA.Alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis by depleting the pool of cytoplasmic NAD+. Depletion of cytoplasmic NAD+ by alcohol metabolism affects the re-oxidation of cytoplasmic malate to oxaloacetate by the cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, inhibiting gluconeogenesis. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis in response to alcohol ingestion results in alcohol-induced hypoglycemiaSpelling/formatting02/07/19 10:39 PM
781viIndexIndexHeart embryologySee FA 19 textbook, page 273.The contents incorrectly labels section III as starting on page 269, when it actually starts on page 273. Approaching the organ systems starts on page 274, and cardiovascular starts on page 277. These 3 contents are listed with incorrect page numbers.Spelling/formatting12/24/18 2:25 PM
78203/08/19 10:49 PM
783313CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditisIndex errorin the index,under Staph Aureus, bacterial endocarditis is said to be on pg 313 but it is on pg 307Minor erratum03/14/19 9:17 AM
784624ReproductivePathologySex chromosome disordersMnemonicMnemonic for Turner Syndrome - Tina Turner loves hugs and kisses (XO)Mnemonic03/14/19 9:54 AM
785744IndexIndexSympathomimeticsN/ACocaine's sympathomimetic action is listed as being on page 243 but is actually on page 242Clarification to current text03/14/19 10:05 AM
786530PsychiatryPathologySchizophrenia spectrum disordersMyselfIncrease DOPamine = smoking "Dope"Mnemonic03/14/19 10:55 AM
787578RenalPhysiologyHormones acting on kidneyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116377/In addition to aquaporins, ADH increases apical expression of Urea transporters in the collecting duct, which are critical for maintaining the osmotic gradient used by the Loop of Henle throughout the renal medulla.High-yield addition to next year03/14/19 12:30 PM
788578RenalPhysiologyHormones acting on kidneyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775849/ADH increases the expression specifically of Aquaporin 2, specifically on the apical side of the collecting duct. ADH does not increase aquaporin expression on the lumenal side of the collecting duct and does not affect expression of AQP 1, 3, or 4.Clarification to current text03/14/19 12:35 PM
789588RenalPathologyUrinary incontinencehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-course-and-prognosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-adults?source=autocomplete&index=2~4&search=multiple%20sc ; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1146199-clinicalNeurogenic bladder with MS as an example is listed on page 588 under "Overflow Incontinence". Despite that MS patients can present with either type of neurogenic bladder (urge or overflow); it is well established that the majority of patients with MS are classically seen with an overactive bladder (urge incontinence) as typically seen with any upper motor neuron lesion (spasticity). If MS has to be listed as an example under one of the two, it should definitely be under "urgency incontinence" type as opposed to the overactive type. This is how we see it across the references.Major erratum03/14/19 4:41 PM
790588RenalPathologyUrinary incontinenceN/AStress Sneeze Surgery Super active Stick Stream or Slow Sphincter Urgency UTI Ultra active bladder Overflow Obstruction OFF BladderMnemonic03/14/19 5:22 PM
791306CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurenone neededIn the pressure-volume loop diagrams, it would be helpful if the abbreviations were written out with their abbreviation in parentheses following. (I.e., "Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)" and "Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF"). This is the only place where these abbreviations are used.Clarification to current text03/15/19 12:00 AM
792669RespiratoryPathologyLung cancermyselfSCLC characteristics mnemonic: SMALl Cell lung cancer: SIADH, c-Myc gene, ACTH, Lambert-eaton, Chromogranin AMnemonic03/15/19 9:03 AM
793587RenalPathologyRenal cell carcinomahttps://www.explainmedicine.com/article/General/VaricoceleSpecifying that occlusion of the left spermatic vein is the reason left-sided RCC may cause a varicocele. Suggested revision to current phrasing: "... may develop varicocele if left-sided; obstruction of left spermatic vein)..."High-yield addition to next year03/15/19 10:32 AM
794258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsStatistical distributionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glossary-of-common-biostatistical-and-epidemiological-terms?search=Odds%20ratio&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Error: "If in a case-control study, 20/30 lung cancer patients and 5/25 healthy individuals report smoking, the OR is 8; so the lung cancer patients are 8 times more likely to have a history of smoking." Correction [ "If in a case-control study, 20/10* lung cancer patients and 5/20* healthy individuals report smoking, the OR is 8; so the lung cancer patients are 8 times more likely to have a history of smoking.Spelling/formatting03/15/19 12:11 PM
79576BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexN/ARecommend red-bolding of "Ar"senic and G"ar"lic breath. This clinical finding is often mentioned in question stems and could help us quickly differentiate from Cyanide poisoning with Almond breath.Mnemonic03/15/19 1:23 PM
79664BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic disorders by chromosomeMnemonicChromosome 3: Von-Hippel-Lindau Gene, associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma -Both VHL and RCC have 3 letters Chromosome 5: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) -APC gene mutation Read as: "Five-APC" or "FAPC" Chromosome 6: Hemochromatosis - associated w/ HLA A3 Read as: "HA3mochromatoSIX" Chromosome 11: Wilms tumor -Read as "W11ms tumor" Chromosome 13: Wilson Disease -Wilson Disease has 13 letters in total (same with Patau Syndrome, chromosome 13)Mnemonic03/15/19 3:53 PM
79766BiochemistryNutritionVitamin AMnemonicChronic toxicity from PHAAD diets: pseudotumor cerebri, hepatoxicity/megaly, alopecia, arthralgias, dry skinMnemonic03/15/19 4:37 PM
79863BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1684265/. Also UWorld question 8328please add that the majority of cases of Down syndrome result from nondisjunction in Meiosis I specificallyHigh-yield addition to next year03/16/19 5:40 PM
799525Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinitishttps://nei.nih.gov/faqs/retina-cotton-wool-spotsCotton wool spots are found in diabetic retinopathy tooHigh-yield addition to next year03/16/19 9:02 PM
800285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/auscultation-of-heart-soundsIt states that S4 should be considered abnormal, regardless of patient age. According to uptodate and UWorld, S4 is normal in healthy older adults.Major erratum03/17/19 1:05 AM
801306CardiovascularPathologyHydralazineFirst aid 2019Hydralazine with nitrate therapy improves both symptoms and mortality in 'selected' patients. Text in the book says 'select'. Selected patients could be specified eg: African patientsSpelling/formatting03/17/19 6:14 AM
802513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurocutaneous disordersGoljan- Rapid review of pathology. Also in https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/950151-overview#a1 NF1 is highly penetrant but not 100%. On the other end, NF-2 shows complete penetranceNF shows incomplete penetrance, not 100% penetranceMajor erratum03/17/19 7:10 AM
80350BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093059/Clarify on the sentence: Glycine content best reflects collagen synthesis. For example, If i have two tissue samples, one of which is primarily made up of collagen (i.e, Bone or cartilage) and another one is devoid of collagen or containg negligible amount of collagen (i.e, synovial fluid). In this case, using glycine content reflects the amount of collagen present in these tissues. However, if i have two tissue samples, both made up of more or less collagen (let's say skin and ligaments). In this case, I can not use glycine to reflect the collagen amount present in these tissues as glycine though not abundant as much as in collagen, is still present in various other protiens such as elastin. Therefore, measuring glycine content could give me false results. In these cases, measuring hydroxylated proline (i.e, hydroxyproline) would be the best choice since it is very specific for collagen only.Clarification to current text03/17/19 7:21 AM
804588RenalPathologyMultiple sclerosisUWorld Question ID : 11464FA says MS causes overflow incontinence (Detrusor Underactivity) but Uworld says that patients develop a spastic bladder and bladder hypertonia (Urge Incontinence)Major erratum03/17/19 8:45 AM
805241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropineSketchyMedical - autonomic drugsunder atropine, add a "heart" subtitle and include the fact that it can reverse fatal bradycardia (increase HR)High-yield addition to next year03/17/19 10:46 AM
806389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnone neededHemochromatoSIX as a reminder that the mutation is located on chromosome 6.Minor erratum03/17/19 2:35 PM
80750BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structureNAVitamin C deficiency leads to a problem with Hydrox"C"lation.Mnemonic03/17/19 3:52 PM
808592RenalPathologyRenal cyst disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-and-screening-for-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-diseaseAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is due to a mutation in PKD1 (on chromosome 16) or PKD2 (on chromosome 4) So, to remember the specific chromosomes 16^1= 16 and 4^2= 16Mnemonic03/17/19 5:28 PM
809260Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evidence-based-approach-to-prevention?search=lead-time%20bias%20definition&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~19&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H20178015To differentiate between "lead-time bias" and "length-time bias," you can think "If a disease is detected early, you get a 'head start' on the treatment, and therefore take the 'lead.'" This draws comparison to a race.Mnemonic03/17/19 5:34 PM
810571RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration rateBoards and Beyond by Dr. Jason Ryan.It would be helpful to add an 'Afferent arteriole dilation' row in the 'Changes in glomerular dynamics' section at the bottom of the page. Here the both the GFR and RPF increase and FF remains the same. This may help further strengthen the concept.High-yield addition to next year03/18/19 5:35 AM
811480Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologySyringomyeliahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2078323/As the disease progresses, syringomyelia can affect the anterior horns (LMN symptoms), which leads to SCOLIOSIS (due to paresis of paravertebral bodies). **"teenager w/scoliosis + loss of pain/temp in cape-like distribution" is a common presentation in board questionsHigh-yield addition to next year03/18/19 8:14 AM
812499Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyCommon brain lesionsWithout errata, It is contradicting with the following describing in Paramedian pontine reticular formation-Eyes look toward side of hemiplegia. I got from Kaplan and UWorld that FEF control contralateral PPRF, so the consequences of both lesions should not be same.Frontal eye fields-Eyes look toward the side of lesion (or at the hemiplegia), Please revise "at" to "away from"Major erratum03/18/19 1:40 PM
813281CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/158064-overviewSA node is supplied by SA Nodal Artery which is perfused by branches of the RCA in ~60% of cases whereas in ~40% it is perfused by the LCX. This is in great contrast to the printed statement of, "RCA supplies SA node" in FA 2019. The parenthetical that follows "(blood supply independent of dominance)" remains a true statement and should be kept. This fact is supported by the eMedicine link as a supporting reference with the relevant information in the Etiology subsection titled "Childhood and familial diseases," italicized heading "SA nodal artery disease." An additional journal article has been included corroborating the same anatomical fact.Major erratum03/18/19 2:36 PM
814315CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/gemfibrozil-drug-information?search=gemfibrozil&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~73&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Gemfibrozil is spelled incorrectly. It is "Gemfi rozil" on the book.Spelling/formatting03/18/19 5:34 PM
815448Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip muscleshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20625501Fact name is incorrect because "NEW FACT" wasn't available. Add titin to sarcomere graphic. Titin connects myosin to the Z-line.High-yield addition to next year03/18/19 6:23 PM
816573RenalPhysiologyNephron transport physiologyNot neededA short note or a one-liner can or a pictorial representation can be made about Hartnup disease under early PCT. Would be a good tie in to biochemistry and the student can read it in more detail under the nutrition chapter on Pg.67.High-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:22 AM
817187PharmacologyPharmacologyAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nitrofurantoin-drug-information?search=nitrofurantoin&topicRef=8065&source=see_link#F201984Nitrofurantoin - first line therapy in Acute uncomplicated cystitis >or= 12 years of age and chronic recurrent UTIs. It is a High risk medication in Geriatric patients (>or = 65 years) as it is included in Beers criteria. Contraindications: Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] <60 mL/minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) or previous history of cholestatic jaundice or hepatic dysfunction associated with prior nitrofurantoinHigh-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:46 AM
818574RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectsMyselfUnder the notes column(which is empty) of Fanconi syndrome, it would be beneficial to mention - May present similar to Diabetes Mellitus with polyuria and polydipsia secondary to osmotic diuresis from glucose. However, serum glucose level remains normal in contrast to DM.High-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:51 AM
819187MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nitrofurantoin-drug-information?search=nitrofurantoin&topicRef=8065&source=see_link#F201984Nitrofurantoin - first line therapy in Acute uncomplicated cystitis >or= 12 years of age and chronic recurrent UTIs. It is a High risk medication in Geriatric patients (>or = 65 years) as it is included in Beers criteria. Contraindications: Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] <60 mL/minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) or previous history of cholestatic jaundice or hepatic dysfunction associated with prior nitrofurantoinHigh-yield addition to next year03/19/19 3:53 AM
820141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1829097/ & https://www.uptodate.com/contents/vibrio-vulnificus-infections?search=vibiro%20vulnificus&topicRef=7646&source=see_link#H11Vibrio Vulnificus - motile, comma-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, The organism is isolated in high concentrations from shellfish (especially oysters), High iron levels appear to be a marked predictor of the severity of infection with Vibrio vulnificus. Laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio vulnificus infection can be performed by using stool, blood, or lesion cultures. The Gram stain shows a mildly pleomorphic, slightly curved gram-negative bacillus. It grows well in peptone water enrichment broth and can then be subcultured on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar, which exhibits green colonies. Causes Rapidly Spreading cellulitis which is difficult to treat.High-yield addition to next year03/19/19 4:15 AM