2021 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Suggestions
Page #ChapterSectionFact NameSupporting Reference(s)Main CommentSubmission type
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11Section IAbbreviations and SymbolsNEW FACTN/A - style suggestionI think it would be useful to have the "Selected USMLE Laboratory Values" on the front inside cover of First Aid. I reference these values all the time, and it is awkward to flip to that page. I think having the lab values on the inside cover would be similar to chemistry textbooks (or MCAT prep books) that have a table of contents on the inside cover for quick and easy access.Spelling/formatting
229BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162690/Quote suggestion for beginning of basic science section (p.29): “Medical science has made such tremendous progress that there is hardly a healthy human left.” - Aldous HuxleyMnemonic
334BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structurehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase#:~:text=Histone%20deacetylase%20(HDAC)%20is%20an,Handbook%20of%20Clinical%20Neurology%2C%202014Histone DEACetylation DEACtivates DNAMnemonic
434BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structureMnemonicHistones are Positive and LARge. (Lysine and Arginine)Mnemonic
535BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesNone NeededTwo ring purine can easily be drawn as a cartoon cat (matching with "cats PURr until they GAG", while the single ring of pyrimidines can be illustrated as looking like a pyramid, serving as a visual mnemonic for the two and one ring structures respectively.Mnemonic
635BiochemistryMolecularNucleotideshttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/Chemical-structure-of-adenosine-5-triphosphate-ATP-a-nucleotide-All-nucleotides_fig2_292144146The nucleotide diagram is misleading. The deoxyribose sugar seems to show 6-carbon sugar when it should be a 5-carbon sugar (pentose). The carbons of the pentose sugar are numbered 1' through 5', clockwise, beginning with the carbon attached to the nitrogenous base. The phosphate groups attach to the 5' pentose carbon. Basically flip the diagram, number, and make adjustments to clarify for people that need to visualize the nucleotide structure.Major erratum
735BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21514/According to my reading about structure of 'ribose', carbon atoms numbering runs in clockwise manner, and Base (purine or pyrimidine) should place on carbon 1 of Ribose and phosphate group place on carbon 5 on the Ribose, in the picture you added for structure of Nucleotide and Nucleoside, those put reversely.Clarification to current text
836BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesisSelfMethotrexate (huMans), Trimethoprim (bacTeria), Pyrimethamine (Protozoa). The M's go together, the T's go together, and the P's go together.Mnemonic
937BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficienciesIn the attachments, I attached a diagram supporting my previous comment from the leading biochemistry book, Lehninger Principles of BiochemistryThe pathway from IMP to AMP and GMP is indicated by two arrow head indicating a reversible reaction which is not quite the case. As attached below in the attachment section, the pathway from IMP to AMP requires GTP while the pathway from IMP to GMP requires ATP. Thus, it is biochemically unfavorable to make IMP out of GMP/AMP. Hence, The line should be single headed towards AMP and GMP from IMPMajor erratum
1037BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficienciesIn the attachments, I attached a diagram supporting my previous comment from the leading biochemistry book, Lehninger Principles of BiochemistryThe pathway from IMP to AMP and GMP is indicated by two arrow head indicating a reversible reaction which is not quite the case. As attached below in the attachment section, the pathway from IMP to AMP requires GTP while the pathway from IMP to GMP requires ATP. Thus, it is biochemically unfavorable to make IMP out of GMP/AMP. Hence, The line should be single headed towards AMP and GMP from IMPMinor erratum
1137BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACTPRPP Aminotransferase is a typing error - it is supposed to be amiDOtransferase.Within the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome - (increased PRPP amidotransferase activity)Spelling/formatting
1237BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACThttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AmidophosphoribosyltransferaseIn lesch-nyhan syndrome it said that PRPP aminotransferase activity increases , while the enzyme name should be PRPP amidotransferase with a D, its not that big of a deal but yeahSpelling/formatting
1338BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationFA 20215´-3´ exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I is associated with excision of multiple nucleotides. 3´-5´ exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase III is associated with excision of one nucleotide.High-yield addition to next year
1438BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACTIt is a spelling/index recommendation!To whom it may concern: Hello! I hope you are doing well! I am studying from the 2020 First Aid book for Step 1, and I noticed there was no index entry for Bloom Syndrome. It IS briefly addressed on page 38 where helicase is described. Would you be able to add it to the index so that is easier to find? Also, if needed, I am happy to write a small blurb on Bloom Syndrome to help contribute to the 2022 edition if needed. Thank you for your time and help! I am LOVING my First Aid book!Spelling/formatting
1539BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairNot neededIn the Base Excision Repair diagram, the U (uracil) is removed, and replaced with another U, though it should be replaced with a C (cytosine). Other than that, the new diagrams are a great addition!Minor erratum
1639BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairI believe it should be Cytosine base in front of the Guanine after the base excision repair. And I found it in Khan Academy illustration as wellIn page 39, DNA repair, Base excision repair, in the illustration there is still "U" after the repair, which should be changed to "C"Minor erratum
1739BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairRobbins basis of pathology 10th edition. Harpers biochemistry 31st editionIn 2021 edition Ataxia telangiectasia is mentioned to be defect of non homologous end joining. But it is actually due to defective homologous end joining.Minor erratum
1839BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairnot neededIn the picture to Base Excision Repair mechanism, all the way to the bottom you put "U" instead of "C". I believe the whole point of the repair was to replace deaminated "U" to proper "C" in DNA sequence.Minor erratum
1941BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic genemyselfThe title has a small spelling mistake in using a before eukaryotic. It should be "Functional organization of an eukaryotic gene"Spelling/formatting
2041BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic genehttps://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/translation-dna-to-mrna-to-protein-393/Illustration of mature mRNA shows ATG as a start codon. I think it should be AUG as it RNAMinor erratum
2141BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic genehttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=71&firstAidYear=2021Start Codon in mature mRNA reads ATG, should be AUG. ATG would be correct if start codon in DNA strand was marked. In page 45 it is correct.Minor erratum
2241BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic genehttps://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780128132883000136ATG should read as "AUG" for the start codon for the mature mRNA, which is marked by (3)Major erratum
2341BiochemistryMolecularStart and stop codonsno needStart Codon is AUG not ATG.Major erratum
2446BiochemistryCellularApoptosishttps://www.nature.com/articles/1207116Text indiaces p53 signals for apoptosis through Bcl-2. Either needs to say BcL-2 familiy, or be more specific and indiacte that it inhibits Bcl-2 and is a TF for Bax/Bid. Bcl-2 itself is anti-apoptoticClarification to current text
2546BiochemistryCellularTumor suppressor geneshttps://www.nature.com/articles/4401962on the illustration of action of P53 we can add inhibit to the BCL 2 to indicate the mechanism of action in inducing apoptosis , also we can mention its role in activation of the BaxMinor erratum
2646BiochemistryCellularNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134576/Under the Tumor Suppressor heading, EPO is included with growth factors that bind receptor tyrosine kinases. While this may technically be true, the EPO receptor is usually considered a Jak/Stat signaler, separate from traditional tyrosine kinase receptors. I would argue that EPO should be left out of the list on page 46, or further clarification should be made.Clarification to current text
2747BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingN/ACurrently reads: "Golgi is distribution center for proteins and lipids from ER to vesicles and plasma membrane. Posttranslational events in **O-oligosaccharides** include modifying N-oligosaccharides on asparagine, adding O-oligosaccharides on serine and threonine, and adding mannose-6-phosphate to proteins ..." (Asterisks added to highlight error) I believe was intended to say "Posttranslational events in **Golgi** include..." not "O-oligosaccharides".Minor erratum
2847BiochemistryCellularSmooth endoplasmic reticulumN/A"liver hepatocytes"- redundancy. Please Reconsider "hepatocytes" or "liver cells"Spelling/formatting
2948BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomehttps://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/abcd1/AdrenoLeukoDystrophy is caused by a defect in the ABCD1 gene (A for adrenoleukodystrophy) which causes a defect in the ALDP (same three letters as adrenoleukostrophy) protein.Mnemonic
3048BiochemistryCellularNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4666198/Zellweger Syndrome - Presents in infants with craniofacial abnormalities (widened sutures/ large anterior fontanelle)High-yield addition to next year
3149BiochemistryCellularCilia structurehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-immotile-cilia-syndrome?search=kartagener&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~29&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H26740060In 2020, the new updated name (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia) is placed in parentheses next to Kartagener syndrome (the old Nazi eponym). In 2021, the book has taken a step back by only using the Nazi eponym. Please correct this by potentially putting Kartagener in parentheses or even just removing his name altogether.Clarification to current text
3250BiochemistryCellularCollagenThis info is already specified in FAType 1 collagen aka type "L or l" collagen = Late wound repair / Type 3 collagen aka Type "E" = Early wound repairMnemonic
3350BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structureOriginal source is First Aid!Sir Hook, Go Eat Pretzels & CopperMnemonic
3452BiochemistryGeneticsElastinPage 52 of First AidMnemonic For Marfan syndrome. You the Fan Up and Out to get air on you.Mnemonic
3553BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesBlotting procedureshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetics-glossary-of-terms#H3789757172I found a wrong on image of the First Aid USMLE STEP 1 2021. It's on Biochemistry section on page 53. I attached the wrong image and its correct form. Why this image is wrong? Every gene has two alleles, but In this image, only one allele is drawn for the homozygous mutant gene (aa) , and this wrong is repeated for the normal gene's alleles (AA) again.Minor erratum
3653BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesCRISPR/Cas9Not needed.Line 3 after the number 2 there's an unclear sentence "Break imperfectly repaired by non homologous--- the sentence is not structurally correct, It should be like this "Imperfectly cut segments are repaired by non homologous ...."Major erratum
3755BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesFluorescence in situ hybridizationhttps://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323597371000060The image supporting the FISH paragraph is for Spectral Karyotyping. It should be replaced by a correct image for fluorescence in situ hybridization.Major erratum
3858BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingmnemonicPAPA-Willi (paternal deletion/mutation), AngelMOM (maternal deletion/mutation)Mnemonic
3958BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingNot neededAngelMans - mom is maternal and mothers have Uterus (Ube3a absence) both starts with U. Prader Wili - Paternal (fathers have Sperm - Snrpn absence)Mnemonic
4059BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancehttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5696/rett-syndromeGermline mutations for MEPC2 causing Rett syndrome are inherited in an X-linked dominant fashionHigh-yield addition to next year
4159BiochemistryGeneticsNEW FACTnot neededCommon mitochondrial disorders can be remembered by the letters KLMNOP: (K)earns-Sayre syndrome; (L)eigh syndrome; (M)ELAS and (N)ARP (O)ptic/ophthalmic disorders e.g. Leber's hereditary neuropathy; (P)OLG-related disordersMnemonic
4259BiochemistryGeneticsNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PC%2F75137&topicKey=PC%2F15540&rank=1~150&source=see_link&search=geneticsThe Pedigree of X-Linked Dominant Traits shows 1 UNAFFECTED DAUGHTER of an Affected Diseased Father which is INCORRECT. Kindly to make it less confusing, please mark all daughters as Affected Females.Major erratum
4360BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosisazithromycin is antibiotics, mentioned in the the book as anti-inflammatory , is there any reason ?Minor erratum
4461BiochemistryGeneticsMuscular dystrophiesnot needed.suggest highliting letter "D" of Dilated in "Dilated cardiomyopathy is common cause of death" to match exist mnemonic.(Duchenne = deleted dystrophin).Mnemonic
4562BiochemistryGeneticsTrinucleotide repeat expansion diseasesnot neededMnemonic for memorizing mode of inheritance of each diseases: A huntington Disease-AD, A myotinic Dystrophy-AD, Fragile X synDrome-XD, fRiedreich Ataxia-ARMnemonic
4663BiochemistryGeneticsNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991414/18 yo EDWARDS TURNed DOWN PATAU because she was 13 [explanation: Edwards syndrome = 18; Turner syndrome = XO (Down an X - "turned down"); Down syndrome = is by default 21; Patau syndrome = 13]Mnemonic
4764BiochemistryGeneticsCri-du-chat syndromeNot neededI Cry when I am Very SaD - Cri-du-chat syndrome is associated with cardiac abnormalities like VSDMnemonic
4864BiochemistryGeneticsRobertsonian translocationhttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/Segregation-patterns-for-a-Robertsonian-translocation-A-carrier-of-a-balanced_fig2_318767201In the image: the gamete precursor on the right is actually balancedMajor erratum
4965BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: fat solublehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/fat-soluble-vitamins"Absorption dependent on ileum and pancreas", while it should be "Absorption dependent on ileum, pancreas and bile emulsification"Minor erratum
5065BiochemistryNutritionVitamins: fat solublemnemonicA toxic DEcK → fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) are more often toxicMnemonic
5166BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Ahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-a"corneal squamous metaplasia -> Bitot spots", it should be conjunctival squamous metaplasia -> Bitot spots. Because Bitot spots are areas of abnormal squamous cell proliferation and keratinization of the conjunctiva according to many resourcesMinor erratum
5266BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B1https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26567494/Beri beri (very) low B1 results in beri beri high cardiac output (high-output cardiac failure).Mnemonic
5367BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3No reference (it's a memory aid)To remember pellagra vs podagra, we can say: pELLagra = vitamin B3 levels fELL; and pODagra = vitamin B3 OD (overdose)Mnemonic
5468BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B9Goodman and Gilman's The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics - 13edition - P 1011First Aid in P 68 states sulfonamides as a cause of B9 deficiency, however in page 430(hematology chapter) it states trimethoprim. Sulfonamides by themselves (unless combined with TMP) don't cause folate deficiency in humans (since humans don't require PABA for folate synthesis and Dihydropteroate synthase the target of sulfonamides is only presents in bacteria, instead we get folate from diet). On the other hand, folate deficiency can result from trimethoprim as it inhibits DHFR in bacteria and in mammalian cells(DHFR is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes). Furthermore, this contradict with P 194 in First Aid, which doesn't state folate deficiency/megaloblastic anemia as an adverse effect of sulfonamides but does in trimethoprim So my suggestion is to replace sulfonamides in page 68 with trimethoprim, OR to edit the text by saying: the addition of trimethoprim with sulfonamides can result in folate deficiency.Minor erratum
5569BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B12Not NeededTo remember the tracts affected in vitamin B12 deficiency: Highlight the first letters in ""S"ubacute "C"ombined "D"egeneration" --> "(SCD = degeneration of "S"pinocerebellar tracts, lateral "C"orticospinal tracts, and "D"orsal columns)"Mnemonic
5669BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CDeficiency may be precipitated by tea and toast diet.: i think this is a wrong information. this is for iron not vitamin CMinor erratum
5770BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Ehttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/8342653/Deficiency also closely mimics Friedreich ataxiaHigh-yield addition to next year
5870BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Ehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-e“(E)-nfants” [infants] with (E)xcess of vitamin (E) have a risk of (E)nterocolitis. Note: The parentheses enclosing the ‘E’s are meant to illustrate the change in color used in the book to highlight letters or words in the mnemonics.Mnemonic
5972BiochemistryNutritionEthanol metabolismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4806829/Fomepizole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. The current text states that it "blocks alcohol dehydrogenase." The more specific mechanism of action is useful to answer questions regarding changes in Km and Vmax.High-yield addition to next year
6075BiochemistryMetabolismATP productionSelfAerobic metabolism makes 32 net ATP via malate ("more") pathway, but only 30 net ATP through glycerol (g-less-erol) pathway.Mnemonic
6176BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complexn/aInstead of the arbitrary mnemonic “the lovely coenzymes for nerds”, we can just use the vitamins themselves. “1, 2, 3, 4, 5” Vit B1- thiamine pyrophosphate Vit B2- riboflavin (FAD) Vit B3- niacin (NAD+) 4- 4 letters, “acid” Vit B5- pantothenic acid (CoA)Mnemonic
6277BiochemistryMetabolismTCA cycleNoted in page 103, First Aid for the Basic Sciences 3rd edition Copyright 2017TCA cycle produces 12 ATP per acetyl - CoA ; 3 ATP per NADH, 2 ATP per FADH2, + 1 GTP =12 ATP per acetyl CoAMajor erratum
6378BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoningThe inhibitor of Complex IV should be CO not CO2.Clarification to current text
6478BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.statpearls.com/ArticleLibrary/viewarticle/20982The mentioned inhibitors of Complex IV include carbon dioxide instead of monoxideMinor erratum
6578BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cyanide-poisoningDiagram indicates that carbon dioxide (CO2) inhibits Complex IV (aka cytochrome oxidase). Text for Electron transport inhibitors indicates that carbon monoxide (CO) inhibits complex IV.Minor erratum
6678BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/819987-overviewPicture shows CO2 blocking complex IV but it’s COMinor erratum
6779BiochemistryMetabolismGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencyHarrison, 20th edition page 715“ Bite cells- result from the phagocytise removal of Heinz bodies by splenic macrophages” , whereas in reality, bite cells don’t result from this. It apparently looks so because the Heinz bodies are not stained by conventional stains. It requires supravital staining. Harrison, 20th edition page 715 says - “ The blood film shows anisocytosis, polychromasia, and spherocytes; in addition, the most typ- ical feature of G6PD deficiency is the presence of bizarre poikilocytes, with red cells that appear to have unevenly distributed hemoglobin (“hemighosts”) and red cells that appear to have had parts of them bitten away (“bite cells” or “blister cells”) (Fig. 96-7). A classical test, now rarely carried out, is supravital staining with methyl violet, which, if done promptly, reveals the presence of Heinz bodies (consisting of precipitates of denatured hemoglobin and hemichromes), which are regarded as a signature of oxidative damage to red cells (they are also seen with unstable hemoglobins).“Major erratum
6880BiochemistryMetabolismDisorders of galactose metabolismGoogle Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase for spelling.In the classic galactosemia paragraph, "uridyltransferase" is misspelled. Should be "uridylyltransferase" like the diagram below.Spelling/formatting
6981BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsn/aGlucogenic/ketogenic amino acids (it's a spicy one): my 3 WIFYs are sweet and thick. 3 = threonine, W = tryptophan, I = isoleucine, F = phenylalanine, Y = tyrosine, sweet = glucogenic, thick = ketogenic.Mnemonic
7081BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22601/There's no mnemonic for remembering amino acids that are both glucogenic and ketogenic. A good mnemonic for this would be "I take isolated poop tryps at 3:09" (isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine)Mnemonic
7181BiochemistryMetabolismSorbitolBoards & Beyond, PixorizeShould be mentioned that the pathway in which tissues convert sorbitol to fructose is known as the Polyol Pathway.Clarification to current text
7282BiochemistryMetabolismHyperammonemiahttps://www.nature.com/articles/ncpuro0877?proof=t; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546155/#:~:text=Hyperammonemia%20may%20develop%20due%20to,infections%20%5B8%2C9%5D.There are various case reports on the association between UTI (mostly by urease producers) and hyperammonemia. As uti is common and examiners look for new ways for testing. This relation might be asked in the future.High-yield addition to next year
7382BiochemistryMetabolismHyperammonemianot neededLactulose to acidify GIT "the increase of H+ facilitates conversion of NH3+ To NH4+ which is trapped for excretion"Clarification to current text
7484BiochemistryMetabolismAlkaptonuriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/941530-overview#a5The disease is caused by deficient activity of homogentisic acid dioxygenase. Not homogentisate oxidaseMajor erratum
7585BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsN/AI think it would make sense to add Hartnup Disease to this page with other amino acid metabolic disordersHigh-yield addition to next year
7685BiochemistryMetabolismHomocystinuriaUpToDateThe book has mentioned-- In Homocystinuria there is increased Homocysteine in urine.. But actually it should be increased Homocystine(S~S) in urine and Homocysteine(SH) in blood..We know that 2 molecules of cysteine form cystine and both of them are different and cannot be used interchangeably.Minor erratum
7786BiochemistryAbbreviations and SymbolsGlycogen storage diseasesFirst aid 2021 edition page 86-87On first aid page number 86 2021 the figure of glycogen storage disease does not show the marking of 4 th glycogen storage disease and on page 87 you have mentioned it so I think by just adding number 4 to the figure in the space at branching enzyme would make it look perfect and completeMinor erratum
7887BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseaseshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20301489/Patients with Glycogen Storage Disease Type I typically have a doll-like face, thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen (due to hepatomegaly)High-yield addition to next year
7988BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238260/Hurler syndrome - dysostosis multiplex is seenHigh-yield addition to next year
8088BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesN/AI think of Tay-Sachs as "Two Six" disease because the 2 in GM2 ganglioside, and 6 for hexosaminidaseMnemonic
8188BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesN/AYou should add I-cell disease to page 88 or 89, even though it's a problem with lysosomal tagging not storage, it makes the most sense to group it with the lysosomal storage diseases. You could keep it on page 47 but also add it to page 88 or 89.High-yield addition to next year
8290BiochemistryMetabolismKetone bodieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493179/#:~:text=The%20heart%20typically%20uses%20fatty,enzyme%20beta%20ketoacyl%2DCoA%20transferase.Liver cells can not use ketone bodies as fuel, because they lacks the necessary enzyme beta ketoacyl-CoA transferaseHigh-yield addition to next year
8390BiochemistryMetabolismNEW FACTFIRST AID FOR THE USMLE STEP 1 2021I believe having a chart that summarizes the most high yield causes of ketotic and hypoketotic hypoglycemia, using only First Aid 2021 as a source for the informationHigh-yield addition to next year
8491BiochemistryMetabolismMetabolic fuel usehttps://www.emedicinehealth.com/nutrition_and_diet/article_em.htmIt is not kcal, it should be cal only. the numbers are correct but the units are not. My proposal is to replace kcal with calMinor erratum
8592BiochemistryMetabolismLipid transportnot neededpoint number 3: impaired in type I familia dyslipidemia (change familia to familial)Spelling/formatting
8693BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705268/#:~:text=Apolipoprotein%20C%2DII%20(apoC%2D,HDL)%2C%20particularly%20during%20fasting.Apo c-II is not present on the surface of IDL (also based on the figure on p.92, after processing of VLDL by LPL)). Table indicates Apo c-II on the surface of IDL.Minor erratum
8793BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/lipoprotein-classification-metabolism-and-role-in-atherosclerosis?search=apo%20cii&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~36&usage_type=default&display_rank=3#H5The table at the bottom of page 93 incorrectly states that Apo CII is found on IDL, when IDL should only have Apo E & B-100 as confirmed by the diagram on page 92 as well as the source linked below. UpToDate states that IDL is associated with B-100, C-III, and E.Minor erratum
8893BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinsnot needed(V)LDL, (I)DL, and (L)DL and come from the (LIV)er and are marked with B-100; Mnemonic -> I hope I "LIV" to "B-100"Mnemonic
8993BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305896/In the table of major apolipoproteins, C-2 is not found in IDL and it is already supported by the graph for lipid transport in the previous page 92.Minor erratum
9094BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasThis info is already specified in FA"Type E" familial dyslipidemia (actually called type 3) is a defect of Apo E (E looks and sounds like 3)Mnemonic
9194BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391008/ and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1839776/IDL is also elevated along with VLDL and chylomicrons in dysbetalipoproteinemiaMinor erratum
9294BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasHarrison's principles of internal medicine 12 edition page 2896, and First Aid for the USMLE step 1 page 93First aid says in dysbetalipoproteinemia that chylomicrons and VLDL are elevated in blood, however this contradicts with page 93 of (first aid 2021) which clearly says that Apo E mediates remnant uptake. So the correction should be elevated chylomicron remnant, VLDL remnant(IDL), NOT elevated chylomicron, VLDL.Major erratum
9394BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasHarrison's principles of internal medicine 12 edition page 2896, and First Aid for the USMLE step 1 2021 page 93First aid says in dysbetalipoproteinemia that chylomicrons and VLDL are elevated in blood, however this contradicts with page 93 of (first aid 2021) which clearly says that Apo E mediates remnant uptake. So the correction should be: elevated chylomicron remnant, VLDL remnant(IDL), NOT elevated chylomicron, VLDL. In addition it seems a good idea to include "Remnant hyperlipidemia" as another name for dysbetalipoproteinemia just to enforce the fact that Lipoprotein remnants are elevated.Major erratum
9494BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasMy response is mnemonic so I don’t ont think this field is necessary.To remember the inheritance pattern in Familial Dyslipidemias we can use the mnemonic “Evens are Dominant” as type 2 and 4 are even numbers and they are inherited in autosomal dominant pattern.Mnemonic
9596ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymph nodeN/ATo remember what is found in each part of the lymph node: "My BF needs COlD/SINUS MEDs and TP." - BF = B cells in Follicle. COlD/SINUS MEDs = cords & sinuses in the medulla. TP = T cells in Paracortex. Also, the mnemonic is somewhat relevant to immune system (has a cold).Mnemonic
9697ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associationshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/956340-clinical#b5While it is true that the supraclavicular nodes drain the head and neck, supraclavicular lymphadenopathy is NOT primarily associated with head and neck but with mediastinum, lung, and abdomen.Minor erratum
9797ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associations(Question #98) https://usmle.org/pdfs/step-1/samples_step1_2020.pdf ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513317/It is also important to add Submental lymph nodes to the chart. Both the submental and submandibular lymph nodes drain the anterior oral tongue. This concept was tested in USMLE's released sample test, Question 98.Clarification to current text
98100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesFA 2021 P100Remove "2" from "2-3, S-L-E" because "DR2" is not exist in section.Minor erratum
99100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesFA 2021 P100Please highlight "(1+3=4) in "DR3 section" to match exist mnemonic.Clarification to current text
100100ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIThis info is already specified in FAMHC 1 has 1 unique subunit (Beta-2 microglobulin) / MHC 2 has 2 of each subunit (two alpha and 2 beta)Mnemonic
101100ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1905688/bare lymphocyte syndrome type 1 is a very rare disease, but a high yield association is made with TAP1 gene mutations and impaired cytotoxic T cell activation by MHC class I molecules. I really think this is worthy of mention and I have seen it come up numerous times.High-yield addition to next year
102102ImmunologyAnatomyT- and B-cell activationn/amnemonic for the location for positive and negative selection- pOsitive selection in the cOrtex, Negative selection in the NedullaMnemonic
103103ImmunologyCellularMacrophage-lymphocyte interactionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/antigen-presenting-cellsAPCs comprise: B cells, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, macrophages. These could be memorized using this acronym: Be My Lovely Dear, which stands for: B: B cells M: macrophages L: Langerhans cells D: dendritic cellsMnemonic
104103ImmunologyCellularNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-adaptive-cellular-immune-response-t-cells-and-cytokines#H2Types of Antigen Presenting Cells Mnemonic: LAMBDa: Langerhans, APCs, Macrophages, B cells, Dendritic cellsMnemonic
105105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesFirst Aid 2021IgG can cross the placenta = PlaGentaMnemonic
106106ImmunologyPhysiologyNEW FACThttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/1K022S?q=innate%20immunity#Z2a234ded7e3087053301c741dedbe89bThe diagram of the complement activation page 106 in first aid 2021 , it shows that C3 convertase consists of C4b2b whereas in other texts C3 consists of C3b2aMinor erratum
107108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokineshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1904850/IL-4 induces formation of IgE (E has four lines) and so does IL-13 (E looks like an inverted 3)Mnemonic
108108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokines1- Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System 6th edition, Page 298{Appendix II: Cytokines} 2- Janeway's immunobiology 9th edition, Page 811 {Appendix III: Cytokines and their receptors}NK cells are activated by IL-2, IL-12, IFN alpha and beta(and this is what First Aid says on page 101). However, on page 108 first aid says that IFN-gamma activates NK cells, that's not true and several resources(i have mentioned some of them), does not list IFN-gamma as an activator of NK cell but as a cytokine secreted by them(NK cell) upon activation. My suggestion is to remove the line on P. 108 that says: "Also activates NK cells to kill virus-infected cells"Minor erratum
109111ImmunologyPharmacologyVaccination.Killed or inactivated Vaccines Mnemonic: Attention Teachers! R.I.P. | Live attenuated vaccine Mnemonic starts with "Attention Teachers!" too. So remembering this mnemonic would be much easier this way. Also R.I.P. can remind that vaccine is "Killed". Attention(Hep.A) Teachers!(Thypoid), R(Rabies). I(Influenza). P(Polio).Mnemonic
110111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-vaccines-to-prevent-sars-cov-2-infection, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/mRNA.html , https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html ,MRNA Virus should be placed under vaccine type , description allows our cells to make a spike protein which is the spike protein found on the surface of the virus that causes Covid-19 , pros allows immune system to recognize harmful spike protein and reduces adverse effects of Covid-19 if immune system encounters Covid-19 virus. Cons little is known about immunity from Covid-19 much research is needed. Examples BNT162b2 , mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S (Covd-19 vaccines)High-yield addition to next year
111111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationhttps://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2021_FAS1_Foreword-2.pdfLack of person-first language: "immunodeficient patients" should be "patients with immunodeficiency"Spelling/formatting
112111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationMnemonicSubunit vaccines can be remembered by: Handles SHiN Bugs Perfectly (H for HPV, SHiN for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, B for HBV, P for pertussis)Mnemonic
113113ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typesRobbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease Page 213The addition of Rheumatoid Arthritis in this type 3 hypersensitivity examples is new in this 2021 edition, but Robbins 10th edition still classifies the same as type 4 hypersensitivity.Clarification to current text
114116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1050956-clinical#b2For "X-Linked (Bruton) Agammaglobulinemia", since No TONsils or lymph nodes are found onexamination, I think it is a perfect way to remember. BruTON, absent/scanty TONsils. The "B" in "Bruton" has already been bolded to highlight the fact that there is a deficiency in B cells, I think my suggestion will help solidify that point as I saw many vignettes highlight the "scanty tonsils"Mnemonic
115116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/agammaglobulinemiaX-linked agammaglobulinemia can be treated with IVIG (IV immunoglobulin)High-yield addition to next year
116117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesN/AYou have the mnemonic for "WATER", but I like to write it as "wAtEr", the letters all mean the same things (thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent inf), but this reminds me that IgA and IgE can be increased.Mnemonic
117117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesN/AWiskott-Aldrich Syndrome due to mutation in the WAS gene, therefore "leukocytes and platelets unable to reorganize actin cytoskeleton".... so think "Weird Actin Sytoskeleton"Mnemonic
118117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficiencieshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14612666/In the text, it is mentioned that it is a mutation in the WAS gene. However, based on Pathoma (p.17) and NIH it is a mutation in WASPMinor erratum
119117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesNEW FACTNAAtaxia- telangiectasia ATAXiAll A: ataxia T: telangiectasia A: ↑ AFP X: ↑ X-ray sensitivity All: ↓ all immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgE)Mnemonic
120120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3003868/Include Everolimus as an mTor inhibitor that blocks T-cell activation and B-cell diferentiation by preventing response to IL-2. Its indicated on kidney and breast cancer. Toxicity: Hypertension and proteinuriaHigh-yield addition to next year
121121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18020592/Oprelvekin: recombinant human interleukin-11High-yield addition to next year
122122ImmunologyPharmacologyNEW FACTnot neededPlease consider a better mnemonic for Trastuzumab. It's target HER2 could be associated with ovarian cancer if we spell it like Trust HER (or Trust HER2 ovaries). Current mnemonic doesn't reflect the organ.Mnemonic
123122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsNEW FACT(1) https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prevention-of-meningococcal-infection/abstract/67 . ( 2) https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prevention-of-meningococcal-infection/abstract/68regarding autoimmune disease therapy drug called eculizumab , one of the major concern and side effect is it increase the risk of meningococcal infection with 1000 - 2000 increased risk fold. so it can be mention in the note box near the drug MOA . some people says questions about this info was nearly tested in their exams.High-yield addition to next year
124122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis/abstract/27,28 . https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-adults-resistant-to-initial-conventional-nonbiologic-dmard-therapy/abstract/77,100-105Tocilizumab — The use of TCZ, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) was suggested by evidence that IL-6 is important in disease pathogenesis. its also used in treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis .High-yield addition to next year
125124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCell envelopehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771553/It’s written that periplasm is the space between cytoplasm and outer membrane actually the picture shows that it’s the space between cytoplasm and cell wall “peptidoglycan” it’s much easier to be mentioned like thisMinor erratum
126125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyStainsNAHeLiCoPter in silver stain: H: Helicobacter pylori L: Legionella C: Coccidioides P: Pneumocystis jiroveciiMnemonic
127126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyAerobesNot neededObligate aerobes (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) - Nobody Punches Better than Myke tysonMnemonic
128128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismshttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=246Catalase-positive organisms arranged so that their initial letters follow the mnemonic ABC HELPS oN BlS (basic life support) Aspergillus, Bordetella pertussis, Candida, Helicobacter pylori, E.coli, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Staphylococci Nocardia, Burkholderia cepacia, SerratiaMnemonic
129128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsNot neededCats Need PPLACESS to Belch their HairBalls - Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E. coli, Staph, Serratia, Burkholderia cepacia, H. pylori, Bordetella pertussisMnemonic
130128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsN/ABLEB SCHNAP- Mnemonic for memorizing Catalase positive organisms, it is particularly useful because of the blebs (bubbles) the organisms produce.Mnemonic
131130MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial geneticsnot neededMnemonic for the Transformation can be TransformatSHiN. TransformatSHiN helps with remembering that SHiN bacteria undergo Transformation.Mnemonic
132135MicrobiologyClinical Bacteriologyβ-hemolytic bacteriaFirst aid 2020Hi there! Please include listeria monocytogene as a beta hemolytic. it is not included on page 135 but it is mentioned in the index p 779.Clarification to current text
133138MicrobiologySystemsBacillus cereusmnemonic"B cereus". (Be serious about eating rice)Mnemonic
134138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridial-myonecrosis?search=clostridium%20septicum&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~12&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Clostridium septicum – can cause spontaneous gas gangrene via hematogenous seeding of muscle from a GI tract. Often associated with GI lesions (colonic malignancy)High-yield addition to next year
135140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107858/Similar TB tests: Interferon-γrelease assay (IGRA), quantiferon gold, T-spotHigh-yield addition to next year
136140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriaProphylaxis with azithromycin when CD4+ count < 50 cells/mm3: This is NO longer recommended due to cost, low overall risk, and concern for antimicrobial resistance.
Uworld Step 2 question bank
Question ID: 2268
CDC guidelines
Minor erratum
137140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyTuberculosishttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Tuberculosis/TB symptoms in first aid2021 symptoms include productive or nonproductive cough hemoptysis while in AMBOSS YB initially is dormant and when it’s active the symptoms include productive cough with or without hemoptysisMinor erratum
138142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyAntimicrobial therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-uncomplicated-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections?search=gonorrhea%20treatment&sectionRank=2&usage_type=default&anchor=H291944443&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H278540Treatment for confirmed Gonorrhea is now one shot of high-dose IM Ceftriaxone only (unless Chlamydia has not been excluded) as per updated guidelinesMajor erratum
139142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNeisseriapage 142N.gonocci diagnosed by NAAT not NATSpelling/formatting
140142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNeisseriahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441840/Neiss guys go first. Neisseria conjunctivitis appears earlier (2-7 days) than chlamydia (5-14 days). NEISS GUYS GO FIRST!Mnemonic
141143MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyPseudomonas aeruginosaNone neededbiofilm formation should have a space between the two wordsSpelling/formatting
142146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLyme diseasehttps://www-uptodate-com.elibrary.einsteinmed.org/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-lyme-disease-in-adults?search=lyme%20disease%20stages&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H2Late Lyme disease (Stage 3) is typically associated with intermittent or persistent arthritis involving one or a few large joints, especially the knee (sometimes preceded by migratory arthralgias). FA 2020 has it listed in Stage 2.Minor erratum
143146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLyme diseasehttps://www-uptodate-com.elibrary.einsteinmed.org/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-lyme-disease-in-adults?search=lyme%20disease%20stages&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H2Late Lyme disease (Stage 3) is typically associated with intermittent or persistent arthritis involving one or a few large joints, especially the knee (sometimes preceded by migratory arthralgias). FA 2020 has it listed in Stage 2.Minor erratum
144146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySpirochetesNo need since in bell palsy section in neurology, lyme is not considered a cause of bell palsyIn Borrelia burgdorferi, remove Bell palsy because borrelia causes facial nerve palsy but not bell (bell is either idiopathic and related to HSV)Minor erratum
145146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVibrio choleraehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vibrio-vulnificus-infections?search=vibrio%20vulnificus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~37&usage_type=default&display_rank=1DRUNK CaptaINS4 - Diarrhea - Liver disease (cirrhosis) - Cellulitis / Cephalosporins (3rd) - Infections - Necrotizing Fasciitis - (4) Severe Wound, Septicemia, Salt tolerant, Sure Debridement.Mnemonic
146146MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyVibrio choleraehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vibrio-vulnificus-infections?search=vibrio%20vulnificus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~39&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H6Growth of V. vulnificus is dependent upon the availability of iron. The relationship between iron and virulence in V. vulnificus may account for the enhanced susceptibility to serious infections with this organism in patients with hemochromatosis.Clarification to current text
147150MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycoplasma pneumoniaeFirst aid for the USMLE step 1Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MMICCOPLASMA) :- (*Military recruit, IgM against I antigen on red blood cells causes Cold hemolytic anemia, *College student live in dormitory, *Outbreak in Prisons, Lack cell wall(no peptidoglycan), Atypical pneumonia, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Macrolides, Adolescent, Eaton agar) *=spread inMnemonic
148150MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyRickettsial diseases and vector-borne illnesseshttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ehrlichiosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20372142Symptoms - fever, chills, myalgias, confusion, altered mental status & maculopapular rash Labs - Lymphopenia, Thrombocytopenia, and elevated Aminotransferases.High-yield addition to next year
149153MicrobiologyMycologyOpportunistic fungal infectionshttps://academic.oup.com/mmy/article/57/2/133/5133472Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) is used as well in the diagnosis. Cryptococcosis to to pulmonary cryptococcosis with nonspecific symptoms.Clarification to current text
150156MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—CNS infectionsNo needSuramin(serum) so for peripheral infection/ melarsoprol (melatonin) so for CNSMnemonic
151156MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—CNS infectionsDerek Nicolas, making the mnemonic better that will include the entire drug nameSuramin: “I sure am in a mellow mood when I’m sleeping”Mnemonic
152157MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—hematologic infectionsquinidine is class Ia antiarrhythmic"If life-threatening, use intravenous quinidine or ..." it should be quinine, not "quinidine"Major erratum
153157MicrobiologyParasitologyNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18403267/ and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5660624/High prevalence of Plasmodium fAlcipArum = AfricA. High prevalence of Plasmodium vIxAx= IndiA. (the two A's in fAlcipArum can be used to remember high prevalence in AfricA and the letters I and A in vIxAx can be used to remember IndiA! ) I think this is helpful to remember what species are most prevalent per region.Mnemonic
154159MicrobiologyParasitologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/miscellaneous-nematodes?search=dracunculiasis&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H8121930&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~8&display_rank=1#H8121930Dracunculus medinensis is an important tissue nematode that is transmitted via drinking water containing copepods; the worms can penetrate the surface of the skin and cause a painful skin ulcerHigh-yield addition to next year
155160MicrobiologyParasitologyTrematodes (flukes)Not neededSchistosomes have a Spine; S heamatobium: TERMINAL destination is HOME (HAEM)Mnemonic
156160MicrobiologyParasitologyTrematodes (flukes)Not neededSchistosoma spp. spine locations: HTML (Haematobium – Terminal, Mansoni – Lateral)Mnemonic
157160MicrobiologyParasitologyNEW FACThttps://www.medicinenet.com/schistosomiasis/article.htm#what_are_the_symptoms_and_signs_of_schistosomiasisSchiStoSoma= S(nail= intermediate host) S(kin=cutaneous transmission) S(quamous cell carcinoma of the bladder) S(pine lateral and terminal) S(wimming transmission)Mnemonic
158160MicrobiologyParasitologyNEW FACThttps://www.cdc.gov/parasites/cysticercosis/health_professionals/index.htmlSimilarities: Cysts in T.solium and E.granulosus transmitted through ingestion of eggs in food contaminated with feces, treated with albendazoleMnemonic
159163MicrobiologyVirologyNaked viral genome infectivityFA2021 p175: RNA needs to be synthesized into dsDNA by reverse transcriptase; dsDNA integrate into host DNA for replicationNot all positive strand ssRNA viruses have infectious purified nucleic acid; HIV should be an exceptionClarification to current text
160164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesUWorld and Nature journal: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41582-020-00427-yIn the Polyomavirus entry, add that JC virus also commonly reactivates to cause PML in patients treated for multiple sclerosis, not just HIV.High-yield addition to next year
161165MicrobiologyVirologyHerpesvirusesFirst Aid for the USMLE Step 1, 2021comparing VZV vs Small pox ---(Rash)-----VZV = different stages (Rash) /. small pox= same stage (Rash) can we do a column it's very important to know that fact tested A-lotMnemonic
162165MicrobiologyVirologyHerpesvirusesFA 2021In EBV induced infectious mononucleosis: atypical cells are CD8 T cells. In EBV induced primary CNS lymphoma: atypical cells are B cells.High-yield addition to next year
163165MicrobiologyPharmacologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/postherpetic-neuralgia?search=post%20herpetic%20neuralgia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~60&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H7Gabapentin, pregabalin, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are generally the drugs of first choice for the treatment of PHN.High-yield addition to next year
164167MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesattached filetable on this page, can be re-organized for easy memorizationClarification to current text
165167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesSelf madeTo remember the virus families that are transmitted by arthropods i.e. arboviruses, think “Rare viruses are Transmitted By Flies” where “R” represents “Reoviruses”, “T” stands for “Togaviruses”, “B” stands for “Bunyaviruses” and “F” stands for “Flaviviruses”.Mnemonic
166167MicrobiologyVirologyRubella virushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=2560066Rubella virus is no longer in the Togavirus family. It is in the Matonaviridae family.Major erratum
167169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htm#:~:text=When%20shift%20happens%2C%20most%20people,in%20the%20past%20100%20years.Genetic/Antigenic drift cause minor global outbreaks (epidemics) rather than major global outbreaks (pandemic) as cited. Major outbreaks are usually caused by antigenic shift.Major erratum
168169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesNot neededGenetic/antigenic shift: Shift is SevereMnemonic
169169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesFirst Aid 2020 and other medical sources.Antigenic drift and shift are both described as causing "major global outbreaks (pandemics)", and that is not the cause of antigenic drift.Major erratum
170169MicrobiologyPathologyInfluenza viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-of-influenza?search=genetic%20drift&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~50&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Genetic/antigenic drift Random mutation in hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) genes, minor changes in HA or NA protein (drift) occur frequently major global outbreaks (pandemics). It causes minor epidemics not major.Minor erratum
171169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesUWorld and UpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-seasonal-influenza-in-adultsThe M2 protein is integral to the influenza viral envelope and is the target of the drug Amantadine. Mutations in this M2 protein contribute to influenza's drug resistance.High-yield addition to next year
172169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htmHello, In page 169, it is written that " antigenic drift leads to a major global outbreaks (pandemic). Indeed it was written in the first aid 2020 that antigenic drift leads to a local outbreaks (epidemic). Also I revised the CDC regarding the influenza viruses vaccinations, and I found that only the antigenic shift leads to major global outbreaks (pandemic). I attached a screenshot of the CDC article. Thank you!Minor erratum
173169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/change.htmThe Image for Virus A & B is INCORRECT. Influenza virus B is associated with DRIFT NOT SHIFT as the image indicates.Major erratum
174169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesmajor global outbreaks (pandemics): should be "epidemic"- property seen by both Influenza A, B

Antigenic drift- only observed by influenza; "Antigenic drift, caused by subtle changes in influenza's surface proteins, partially accounts for annual epidemic outbreaks of the illness. Antigenic shift that occurs because of major changes in the viral hemagglutinin and sometimes in the neuraminidase, the other surface protein, results in the more widespread and lethal pandemic forms of influenza." - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10977472/
Major erratum
175169MicrobiologyVirologyRubella virushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=2560066change "a togavirus" to "a member of the Matonaviridae family"Minor erratum
176169MicrobiologyVirologyViral geneticsAntigenic drift contributes to local outbreaks (epidemics) as referenced in First Aid 2020 (p. 169)Genetic/antigenic drift; Random mutation in hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) genes -> minor changes in HA or NA protein (drift) occur frequently -> major global outbreaks (pandemics)Minor erratum
177172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-adults-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis#:~:text=Transmission%20and%20risk%20factors%20%E2%80%94%20HAV,of%20contaminated%20food%20or%20water https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hepatitis-a-beyond-the-basics https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16457870/Had A water and A oyster without A hand washing and got Hepatitis A!Mnemonic
178172MicrobiologyImmune ResponsesSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500139-overviewProphylaxis- Patients may receive the vaccine once they have recovered from the acute illness (if symptomatic) and meet the criteria to discontinue isolation. Patients who received monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma should wait 90 days before receiving the vaccine.High-yield addition to next year
179172MicrobiologyVirologyZika virushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/congenital-zika-virus-infection-clinical-features-evaluation-and-management-of-the-neonate?search=zika%20virus%20cortical%20thinning&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2brain imaging shows ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and "cortical atrophy/thinning". May also cause closed anterior fontanelle (craniosynostosis).High-yield addition to next year
180173MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesnot neededHepatitis A and E are fEcAl route of transmission. Word Fecal covers both vowels A and E same as Hep. A/E.Mnemonic
181173MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis viruseshttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007742, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104925, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3729363/FA states "HBV DNA polymerase has DNA- and RNA-dependent activities. Upon entry into the nucleus, the polymerase completes the partial dsDNA." However, it appears to be CELLULAR repair factors, including HOST DNA polymerase alpha, that turn the HBV partially ds DNA into cccDNA. (This is also explained as host cell machinery in UWorld question ID 15169, and this also makes sense as it explains why the HBV DNA would need to be in the host cell nucleus to be "repaired")Minor erratum
182175MicrobiologyVirologyHIVDr Najeeb Video, Microbiology section; HIV Structure, Replication Cycle & Antiretroviral Drugs Part 6gag (p7, p24 and p17)—Nucleocapsid, capsid and matrix proteins, respectivelyMinor erratum
183179MicrobiologySystemsBugs causing diarrheahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/search?search=bloody%20diarrhea&sp=0&searchType=PLAIN_TEXT&source=USER_INPUT&searchControl=TOP_PULLDOWN&searchOffset=1&autoComplete=false&language=en&max=10&index=&autoCompleteTerm=C.H.E.E.S.S.Y bugs cause bloody diarrheaMnemonic
184179MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of pneumoniaNone neededCOPD under special groups is not formatted the same way as the other entries.Spelling/formatting
185180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-adults?search=causes%20of%20meningitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1005384 UworldQID:735streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of meningitis in all age groupsMajor erratum
186180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232915-overviewAdd: Symptoms of meningitis: Classic triad of fever headache, and neck stiffness(nuchal rigidity)High-yield addition to next year
187180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532264/#:~:text=Antibiotic%20choices%20for%20neonatal%20meningitis,every%208%20to%2012%20hours. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148475/As we know the drug of choice for neonatal meningitidis is Cefotaxime not ceftriaxone (which is crontraindicated in neonates) for that reason I think is important to modify this part. >> Give ceftriaxone (Adults) Cefotaxime (Neonates).Minor erratum
188180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitismnemonicMain causes of meningitis in children can be remembered with the mnemonic "GEL" → Group B streptococcus, E. coli, and ListeriaMnemonic
189180MicrobiologyMiscellaneousNEW FACThttps://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/vector-borne-diseasesI do believe that next version should include a table with high yield mosquito-pathogen associations .It may seem esoteric at first glance ,but I do predict it may benefit next gen of test takers.High-yield addition to next year
190182MicrobiologySystemsRubella virushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/congenital-rubella-syndrome-clinical-features-and-diagnosisThe consequences of congenital rubella infection can be remembered by the letter R superimposed on the body, starting from the RV outflow track, signifying pulmonary stenosis. The arch of the R passes through the eyes and ears signifying cataracts and sensorineural hearing loss, and the leg of the R concludes at the aortic arch signifying PDA. The drawing can obviously be graphically improved by someone with more talent than me!Mnemonic
191182MicrobiologySystemsTORCH infectionshttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Congenital_TORCH_infectionsToRCHHHeS Light Via Pregnancy - Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, HSV, HIV, Hepatitis B, Syphilis, Listeriosis, Varicella, Parvovirus B19.Mnemonic
192182MicrobiologySystemsTORCH infectionsnot neededRemember: Parvovirus B19 (B)efore (19) weeks can cause hydrops fetalisMnemonic
193182MicrobiologySystemsTORCH infectionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2793222/#:~:text=For%20women%20who%20contract%20parvovirus,last%202%20months%20of%20pregnancy.Remember: Parvovirus B19 (B)efore (19) weeks can cause hydrops fetalis [before 20 weeks exactly, as mentioned in reference below]Mnemonic
194184MicrobiologySystemsSexually transmitted infectionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2660501/Neisseria gonorrhoea and chlamydia trachomatis can also cause sexually transmitted proctitisHigh-yield addition to next year
195187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntimicrobial therapynot neededBactericidal Antimicrobials: "Penicillins & Cephalosporins Are Very 'cidal' For Microbes" P=penicillins, C=cephalosporins, A=aminoglycosides, V=vancomycin, 'cidal'=bactericidal, F=fluoroquinolones, M=metronidazoleMnemonic
196187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsPenicillin G, Vhttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/mm0VTg#Z8ad3fac6c6b3528499d347d924443abbPenicillin G (GIVe Penicillin G IV)Mnemonic
197189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.cdc.gov/melioidosis/treatment/index.htmlCeftazidime is indicated for Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)High-yield addition to next year
198189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinsHighlight them with red3Bs for 3Gen cephalosporins Blood-Brain-BarierMnemonic
199190MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCarbapenemsFA 187There is no mention of the mechanism! Please add Inhibiting cross-linking of bacterial cell wallClarification to current text
200192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsChloramphenicolhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/amiodarone-adverse-effects-potential-toxicities-and-approach-to-monitoring?search=gray%20man%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Chloramphenicol is associated with gray baby syndrome Amiodarone is associated with blue-gray man syndromeHigh-yield addition to next year
201192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesn/atetracycline side effects- Tummy problems, Toddler bone growth, Teeth discolouration, phoTosensitivity, TeratogenicMnemonic
202192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTetracyclinesNot neededDoxycycline is fecally elliminated: DOxycycline in the DOokieMnemonic
203192MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsTigecyclineN/A-simply pointing out contradictory statements about well known medical facts.Tigecycline, as stated in your own text on p.192, is bacteriostatic. Bacteriostatic antibiotics are not preferred in deep tissue infections. Again in p.192 under the section dedicated to tigecycline, it is stated that tigecycline is used against infections requiring deep tissue penetration. This seems to be contradictory and counter-intuitive.Minor erratum
204193MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsMacrolideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4692299/Fidamoxicin is mentioned on p. 138 as a treatment for Clostridioides difficile, but it is not covered in the antimicrobial section. Fidamoxicin is a macrolide-like antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase, and it is used to treat non-severe C. diff infections.High-yield addition to next year
205195MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDaptomycinNot neededFor adverse effects of daptomycin, rhabdomyolysis is a type of myopathy and so I propose the text should read "myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis" to clarify that point. As it's currently written, they seem like distinct effects.Clarification to current text
206195MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsFluoroquinoloneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/moxifloxacin-systemic-drug-information?source=history_widget#F9347992Those with CNS penetration, can cause psychiatric disturbances; such as hallucinations, psychosis & paranoia. Also contraindicated for those with history of Myastinia Grava. (See Under Warning/Precautions in Uptodate linkMinor erratum
207195MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsFluoroquinolonesmyselfa mnemonic for non-respiratory fluoroquinolones. the mnemonic is "ONCE". O-Ofloxacin, N-Norfloxacin, C-Ciprofloxacin, E-Enoxacin.Mnemonic
208195MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsMetronidazolehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridioides-formerly-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-treatment-and-prevention?search=Metronidazole&topicRef=464&source=see_linkThere is no metronidazole in the treatment of Clostridioides difficile: "Treatment: oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin" (page 138). However on page 195: "Metronidazole: ...Anaerobes (Bacteroides, C difficile)."Minor erratum
209197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsEthambutolmyselfin the mechanism of action for Ethambutol, it inhibits arabinosyl transferase rather than "arabinosyltransferase".Spelling/formatting
210197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsIsoniazidno reference needed just a kind mnemonic suggestionIsoniAZID= decreases synthesis of mycolic AZID. This helps me memorize the mechanism of action of Isoniazid.Mnemonic
211197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsIsoniazidhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1217661-clinicalOptic neuritis is also a well-documented adverse effect of Isoniazid (possibly a manifestation of its neuropathy itself)High-yield addition to next year
212197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisno reference needed just a kind mnemonic suggestionIsoniAZID= decreases synthesis of mycolic AZID. This helps me memorize the mechanism of action of Isoniazid.Mnemonic
213197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsStreptomycinmyselfadverse effects of streptomycin in Tall VAN. t-tinnitus, v-vertigo, a-ataxia, n-nephrotoxicity.Mnemonic
214198MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsProphylaxis in HIV infections/AIDS1- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19730409/ 2- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19632953/Primary prophylaxis (eg, itraconazole) against histoplasmosis is sometimes given for those with CD4 counts ≤150/mm3 in histoplasma-endemic areas (eg, Ohio/Mississippi river valley)High-yield addition to next year
215199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/coccidioidal-meningitis https://www.medscape.com/answers/215978-77267/what-is-the-treatment-for-coccidioidal-meningitisFluconazole is the initial drug of choice for Coccidioidal meningitis, while intrathecal Amphotericin B is used ONLY if fluconazloe failed or during pregnancy(as azoles are teratogenic). I think this clarification is needed since First aid does not mention it clearly.Clarification to current text
216199MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntifungal therapynot neededin the page 199 all those meds are gonna affect the formation of cell membrane, when I was in step 1 there were a lot of question about "is it affect cell membrane or cell wall?". and a lot of people get confuse with that question, so as I found in the oncology meds (eg. all these meds interfere with S phase), you can add at the final of the page the same comment for antifungals page 199 affecting the cell membrane, because in page 200 echinocandins affect cell wall and griseofulvin affect microtubule formationClarification to current text
217199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntifungal therapyCame up with itTerbinaFEET for TerbinafineMnemonic
218199MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAzoleshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacology-of-azoles, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20210724/ (also listed in FA p. 251 under "Drug reactions-cardiovascular")Minor suggestion: add "QT prolongation" to the list of adverse effects of azoles.Clarification to current text
219200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsChloroquineAmerican Academy of Ophthalmology StatementThe retinopathy associated with chloroquine use is both dose and duration dependent. This is important because the short use in malaria rarely results in retinopathy, whereas the chronic, long term use for RA would be more of concern. Most cases of chloroquine retinopathy develop when a higher than recommended dose is used for malarial treatment and prophylaxis.Clarification to current text
220203MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntiviral therapyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1533218-overviewin the section of NNRTIs there is no mnemonic for them... and sometimes you get confuse because of the long list... So when I was studying I was thinking you can add a mnemonic "VIR" in the middle for them is delaVIRdine, efaVIRenz, NeVIRapine. with the exception of enFU-vir-tide that already is below with its mnemonic, a person who studies is not gonna get confuse and will get a correct question with differentiating themMnemonic
221203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntiviral therapyhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/crixivan-idv-indinavir-342620#4Protease inhibitor Indinavir may cause nephrolithiasis. Adequate hydration helps to prevent nephrolithiasisHigh-yield addition to next year
222203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapynot neededNNRTIs bind to reverse transcriptase at site "diVERent" from NRTIs. NNRTIs: DelaVIRdine, EfaVIRenz, NeVIRapine all contain "VIR" in their namesMnemonic
223203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761192/The statement that "Maraviroc inhibits docking" is not necessarily true. HIV still binds to T cells via the CD4 receptor; however, Maraviroc blocks the chemokine coreceptor necessary for viral entry.Clarification to current text
224203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyNot neededall of the NNRTI drugs have "vir" in the middle of the word instead of at the end (it's a bit of a tough mnemonic but it worked wonders for me)Mnemonic
225204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyPersonal mneumonicI LOVe NS5A (LedipAsvir, OmbitAsvir, VelpatAsvir) inhibitors which makes NS5B inhibitors SaD (SofosBuvir, DasaBuvir).Mnemonic
226204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHepatitis C therapyNot needed(Make these "mnemonics" more obvious on the page): NS5A inhibitors end in -Asvir (A-A), NS5B inhibitors end in -Buvir (B-B), NS3/4A (PRotease) inhibitors end in -PRevirMnemonic
227206PathologyPathologyCellular adaptationshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/barretts-esophagus-surveillance-and-management#:~:text=In%20Barrett's%20esophagus%2C%20metaplastic%20columnar,and%20predisposes%20to%20cancer%20development.Barret esophagus is the replacement of normal esophageal stratified squamous cells by gastric columnar epithelium. the text states the opposite.Major erratum
228206PathologyPathologyCellular adaptationshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/barretts-esophagus-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisUnder "Metaplasia", referencing Barrett esophagus, the order of the tissue change is reversed. FA 2021 reads: " respiratory ciliated columnar epithelium replaced by stratified squamous epithelium).". This should instead read: "respiratory stratified squamous epithelium replaced by non-cilliated columnar epithelium"Major erratum
229208PathologyPathologyApoptosisNo needSpelling error in the word survivalSpelling/formatting
230208PathologyCellularApoptosisapoptotic bodies: are removed by macrophagesMinor erratum
231213PathologyInflammationAcute inflammationnot neededCalor and rubor mediators = Hot peppery bREaD (Histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin)Tumor mediators = Lump -> leukotrienes Swelling -> serotoninMnemonic
232213PathologyCellularAmyloidosisMnemonicTo remember which amyloid (AL or AA) is associated with autoimmune diseases like IBD, RA, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, highlight the letter "A"s to recall that AA is the Autoimmune Amyloid. Clarifying image attached.Mnemonic
233214PathologyPathologyAcute inflammationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0014299903017321Brady has been in pain for E2rnity - Bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 are the key mediators of painMnemonic
234214PathologyPathologyAcute inflammationNot requiredFor the mediators of Tumor (swelling): Harvard (Histamine) Law (Leukotrienes) School (Serotonin) makes Pompous (Swell) lawyers For the mediators of Dolor (pain): BPH which originally stands for Benign (Bradykinin), Prostatic (PGE2) Hyperplasia (Histamine) causes painful urination I commend your team for an excellent job in providing updated yearly versions of the first aid for USMLE step 1.Mnemonic
235214PathologyPathologyAcute inflammationNot requiredFor the mediators acute inflammation; Tumor (swelling): Harvard (Histamine) Law (Leukotrienes) School (Serotonin) makes Pompous (Swell) lawyers. Dolor (pain): BPH which originally stands for Benign (Bradykinin), Prostatic (PGE2) Hyperplasia (Histamine) causes painful urination. I commend your team for an excellent job in providing updated yearly versions of the first aid for USMLE step 1.Mnemonic
236214PathologyPathologyAcute phase reactantsNichols DC, Flannery AH, Magnuson BL, Cook AM. Prealbumin Is Associated With In-Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2020;35(3):572-577. doi:10.1002/ncp.10414, 10.1002/ncp.10414Prealbumin (Transthyretin) as a negative acute phase reactant.High-yield addition to next year
237214PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539794One acute phase reactant: Procalcitonin (increased in bacterial infections, but NOT in viral infections)High-yield addition to next year
238214PathologyInflammationInflammationhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21804201/To help students to remember that PGE2 functions as a mediator of pain and fever. P will be for Pain and the E in the PGE2 would be for fEver. You can bold the letter or just specified the mnemonic.Mnemonic
239218PathologyInflammationGranulomatous inflammationhttps://www.cgdconnections.com/about-chronic-granulomatous-diseaseChronic Granulomatous Disease is an INFECTIOUS etiology of granulomas. It is listed under NONINFECTIOUS. The granulomas form to "wall off" catalase + organisms.Major erratum
240219PathologyInflammationScar formationhttps://journals.lww.com/aswcjournal/fulltext/2018/01000/insights_into_the_pathophysiology_of_hypertrophic.2.aspxThe text says "Associated with excess TGF-b". The text isn't clear about if this 'excess" is associated with normal skin scarring or with hypertrophic scar/keloid. Normal skin scarring is associated with TGF-b expression, However, it is the Over-expression of TGF-b that is associated with Hypertrophic scar and Keloid. I suggest editing the text from "Associated with excess TGF-b" to "TGF-b over-expression is associated with aberrant scarring; hypertrophic scar and keloid.Clarification to current text
241222MicrobiologyCellularβ-lactamase inhibitorsFirst AidThis is a testClarification to current text
242223PathologyNeoplasiaImmune checkpoint interactionshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16081596/CTLA4 also known as CD 152Clarification to current text
243224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesThis fact is already listed in FA2021, I just came up with a way to remember it https://www.verywellhealth.com/sarcoma-vs-carcinoma-4694486CLaSH: Carcinomas spread via lymphatics while sarcomas spread hematogenouslyMnemonic
244224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesdoes not applyCommon metastases: Most sarcomas spread hematogenously; most carcinomas spread via lymphatics. However, Four Carcinomas Route Hematogenously: Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Choriocarcinoma, Renal cell carcinoma, and Hepatocellular carcinoma. I understand that an easier mnemonic would be: Ryan Helps Foster Children R= Renal cell carcinoma H= Hepatocellular carcinoma. F= Follicular thyroid carcinoma, C= ChoriocarcinomaMnemonic
245225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogenesNot neededPlease highlight "RB" to match current mnemonic(Retinoblastoma , bone cancer).Clarification to current text
246225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00468/fullIn the oncogenes table, row for c-KIT, the gene product is currently written: "CytoKIne receptor". I propose to add its other name: "(CD117)" next to "cytokine receptor". The Step exam refers to the this receptor as CD117.High-yield addition to next year
247225PathologyNeoplasiaOncogenesn/a, this is a mnemonicALK: ALK is A Lung Killer (mutations cause lung adenocarcinomas). KRAS causes Kolorectal, Respiratory (lung) and Sugar (pancreas) mets.Mnemonic
248225PathologyNeoplasiaPancreatic adenocarcinomaFA 2021Oncogenes induced pancreatic cancer: KRAS Tumor suppressor genes induced pancreatic cancer: BRCA1/2, SMAD4 (DPC4), CDKN2AHigh-yield addition to next year
249225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesNone neededFor DCC, there is a typo, colorectal cancer is missing the L.Clarification to current text
250225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesNot neededIn the table beside DCC it says "Deleted in Colorecta Cancer" - should be colorectalSpelling/formatting
251225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor geneshttps://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome/PTEN: Add Thyroid disease for TMnemonic
252225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesnot needed(associated with POLYP= five letters for APC gene on chromosome 5)Mnemonic
253225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor geneshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1093383-overviewPTEN gene: suggest adding HAMARTOMAS in Cowden syndrome, ten letters for chromosome 10Mnemonic
254225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesnot neededbrca1/brca2/chromosome 13: highlight the order of numbers 1 2 3, chromosome 17q think the age of turning ADULT (17q) and starting SEXUAL activity (breast, ovary)Mnemonic
255225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor geneshttps://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/li-fraumeni-syndrome/Li-Fraumeni syndrome is also highly associated with brain cancers (GBM), which is not included in the SBLA list. I had a question on this.High-yield addition to next year
256225PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genes"Colorecta" --> ColorectalSpelling/formatting
257227PathologyNeoplasiaSerum tumor markershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/serum-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-an-adnexal-mass-for-epithelial-carcinoma-of-the-ovary-fallopian-tube-or-peritoneum#H616782344Next to CA 125, it should be written as "Ovarian epithelial cancer", since this biomarker is only used for epithelial ovarian cancers and not germ cell or sex cord stromal ovarian cancers. It may be confusing and misleading as currently written.Clarification to current text
258233PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsDosage calculationsnone needed"Cp" in Loading dose and Maintenance dose equations is not defined. Instead of defining "Cp", "Css" is defined.Minor erratum
259233PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsDosage calculationsFA bookmaintenance dose calculation incorrect (change cp -> css)Minor erratum
260233PharmacologyAbbreviations and SymbolsDosage calculationsn/aCss is specified in the legend but Cp is used in the formula.Spelling/formatting
261234PharmacologyPharmacologyDosage calculationsWikipediaCp = target [plasma] AT STEADY STATE is referring to dosage, but Cp is also used to talk about simple [plasma] of a drug. I think it should be clear that Cp technically just refers to drug concentration, whether talking about elimination or loading dosage.Clarification to current text
262234PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsElimination of drugsIts paragraph on the same pageIn the zero-order elimination graph, the Elimination rate (=linear) not slope "written same as 1st-oder"Minor erratum
263239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorsn/aparasympathetic has a longer prefix 'para' compared to sympathetic - so it has a longer preganglionic nerveMnemonic
264240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropineNot neededPralidoxime Prevents Paralysis (in organophosphate poisoning)Mnemonic
265240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsMicturition controlN/ATo remember that it is contraction of the detrusor muscle (ie, not trigone) that leads to urine voiding: contract the detrusor, release the intruderMnemonic
266240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsMicturition controlUW 10962The parasympathetic control for the internal sphincter of the bladder is not illustrated. The parasympathetic control (relaxation) is provided by the Pelvic Splanchnic Nerve at the S2-S4 levelHigh-yield addition to next year
267241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersUW question ID1367Alpha-2, please add ↓ intestinal motilityHigh-yield addition to next year
268241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengershttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18586037/ {MLCK and its phosphorylation of RLC are required physiologically for smooth muscle contraction and are essential for normal gastrointestinal motility.} https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/myosin-light-chain-kinase {MLCK plays a central role in the initiation of smooth muscle contraction and many nonmuscle motile processes owing to its Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin RLC.}Please add the word “contraction” after “smooth muscle” in the parenthesis at the bottom of page 241 to make it complete. This would make it: Myosin light-chain kinase (smooth muscle contraction)Clarification to current text
269241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsG-protein–linked second messengersGoodman and Gilman's The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics - 13edition - P 714One of the Major functions of H1 receptors is Endothelium mediated vasodilation (through NO production from endothelial cells). I think this is important to mention, since it explains why hypotension occurs with histamine release(it is because of the increased vascular permeability and vasodilation), also it explains the cutaneous flushing of histamine which is mentioned in page 251. Furthermore, it explains the Rubor and Calor in page 214(pathology chapter) in which histamine is one of it's mediators(and this occurs through vasodilation). I would suggest adding this fact to H1 receptor major functions.High-yield addition to next year
270243PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsCholinomimetic agentshttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/EchothiophateOne of indirect anticholinesterases: Echothiophate (used in glaucoma)Clarification to current text
271244PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsMuscarinic antagonistsNot neededTiotropium lasts for a long Time, but the actions of Ipratropium are gone in an InstantMnemonic
272245PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsβ-blockersBundkirchen A, Brixius K, Bölck B, Nguyen Q, Schwinger RH (January 2003). "Beta 1-adrenoceptor selectivity of nebivolol and bisoprolol. A comparison of [3H]CGP 12.177 and [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding studies". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 460 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(02)02875-3. PMID 12535855Nebivolol is the most selective B1 antagonist, yet it is not mentioned in the B1 selective antagonists.Clarification to current text
273245PharmacologyPharmacologySympathomimeticsnot neededEpinephrine: Entirely from adrenals, Norepinephrine: sympathetic Nerve terminalsMnemonic
274245PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticsnot neededEpinephrine: Entirely from adrenals, Norepinephrine: from sympathetic Nerve terminalsMnemonic
275246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticsFA2021 page 245The labels seem not correct. Epinephrine (alpha = beta) should be beta > alpha, also it's properly indicated in peripheral resistance as (b2>a1); Isoproternol should be labeled as b1=b2, also it's properly indicated as "unopposed b2" in peripheral resistanceClarification to current text
276247PharmacologyAutonomic Drugsα-blockersNot neededPrazosin has the additional indication for use in PTSD: Prazosin - PTSD (P-P)Mnemonic
277249PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsPhosphodiesterase inhibitorsFA 2021 P249Suggest edit mnemonic in "PDE-5 inhibitors" to become like this [*S*ildenafil only : *S*yanopia(cyanopia) , PDE-6 (*S*ix)].Clarification to current text
278250PharmacologyAbbreviations and SymbolsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.nyscha.org/wp-content/uploads/WE-1.02.pptSATAN (S - Sulfa drugs, A - Allopurinol, T - Tetracyclines, A - Anticonvulsants, N - NSAIDS)Mnemonic
279252PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductiveSelf made mnemonicCimetidine - see my tiddies causes gynecomastiaMnemonic
280252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductivehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mycophenolate-mofetil-cellcept-and-mycophenolate-sodium-myfortic-drug-information?search=mycophenolate&topicRef=7990&source=see_linkMycophenolate causes hyperglycemia (it's even in First Aid, under the section of Mycophenolate lol)High-yield addition to next year
281252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductiveNot neededDrugs that cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: get BuCkLeD IN (amphotericin B, Calcium carbonate, Lithium, Demeclocycline – nephrogenic diabetes INsipidus)Mnemonic
282252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—gastrointestinalpage 252 & Ex videoAAActivate Motility Quickly and Cause Large volume SecretionMnemonic
283252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—gastrointestinalN/APill Induced Esophagitis: 'Pills Not Beneficial for Food Tube." Potassium, NSAIDs, Bisphosphonates, Ferrous Sulfate, TetracyclinesMnemonic
284252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsNEW FACTFA bookGI drug reaction (add to table) constipation ; causal agents - opioids, anticholinergic agents, cation-containing agents, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, 5HT3 receptor antagonistHigh-yield addition to next year
285253PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicFA 2021 P253Please highlight "ABCs" in 6 line to match this mnemonic "Allopurinol, antiBiotics, antiConvulsants, sulfa drugs".Minor erratum
286253PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissueFA 2021 P253Please remove red color from letter "i" in "inhibitors" because it's not exist in the mnemonic "Fat protects glutes".Clarification to current text
287254PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—multiorganFA 2021 254Suggest making "cis" in "cisplatin" with red color to match current mnemonic.Clarification to current text
288254PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologicit is spelled paclitaxtel under peripheral neuropathypaclitaxel is spelled wrongSpelling/formatting
289255PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/cyp3aAdd Cyclosporine in the substrates column. Mnemonic: THE OCPs are ANTI-WAR CYCLOnes.High-yield addition to next year
290255PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image/print?imageKey=CARD%2F76992&topicKey=CARD%2F1031&source=outline_linkAddition of Cobicistat (very important "booster" ingredient in HIV drugs) to the P450 inhibitor section - you could simply add Cobicistat (Cups) after Ritonavir (Really) in the current mnemonic to become ..."when I Am Really drinking Cups of Grapefruit juice"High-yield addition to next year
291255PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)A UWorld question states (question ID 351): "Both metronidazole and oral contraceptives are metabolized by hepatic P450 oxidase, but these two drugs neither induce nor inhibit the activity of P450 oxidase." However, in First Aid metronidazole is listed as a P450 inhibitor. I think First Aid may need to be updated. UpToDate does not list metronidazole as a P450 inhibitor or inducer - see Table 3 of the article by Berul, "Acquired long QT syndrome: Definitions, causes and pathophysiology", last updated November 2020. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acquired-long-qt-syndrome-definitions-causes-and-pathophysiology?sectionName=Medications
Another article from 2015 states that metronidazole reduces expression of P450 but not necessarily its activity (Kudo et al. 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25470432/)
Minor erratum
292255PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)Cytochrome P-450 interactions: I believe Simeprevir could be added to this list as it is metabolized by P450 (reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756048/)Minor erratum
293261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsClinical trialFirst aid 2021Phase 0-its pharmacokinetics (written pharmocokinetics)Spelling/formatting
294261Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059453/#:~:text=may%20become%20small.-,The%20Kaplan%2DMeier%20estimate%20is%20the%20simplest%20way%20of%20computing,associated%20with%20subjects%20or%20situations.&text=For%20each%20time%20interval%2C%20survival,number%20of%20patients%20at%20risk.kindly add "Kaplan Meier plot/graph" in this section because it is being highly tested in USMLE step 1. Many students have gotten questions on Survival analysis and Kaplan Meier plot in the actual exam.High-yield addition to next year
295262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying risklogic- common sense-==>no reference needed ! But here you go ==> https://myweb.uiowa.edu/pbreheny/4120/s14/notes/4-8.pdfA= 20; B= 10 C=5 D=20 A/B:C/D=2x4=8. per definition, b and c should be replaced so the above formula could be implemented! Results will not be affected! above formula states (+) disease outcome should be in first column and (-) disease outcome should be in second column. in the first row the formula says that the first row belongs to the first group (first intervention/risk/exposure tested) and for the second row is meant to be for the second intervention/group of exposed/ ..... however It is not the case in the book this fact should be corrected and checked. it has been causing a lot of problems during examinations and misunderstanding during question solving..Minor erratum
296262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431098/FIRST aid is supposed to make things easier= simplify for students to be able to memorize and apply the knowledge!. by doing those changes students won't get confused in the exam ! ..........The odds ratio can be confused with relative risk. As stated above, the odds ratio is a ratio of 2 odds. As odds of an event are always positive, the odds ratio is always positive and ranges from zero to very large. The relative risk is a ratio of probabilities of the event occurring in all exposed individuals versus the event occurring in all non-exposed individuals. In a 2-by-2 table with cells a, b, c, and d (see figure), the odds ratio is odds of the event in the exposure group (a/b) divided by the odds of the event in the control or non-exposure group (c/d). Thus the odds ratio is (a/b) / (c/d) which simplifies to ad/bc. This is compared to the relative risk which is (a / (a+b)) / (c / (c+d)). If the disease condition (event) is rare, then the odds ratio and relative risk may be comparable, but the odds ratio will overestimate the risk if the disease is more common. In such cases, the odds ratio should be avoided, and the relative risk will be a more accurate estimation of risk. [3] Commonly, odds ratios will be reported in case-control studies, in which relative risks cannot be calculated.Clarification to current text
297262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskFirst aid for the USMLE step 1my issue is that in the example you mentioned that 20/30 lung cancer patients, and 5/25 healthy individuals and the Odds Ratio is 8, however, if we do the Odds Ratio Formula (ad/bc = (20*25)/(30*5) = 3.33 If I made any mistake please tell me. Thank you for the opportunityMinor erratum
298262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying risknot neededOdds Ratio (OR), OR has one "R" compared to Relative Risk (RR) which has two "R"s; so if you would look at the denominator for OR, there is one number (either c or d) to divide it by compared if you would look at the denominator of RR, there are 2 numbers (a+b or c+d) to divide by; which can be connected with amount of letter "R" in OR or RR.Mnemonic
299264Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsEvaluation of diagnostic testsNot neededLowering the cutoff value increases the sensitivity and negative predictive value (This is true for a high value test like DM, HTN). However, for a low value test when the low value defines the disease like a low hemoglobin value in anemia, lowering the cutoff value does the opposite i.e. DECREASES the sensitivity and negative predictive value.High-yield addition to next year
300269Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsCommon statistical testsnot neededFisher’s exact "test" is written as "text" in the chart in the end of the pageSpelling/formatting
301269Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfidence intervalFA book pg 269 contradicts the statement just above itH0 is accepted (and results are NOT significant) - in other words neither test/procedure is superiorMajor erratum
302269Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfidence intervalhttps://online.stat.psu.edu/stat500/lesson/6a/6a.1#:~:text=When%20we%20fail%20to%20reject,the%20likelihood%20of%20these%20events.It says, "H0 is accepted". It is not possible to ACCEPT a null hypothesis. You can only "fail to reject the null hypothesis". "Note! Why can’t we say we 'accept the null'? The reason is that we are assuming the null hypothesis is true and trying to see if there is evidence against it. Therefore, the conclusion should be in terms of rejecting the null." (Penn State STAT 500)Major erratum
303269Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfidence intervalNot necessary"H0 is accepted (and results are significant)" has two issues: (1) H0 cannot be accepted. It can only be rejected or not rejected (which is supported by the information on pg. 268); (2) "significant" should be changed to "insignificant." Thus it should read: "H0 is not rejected (and results are insignificant)".Major erratum
304269Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfidence intervalNot needed. I am sure it's a typo error and needs to me amendedH0 is accepted (and results are significant) when: 95% CI for mean difference includes 0 ...etc. Between brackets significant should be replaced with insignificant to make sense as when null hypothesis is accepted that means results are insignificant.Major erratum
305271Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfidence intervalhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/BF03210562It is currently written: "H0 is accepted (and results are significant)" Since H0 is the null hypothesis, if H0 is accepted, the results are not significant. So I propose the following change: "H0 is accepted (and results are [insert "not"] significant)"Minor erratum
306289CardiovascularEmbryologyAortic arch derivativesFirst Aid 2021, P.289In the paragraph, it says the 3rd aortic arch develops into common carotid artery and proximal part of INTERNAL carotid artery but in the diagram, the proximal part of EXTERNAL carotid artery is shaded not the internal.Major erratum
307290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the hearthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652362/Most right-sided murmurs of the heart increases with deep inspiration, especially that of tricuspid regurgitation. This sign is widely recognized and called the Carvallo' s Sign. * This can be added in the row of "Inspiration" in the table on maneuvers for auscultation of the heart *High-yield addition to next year
308291CardiovascularEmbryologyNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugshttps://www.cochrane.org/CD010061/NEONATAL_paracetamol-acetaminophen-patent-ductus-arteriosus-blood-vessel-necessary-fetal-survival-preterm-andThere are better alternatives to help with closure of PDA than indomethacin. NSAIDs such as paracetamol (5-7 d) or ibuprofen (3-d) are used due to risk of indomethacin related NEC and renal impairment.Clarification to current text
309292CardiovascularAnatomyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/conduction-abnormalities-after-myocardial-infarction?search=AV%20node%20blood%20supply&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H4041608353AV node supplied by the PDA, not RCA. Can be RCA, LCX, or both, depending on heart dominanceMinor erratum
310294CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output equationshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27803621/On Mean arterial pressure Notes: MAP (at resting) = DBP + 1/3 (SBP - DBP)Spelling/formatting
311294CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acquired-long-qt-syndrome-definitions-causes-and-pathophysiology?csi=9a850da0-c28c-4907-a2de-9c14f0f9d8a9&source=contentShareMethadone can prolong the QT through inhibition of the delayed rectifier potassium current, which can lead to torsades de pointesHigh-yield addition to next year
312296CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure%E2%80%93volume_loop_analysis_in_cardiologyAn increase in in Contractility increases LVP.Mnemonic
313296CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclemnemonicorder of valves on loop and cardiac cycle graphs: "MAAM likes coco" → Mitral (c), Aortic (o), Aortic (c), Mitral (o)Mnemonic
314297CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseaseweb. page 296 FA.dichrotic should be dicrotic I think.Spelling/formatting
315298CardiovascularAbbreviations and SymbolsCongenital heart diseasesmnemonicTLDR- "T" diseases are right to "L"eft shunts, "D" diseases are left to "R"ightMnemonic
316300CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursjust a mnemonicFor systolic murmurs: a Very Sexy Dude is the real MVP when ssssssaying ASMR. (ventricular septal defect, mitral valve prolapse, Aortic Stenosis, Mitral Regurgitation). I would DIE to have his ARMS. Diastolic - Aortic Regurgitation, Mitral StenosisMnemonic
317300CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmurshttps://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(15)36937-3/pdfTricuspid regurgitation - Carvallo's sign - Carvallo's sign is a clinical sign found in patients with tricuspid regurgitation. The pansystolic murmur found in this condition becomes louder during inspiration; this sign enables it to be distinguished from mitral regurgitation.High-yield addition to next year
318301CardiovascularPhysiologyPacemaker action potentialUW 1973Phase 4 (spontaneous depolarization) begins after hyperpolarization triggers the opening of HCN channels that allow slow influx of Na+ ("funny current"). T-type (transient) Ca2+ channels then open once the membrane potential becomes more positive, allowing Ca2+ influx to contribute to depolarization. As the pacemaker cell approaches threshold, L-type (long-lasting) Ca2+ channels begin to open, which further increases Ca2+ influx and significantly decreases the time until threshold is reached. (FA 2021 Does not mention anything about Calcium contributing to Phase 4)Clarification to current text
319303CardiovascularPhysiologyBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsUW 1609Carotid sinus pressure or massage stimulates the baroreceptors and increases the firing rate from the carotid sinus, leading to an increase in parasympathetic output and withdrawal of sympathetic output to the heart and peripheral vasculature. The result is decreased blood pressure (via peripheral vasodilation) and decreased cardiac output (decreased contractility/stroke volume and heart rate).Clarification to current text
320303CardiovascularPhysiologyNEW FACTFirst aid 2020 had that page (294-295)Whole page from 2020 First aid is missing. It includes Torsades de Pointes, Brugada syndrom,WPW Syndrom, ECG tracing, AV block. In brugada syndrom, please add ecg tracing showing shark fin pattern in V1-V3Major erratum
321304CardiovascularPhysiologyNormal cardiac pressuresUsmle World, and https://teachmephysiology.com/cardiovascular-system/cardiac-cycle-2/cardiac-cycle/Left ventricle and Aorta pressures are 130/10 and 130/90 respectively. It should be 120/10 and 120/80 respectively.Minor erratum
322306CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseasesn/aTETralogy of Fallot = TET spells (highlight tet)Mnemonic
323306CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection‘Snowman’ or ‘cottage loaf’ heart shape on chest X-ray due to total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.High-yield addition to next year
324307CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863812/Patent ductus arteriosus - Associated with congenital rubellaHigh-yield addition to next year
325307CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-atrial-septal-defects-in-adults?sectionName=EMBRYOLOGY%20AND%20CLASSIFICATION&topicRef=1092&anchor=H256131897&source=see_link#H256131897High yield difference in pathophysiology of ASD vs PFO development. "A" in ASD = Aplasia/Absent tissue. "F" in PFO = Failed Fusion/unFused. This concept has been tested in mutiple qbanks and this easy pneumonic helps differentiate the difference.Mnemonic
326308CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACTFirst aid 2019Other causes of dilated cardiomyopathy include chronic A for Alcohol abuse, B for wet Beriberi, C for Coxsackie B viral myocarditis, C for chronic Cocaine use, C for Chagas disease, D for Doxorubicin toxicity,Fe for hemochromatosis, Toxic for thyrotoxicosis, partum for peripartum cardiomyopathy, sac for sarcoidosis, ABC3 DFe3 toxic partum sacMnemonic
327310CardiovascularPathologyAneurysmshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583902/Abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often infrarenal as the distribution of the Vasa vasorum in the abdominal aorta is known to be reduced in the infrarenal abdominal aorta as compared with that in the thoracic aorta.Clarification to current text
328314CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMIhttps://litfl.com/posterior-myocardial-infarction-ecg-library/This is much improved but I think you still need to add an image showing where the posterior leads are. It helps a lot for visualizing the pathologyHigh-yield addition to next year
329314CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMIhttps://litfl.com/right-ventricular-infarction-ecg-library/You really need a factbox on RV MI. It's used as a gotcha question all the time because of the severe hypotension that can accompany use of nitrates. The only way you get this question right is if you can identify the RV MI on ECGHigh-yield addition to next year
330315CardiovascularPathologyHereditary channelopathieshttps://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.668392mentions loss of function mutations of Na+ channels (can also be loss of function of L-type calcium channels). ST-segment elevations in V1-V2 is also known as 'saddle sign' (easier to remember)High-yield addition to next year
331315CardiovascularPathologyHereditary channelopathieshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11022966/Long QT Syndrome is a loss of function mutation on the KCNQ1 gene; located on chromosome 11p → defective slow delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channelHigh-yield addition to next year
332315CardiovascularPathologyHereditary channelopathiesUWorld QI: 91In Brugada, the ST segment elevations is in leads V1-V3.Minor erratum
333315CardiovascularPathologyWolff-Parkinson-White syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/wolff-parkinson-white-syndrome-anatomy-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=wolff%20parkinson&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The abnormal fast accesory conduction pathway is fast as Clark KentMnemonic
334316CardiovascularPathologyECG tracingshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-catheter-ablation-of-cardiac-arrhythmias?topicRef=1012&source=related_linkAtrial fibrillation treatment = catheter ablation in the region of pulmonary vein ostia (vs. atrial flutter)High-yield addition to next year
335316CardiovascularPathologyECG tracingshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK540985/#:~:text=Typical%20or%20cavotricuspid%20isthmus%20(CTI,of%20the%20tricuspid%20valve%20annulus.The most common location of atrial flutter: right atrium at the level of the tricuspid valve annulusHigh-yield addition to next year
336316CardiovascularPathologyECG tracingshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24015911/Common sites of ventricular arrhythmia: outflow tract (OT) regions of the right and left ventriclesHigh-yield addition to next year
337316CardiovascularPathologyECG tracingshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC101077/#:~:text=Focal%20Ablation%20for%20Atrial%20Fibrillation&text=These%20sites%20were%20most%20commonly,and%20right%20upper%20pulmonary%20veins.The most common location of atrial fibrillation: pulmonary veins, especially the left upper and right upper pulmonary veinsHigh-yield addition to next year
338319CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureDiastolic dysfunction—preserved EF, normal EDV: if ventricles are stiff and the problem is that the heart can't fill, shouldn't EDV be decreasedMinor erratum
339320CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/syncope-in-adults-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-etiologies?search=syncope&source=search_result&selectedTitle=5~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=5I noticed First Aid didn't have any information on syncope, although I have gotten a few UWorld/NBME questions on it. I think it could be helpful to have a table of the causes of syncope (vasovagal, situational, orthostatic, cardiac) and possibly distinguish syncope from shock and seizure.High-yield addition to next year
340321CardiovascularSystemsBacterial endocarditishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/invasive-pneumococcal-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infections-and-bacteremia?search=osler%20triad&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Osler's clinical triad of pneumococcal endocarditisMnemonic
341323CardiovascularPathologyAcute pericarditisFirstaid usmle step 1, 2021 and Firstaid usmle step 2 10th editionSCAR IN Pericardium (check the attached picture)Mnemonic
342323CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—potassium channel blockers (class III)https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_amiodarone_nexterone/drugs-condition.htmAmiodarone side-effectsMnemonic
343323CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/157096-overview#a3Constrictive pericarditis - A rigid pericardium prevents ventricular expansion and restricts diastolic filling, causing low cardiac output and progressive right heart failure; causes idiopathic, viral pericarditis, cardiac surgery or radiation therapy, Tb. Signs - increased JVP, pericardial knock, pulsus paradoxus, kussmaul sign.High-yield addition to next year
344325CardiovascularPharmacologyAutonomic receptorsThe correct information can be found at the bottom of page 241 in the pharmacology section. Additionally here is a link to uptodate explaining signal transduction where it also shows ATP ->cAMP. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peptide-hormone-signal-transduction-and-regulationThe picture of the vascular smooth muscle cell, on the relaxation side shows adenylate cyclase and PDE-3 converting AMP to cAMP and back to AMP. This should be ATP to cAMP and back to ATP.Minor erratum
345326CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/major-side-effects-and-safety-of-calcium-channel-blockers?search=Calcium%20channel%20blockers&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H2&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=2~144&display_rank=1#H2(bold A)Amlodipine acts on (bold A)Arteries. (bold V)Verapamil acts on (bold V)Ventricles.Mnemonic
346326CardiovascularPharmacologyHydralazineNot neededSide effects of hydralazine: HALT on Fluids - Headache, Angina, Lupus, Tachycardia, Fluid retention.Mnemonic
347328CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/bile-acid-sequestrantIn the mechanism of action part of the bile acid resins, it is written "Prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver must use cholesterol to make more". So this sentence is missing after the word "more" and the correction to this statement can be "Prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver must use cholesterol to make more bile acids --> less LDL cholesterol in plasmaClarification to current text
348329CardiovascularToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—cardiovascularNot neededYou better visit a hospital directly: Yellow Blurry Vision and Halos are the signs of digoxin poisoning.Mnemonic
349329CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentsNot needed, see page 328Graphic shows PCSK9 potentiating LDL-R. PCSK9 degrades LDL receptors, so it should be a (-) sign.Minor erratum
350330CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2172024-overviewC(Q)uPiD has I Arrow (Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide are IA class)Mnemonic
351331CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—potassium channel blockers (class III)UW 899Amiodarone is associated with less incidence of torsades de pointes compared to the other drugs known to have the same effect (QT prolongation).High-yield addition to next year
352332CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockershttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/cm0aeg?q=Calcium%20channel%20blockers#Z7fa413de7e8daaa8f53d0a0a8c202994Darth Vader a mnemonic for Diltiazem, Verapamil (nondihydropyridines)Mnemonic
353334EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinSugegstionYou may bold RBC for Glut 1 for the first capitals of rbc brain and corneaMnemonic
354334EndocrineEmbryologyThyroid development(Question #53) https://usmle.org/pdfs/step-1/samples_step1_2020.pdf, https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Arterial-supply-of-the-thyroid-gland-and-venous-drainage-of-the-thyroid-gland_fig3_326375395The issue is the illustration of the inferior thyroid artery coming off of the left subclavian. The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of the THYROCERVICAL TRUNK (off the left subclavian), which is important to know. USMLE gave a sample question about this concept, so it is important to understand.Minor erratum
355334EndocrineEmbryologyNEW FACTSee uploaded image (source: Uworld QBank)Pituitary Embryology- Anterior pituitary is derived from Rathke pouch which is an evagination at the roof of the developing mouth (primitive gut tube) and is in turn derived from surface ectoderm. The posterior pituitary is derived from the infundibulum of diencephalon (neuroectoderm origin). Remnants of the Rathke pouch give rise to craniopharyngioma.High-yield addition to next year
356335EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullahttps://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Adrenal_cortex_hormonesGo (Glomerulosa) Find (Fasciculata) Rex (Reticularis) Make (Mineralocorticoids) Good (Glucocorticoids) Sex (Sex cortical hormones)Mnemonic
357335EndocrineAnatomyEndocrine pancreas cell typesmnemonicDrawing to remember that α cells are on periphery and β cells are central (picture attached)Mnemonic
358336EndocrinePhysiologyAppetite regulationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ghrelin#:~:text=Ghrelin%20is%20a%2028%2Damino,)%20%5B1%2C2%5D.&text=Ghrelin%2C%20which%20is%20produced%20by,such%20as%20starvation%20or%20anorexia.Ghrelin makes my stomach ghrowlMnemonic
359336EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormonesN/ATo remember whether pulsatile or constant GnRH leads to puberty/fertility: "Pelvic pulsations make babies" (IE, pulsatile GnRH --> fertility)Mnemonic
360337CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyAcromegalyI made this mnemonic by my selfAcromegaly seen in Adult so Mnemonic is AA so ACROMEGALY ADULTMnemonic
361337EndocrinePhysiologyAntidiuretic hormonenot neededV2 associated with H2O (both have 2 in them)Mnemonic
362340EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismFirst Aid 2020 pg 340Hypothyroidism symptoms: SLOW DOWN C♥RE Skin dry/cool Lethargy, HyperLipidemia (low LDLR) O HypOthyroidism Weakness (Increase CK) Depressed mood Oligomenorrhea Weight gain Nail/hair brittle, low Na+ Constipation/old intolerance ♥ Bradycardia R hypoReflexia Exertional DyspneaMnemonic
363340EndocrinePhysiologyParathyroid hormonehttps://www.hyperparathyroidmd.com/calcitonin-and-the-parathyroid-hormone/paraTHIGH (roid) keeps it HIGH. calciTO(nin) keeps it LOW.Mnemonic
364341EndocrinePhysiologyCalcitoninnot requiredTo remember that calcitonin keeps the calcium in the bones = Calci-bone-inMnemonic
365342EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinUW 18959SGLT1- transporter found ONLY in the small intenstine/GI tract. SGLT2- transporter found ONLY in the kidney.Spelling/formatting
366342EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinPage 381 of first aid 2021insulin response with oral vs IV glucose due to incretins (eg, glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]), which are released after meals and  β cell sensitivity to glucose. Release  by α2,  by β2 stimulation (2 = regulates insulin).GLP1 and GIP are mentioned as separate hormones.Don’t they represent the same thing?Clarification to current text
367344EndocrinePhysiologyAppetite regulationhttps://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2021_FAS1_Foreword-2.pdfLack of person-first language: "obese people"Spelling/formatting
368345EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-biochemistry-and-measurement-in-pregnancy-and-disease?search=glycoprotein%20hormone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H3847428544It would make sense to list these 4 glycoprotein hormones (LH, FSH, hCG, TSH) in sequence, as they are all members of the same glycoprotein hormone family, in which all 4 hormones are heterodimers composed of a common α-subunit and non-identical β-subunit, which confers hormone specificity. Due to the high degree of structural similarities, both LH and hCG (in their heterodimeric forms) can bind to and activate the LH receptor (hence the term hCG/LH receptor). Notably, exogenous hCG can be administered as a surrogate for LH to trigger ovulation in assisted reproductive technology.Clarification to current text
369346Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsB-type (brain) natriuretic peptidep.346 - P. 783 of FA2021BNP = Brain Natriuretic Peptide its abbreviated in p.346, same as ANP but BNP is not in the abbreviations section (should be in page 755), its only in index section p.783Clarification to current text
370347EndocrinePathologyHypopituitarismhttps://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2021_FAS1_Foreword-2.pdfLack of person-first language: "obese females"Spelling/formatting
371347EndocrinePathologyHypopituitarismhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-of-hypopituitarism?search=sheehan&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~15&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Sheehan: she can´t breastfeedMnemonic
372348EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3219173/decreased sweating due to "atrophy" of sweat glandsHigh-yield addition to next year
373348EndocrinePhoto AcknowledgmentsPhoto Acknowledgmentshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31143336/Photo updated for better acknowledgmentsHigh-yield addition to next year
374349EndocrineSystemsHyperthyroidismhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/subacute-thyroiditis?search=de%20quervain%20thyroiditis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~17&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H6In subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, natural history follows self limited transient hyperthyroidism followed by asymptomatic hypothyroidism that leads to full recovery.Minor erratum
375349EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29405999/With jaundice and lethargy being presenting symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism, it could be VERY easy to mistake with many other disorders affecting newborns. While the 6P's mnemonic is useful, it would be more useful to rationalize SOME of these symptoms. Being as T4 promotes synthesis of protein, and catabolism of fats and sugars, these findings can be explained and rationalized better. Low protein MAKING - lethargy, puffiness, jaundice (less enzymes to break up unc. bilirubin). Low fat/sugar DEGRADATION - Poor feeding, protruding tongue, pot belly. While many many students would be memorizing the 6p's, it would lead to easier points if they are told directly on FA 2022 some of these effects. Furthermore, it being on the congenital hypothyroidism part would have them think back and tie it in to GENERALIZED MYXEDEMA in HYPOTHYROID adults.High-yield addition to next year
376349EndocrineSystemsHypothyroidismhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations-of-igg4-related-disease?search=igg4%20related%20disease&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H43795036IgG4 related systemic disease mnemonicMnemonic
377350EndocrinePathologyNEW FACTNo NeedAdd "Euthyroid Sick Syndrome, TSH resistance, Thyroid hormone Resistance, Congenital TBG deficiency" to next addition as these diseases are being tested in the exam .High-yield addition to next year
378351EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282954/Anaplastic carcinoma is not associated with a very good prognosis.Major erratum
379354EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4781902/#:~:text=Patients%20with%20diabetes%20mellitus%20Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and diabetes mellitus: Pathophysiology assumptions, clinical aspects and implications for managementHigh-yield addition to next year
380354EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitusFormatting correction.Hello! Under Chronic Complications, Nonenzymatic Glycation, Small Vessel Disease, the following sentence is as written. Nodular glomerulosclerosisŽprogressive proteinuria (initially microalbuminuria; ACE inhibitors and ARBs are renoprotective. There isn't a closing parentheses after "renoprotective," which is where I assume it should be.Spelling/formatting
381354EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitusNo need"Weight loss" was mentioned as an acute manifestation for diabetes mellitus without mentioning that it occur in type 1 diabetes, because this doesn't happen in case of type 2 diabetes where a small amount of insulin is able to inhibit the hormone sensitive lipaseMinor erratum
382354GastrointestinalAnatomyPancreas and spleen embryologyself"AV2" - Annular Pancreas - Annular, Ventral, 2nd part of duodenumMnemonic
383356EndocrinePathologyCushing syndromeNo NeedCOSHING , C= Cortisol inc, Cholesterol inc, O= Osteoporosis, Obesity(truncal,buffalo hump,moon face), S= Skin changes(Striae, easy brusing), H= Hypertension,Hyperglycemia,Hirsutism, I=Immunosuppression , N=No menses (amenorrhea), G= Growth Retardation, GnRH secretion altered (Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism)Mnemonic
384359GastrointestinalEmbryologyNEW FACThttps://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/charge-syndrome/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169446/It has come to my attention that VACTERL association and CHARGE syndrome are starting to become fair game.Mnemonic
385360EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-and-genetics-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2Associated with mutation in the RET proto-oncogene (codes for receptor tyrosine kinase, chromosome 10)Clarification to current text
386360GastrointestinalAnatomyRetroperitoneal structuresFirst AidRetroperitoneal structures are usually VERTICAL (aorta, IVC, 2nd part of duodenum, ureters, ascending and descending colon, esophagus) or PAIRED (adrenal glands, kidneys, ureters). If it is a SINGULAR structure (stomach, liver, spleen) or "TAIL" (tail of pancreas, appendix) it is retroperitonealMnemonic
387361EndocrinePathologyCarcinoid tumorsFA 2021 p. 717Elevated urinary 5-HIAA is found in carcinoid syndrome. This is listed in the Rapid Review on p. 717 and should be add to the description of carcinoid tumors.High-yield addition to next year
388362EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyn/a drew itNew DiagramClarification to current text
389363GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and brancheshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vulvovaginal-varicosities-and-pelvic-congestion-syndrome#H258333007L gonadal vein should be shown going into the L renal vein, not directly into the aorta. This is clinically relevant due to varicoceles and increased likelihood of L gonadal vein obstruction compared to right.Minor erratum
390363EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapynot neededSodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors end in -flozin, and their MOA --> glucose FLOWS IN to the urine, which is a good way to remember they cause glucosuriaMnemonic
391363EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyNot neededSGLT2 inhibitors (Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, empagliflozin)- Glucose "Floz-in"(flows in) urine.Mnemonic
392363EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyn/aInstead of repeating the actions at "Increase glucose-induced insulin secretion", it might be better to edit DPP-4 inhibitors "at the first column" saying they inhibit the DPP-4 that deactivates the GLP-1 and then common actions at the second column "the GLP-1 actions" plus decreases appetite!Clarification to current text
393368GastrointestinalEmbryologyVentral wall defectshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/975583-overview#a5In the etiologies, the etiology of omphalocele is failure of midgut to return after herniation, and gastroschisis is due to weakness in the abdominal wall causing herniationClarification to current text
394369GastrointestinalEmbryologyHypertrophic pyloric stenosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis?search=hypertrophic%20pyloric%20stenosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: first born Males, Macrolides, Metabolic alkalosis, olive MassMnemonic
395369GastrointestinalEmbryologyTracheoesophageal anomalieshttps://www.childrensmn.org/services/care-specialties-departments/fetal-medicine/conditions-and-services/esophageal-atresia/The orientation of the depicted tracheoesophageal fistulas relative to the body should be made clear (i.e. Are all of these drawings from a posterior perspective?)Clarification to current text
396371GastrointestinalPhysiologyNEW FACTI am the author of the nmemonicFact name: Somatostatin "SomaDostatin Decelerates cell" change the "t" of somatostatin to the letter D, which represent the D cell; Source: D cells (pancreatic islets, GI mucosa)Mnemonic
397372GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract histologyUpper 1/3, striated muscle; middle and lower 2/3: Linguistic suggestion, it would make more sense if it's phrased: Upper 1/3 and lower 2/3 or Upper third and middle and lower thirds.Minor erratum
398374GastrointestinalAnatomyGastrointestinal blood supply and innervationhttps://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/coursepages/m1/embryology/embryo/10digestivesystem.htmStructures of the midgut that supplied by SMA are the structures mentioned in the book (Distal duodenum to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon) plus appendix. Appendix originates from midgut and supplied by the superior mesenteric artery.Minor erratum
399374GastrointestinalAnatomyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/traumatic-gastrointestinal-injury-in-the-adult-patient?search=blood%20supply%20to%20colon&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1During my anatomy review for step 1, I found it important to know the blood supply of the colon which is not actually outlined in first aid step 1 yet. When drawing out the blood supply of the colon, I found the following mnemonic quite helpful: MRI Left Side Second... So the blood supply to the colon is as follows in order of the way it presents when drawing the anatomy: Middle Right Ileocecal ... Watershed (indicating the following arteries come from the IMA now instead of the SMA) ... Left colic, Sigmiod, Superior rectal.... So I came up with the mnemonic, MRI With Left Side Second. Middle colic, Right colic, Ileocecal, Watershed, Left colic, Sigmoid, Superior rectal. Hope this helps others out there struggling with this anatomy!Mnemonic
400379GastrointestinalPathologyGastric cancerCame up with itSymptoms: Gastric CA generally has non-specific signs & symptoms, so most of the patients present at late stage, remember the acronym “WEAPON”: ➢ Wight loss (the most common presentation). ➢ Early satiety/ Emesis. ➢ Anorexia. ➢ Pain (epigastric discomfort) → Most common early symptom. ➢ Obstruction→ seen in distal lesions, while in proximal ones, dysphagia could be seen. ➢ Nausea.Mnemonic
401384GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisN/AHemoCHROMAtoSIX for being on chromosome 6Mnemonic
402386GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulushttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/sigmoid-volvulus-versus-caecal-volvulus?lang=usThe upright xray shown on Page 386 is a Cecal Volvulus not a Sigmoid Volvulus, as mentioned in the text. Sigmoid volvulus always points to the patient R, and cecal volvulus always points to the patient L.Minor erratum
403387GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16361045/One important, TESTABLE, cause of esophagitis is EOSINOPHILIC esophagitis, related to food allergies. Patients, mainly kids, will present with food impaction and Eosinophilic deposition and invasion of mucosa. This would cause white papules due to micro-abscesses because of eosinophilic infiltration. in a patient with a history of atopy, and food impaction, it is important to differentiate this from CMV esophagitis, which also causes linear furrowing of the esophagus.High-yield addition to next year
404389GastrointestinalPathologyCirrhosis and portal hypertensionhttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/778720Hepatopulmonary not added as a complication of portal HTNHigh-yield addition to next year
405389GastrointestinalPathologyGastritisnot neededRisk factors for gastritis can be remembered with "SNACCS" (S)evere burn (Curling ulcer) (N)SAIDS}} (A)lcohol consumption}} (C)hemotherapy}} (C)ushing ulcer (S)hockMnemonic
406389GastrointestinalPathologyGastritisPathoma (edition 2019) p. 104 and https://meridian.allenpress.com/aplm/article/143/11/1327/433634/Autoimmune-GastritisWhile autoantibodies against the proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) on parietal cells can be found in autoimmune chronic gastritis and can help in making the diagnosis, the pathogenesis of this condition is mainly mediated by T cells (type IV hypersensitivity reaction).Clarification to current text
407389GastrointestinalPathologyPeptic ulcer diseasehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-complications-of-peptic-ulcer-diseasePeptic Ulcer ComplicationsMnemonic
408390GastrointestinalPathologyUlcer complicationsmnemonicBoth starts with "L" (I put it in quotes): Ruptured gastric ulcer on the "l"esser curvature of stomach leads to bleeding from "l"eft gastric artery.Mnemonic
409391GastrointestinalPathologyAlcoholic liver diseasesNot neededFor alcoholic hepatitis, AST > ALT = wASTedMnemonic
410392GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesFirst aid for the USMLE step 1 + PathomaCrohn disease causes (CCCRONNN DISEASE) > Cobblestone, Creeping fat, Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, Right lower quadrant pain, Oriented ulcer(linear), Non-caseating granuloma, Non-bloody diarrhea, kNife like fissure (1st by pronunciation), Deficiency of nutrients, Ilium (most common site), Skip lesions, Extends throughout GIT, +ASCA, String sign, Erythema nodosumMnemonic
411395GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseOriginal mnemonicFor remembering primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) vs. primary biliary cholangitis (PBC): S for scrotum in men, B for breasts in women. Also for remembering antibodies: p-ANCA → P for paternal, AMA → M for maternalMnemonic
412395GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisThis is straight from FA, just a mnemonic to help associate these findings with hemochromatosis.Common associations with hemochromatosis: "ABCD" A3 (HLA-A3), Bronze skin, Cirrhosis, Diabetes mellitus. It really helps me remember them!Mnemonic
413395GastrointestinalPathologyIntussusceptionNot neededCauses of intussusception: CRAAMP – Cancer, Rotavirus vaccine, IgA vasculitis, Adenovirus, Meckel diverticulum, Peutz-Jeghers syndromeMnemonic
414396GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295849/The text describes figure A as pigment stones, however the larger stone at the neck of the gallbladder has irregular consistency and is yellowish white, indicating high levels of cholesterol.Minor erratum
415396GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologieshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11276386/gallbladder hypomotility causes the bile to become concentrated and accumulation of materials such as cholesterol monohydrate crystal, calcium bilirubinate build up and become viscous and thick. This is called biliary sludge which can cause obstruction in the bile duct and can form cholesterol gallstones.High-yield addition to next year
416396GastrointestinalPathologyOther intestinal disordershttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Bowel_obstructionHOSA- Hyperkalemia, Opiates, Sepsis, Abdominal surgeriesMnemonic
417396GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulusFA 2021Coffee bean sign: in Volvulus, Coffee bean nuclei: in Brenner tumorHigh-yield addition to next year
418397GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitisFirst aid 2020 pg 397Acute Pancreatitis Complications SPAM CANDy Shock Pseudocyst Abscess Multi-organ Failure Calcium low ARDS Necrosis (Fat) DICMnemonic
419397GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesnot needed.*P*eutz-Jeghers syndrome -->hyper*p*igmented . Highlight the letter "p" .Mnemonic
420397GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/familial-adenomatous-polyposis-screening-and-management-of-patients-and-families?search=familial%20adenomatous%20polyps&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1APC: (A) Autosomic Dominant, (P) Polypyps , (C) Colon CancerMnemonic
421399GastrointestinalPathologyCirrhosis and portal hypertensionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-splenomegaly-and-other-splenic-disorders-in-adults?search=splenomegaly&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1It says "(arrows show splenomegaly)" but there is no picture of splenomegaly - only a picture with hepatocellular carcinoma. Picture from 2019 edition was removed that depicted this. This is my 3rd erratum submissive in 3 months, very concerning.This form is forcing me to add a supporting reference even though it isn't content based, so I will add an article on splenomegaly.Minor erratum
422399GastrointestinalPharmacologyMisoprostolN/ASide effect of Misoprostol: Mis = Miscarriage, Pro-Sto(o)l = DiarrheaMnemonic
423400GastrointestinalPathologyReye syndromeFA 2021Reye syndrome: mIcrovesicular fatty changes (kIds are mIcro), Hepatic steatosis: mAcarovesicular fatty changes (Adults are mAcro)High-yield addition to next year
424400GastrointestinalPathologySerum markers of liver pathologySelf made"ALT" increase in vir"AL" and au"T"oimmune hepatitisMnemonic
425402GastrointestinalPathologyBudd-Chiari syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-portal-vein-thrombosis-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management?search=portal%20vein%20thrombosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~147&usage_type=default&display_rank=3My submission is regarding the picture to the right of the section titled “Budd-Chiari Syndrome” and concerns portal vein thrombosis in specific. While acute portal vein thrombosis does not present with splenomegaly on physical exam, chronic portal vein thrombosis could. This is because the splenic vein drains into the portal vein and if given enough time, accumulation of blood from the splenic vein could lead to splenomegaly. It is true that portal vein thrombosis does not present with hepatomegaly, however, "no hepatosplenomegaly" is not entirely accurate and rather depends on the time of presentation. Thus a more accurate way of laying it out would be either to point out the importance of chronicity of the disease or by changing it to “portal vein thrombosis: no hepatomegaly”.Clarification to current text
426402GastrointestinalPathologyBudd-Chiari syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-portal-vein-thrombosis-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management?search=portal%20vein%20thrombosis%20differential%20diagnosis&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H417348800&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=2~150&display_rank=2#H417348800The figure states ''No hepatosplenomegaly'' under Portal vein thrombosis. I think it should only specify as ''No hepatomegaly'' because splenomegaly is a finding in portal vein thrombosis.Minor erratum
427405GastrointestinalAbbreviations and SymbolsHemochromatosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430862/Please add the mnemonic "HemochromatoSix" or "Hemochromato6" to better remember the association of hemochromatosis with HFE gene on chromosome 6.Mnemonic
428405GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseN/AWilSons disease on chromosome 13 (lS of wilsons looks like 13)Mnemonic
429405GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseNot neededATP7B gene is on chromosome 13 - there are 13 letters in "Wilson disease"Mnemonic
430406GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologieshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11077333/Pigment stones due to biliary tract infection are due to increased slime production and beta-glucuronidase released by bacteria. This should be added to the figure to help differentiate from cholesterol gallstones resulting from decreased 7-alpha hydroxylase activity.High-yield addition to next year
431407GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitismnemonic by memnemonic for the complications of acute pancreatitis. the mnemonic is "H2O In PANcreas". H- Hemorrhage, H- Hypocalcemia, O- Organ failure, P- Pseudocyst, A- Abscess, N- Necrosis.Mnemonic
432407GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitismnemonic by memnemonic for the complications of acute pancreatitis. the mnemonic is "H2O In PANcreas". H- Hemorrhage, H- Hypocalcemia, O- Organ failure, I- Infection, P- Pseudocyst, A- Abscess, N- Necrosis.Mnemonic
433407GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/etiology-of-acute-pancreatitisIn your mnemonic, I GET SMASHED, the 'A' stands for AutoImmune diseases. Viewing multiple resources (Check etiologies section from the link of uptodate below), AI diseases have nothing to do with acute pancreatitis, they only cause chronic pancreatitis.Major erratum
434409GastrointestinalPharmacologyAntacidshttps://www.rxlist.com/antacids/drug-class.htmContraindication mnemonic: Not "FIIT"for Antacid: Fluoroquinolones, Isoniazid, Iron, TetracyclineMnemonic
435409GastrointestinalPharmacologyProton pump inhibitorsUworldProton Pump Inhibitors Facilitate fat absorption in patients given Pancreatic Enzyme replacement therapy, 35% of people only answered this correctlyHigh-yield addition to next year
436411GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxatives1. https://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/3/6/1861#:~:text=The%20major%20clinical%20feature%20of,any%20severe%20diarrhea%20(45). 2. https://www.renalfellow.org/2009/10/13/acid-base-issues-related-to-eating/book says "Diarrhea, dehydration; may be misused by patients with bulimia nervosa; overuse may cause metabolic alkalosis", BUT laxative abuse can result in either a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis (similar to patients with chronic diarrhea) OR a hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis which results from hypokalemia, increased renal bicarbonate reabsorption, and volume contraction due to profound loss of sodium and water in the stool.Clarification to current text
437411GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxatives.adverse effects of (Osmotic laxatives , Stimulants & Emollient) should be metabolic acidosis rather than metabolic alkalosisMinor erratum
438411GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2172208-laxatives,%20stool%20softeners,%20and%20prokinetic%20agents?src=android&ref=shareMY CONTRIBUTIONS: MNEMONICS AND CORRECTIONS,; FIRST AID 2021 AS REFERENCEMnemonic
439413Hematology and OncologyMolecularNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2086278-overviewI think that thrombin time should be defined,like for example what it means as a term i.e. the time it takes for thrombin(IIa) to create fibrin PLUS the situations in which thrombin time goes up(heparin-affects ACTIVATED factor II, dabigatran/bivalirudin/any direct thrombin inhibitor-affect ACTIVATED factor II, afibrinogenemia-less/no factor I to be used by thrombin as a substrate).High-yield addition to next year
440415Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupshttps://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM195807312590508Hello, Thank you for the emazing First Aid! It is understandable when I read the part of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn that Rh --ve persons (mothers) does not has a naturally preexisting Anti-D IgG in their blood and that is true, except for a very rare exceptions. But when I read the blood groups table before that, it is written that Anti-D IgG is present in the plasma of Rh --ve persons similar like the presence of Anti-B in A blood group persons and the presence of Anti-A in B blood group persons in whom those antibodies are naturally preexist. I think it will be better if you can write a not that (Anti-D IgG does not naturally found in Rh --ve persons and it is almost always result from immunization in the form of blood transfusion or incompatible fetus. Thank you!Clarification to current text
441415Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupshbf has serine instaed of histidine amino acid ,due to which hbf has decreased binding to 2,3 bpg and increased affinity.Minor erratum
442415Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemolytic disease of the fetus and newbornhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2270/Anti-Kell can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn which results in severe fetal anemia. This occurs when the mother's anti-Kell targets fetal RBC precursors and therefore suppresses fetal RBC production. Antibodies against Kell are IgM (uncommon) or IgG. Anti-Kell can also cause a hemolytic transfusion reaction.High-yield addition to next year
443416Hematology and OncologyAnatomyHematopoiesismnemonicGranulocytes/PMNs ⇔ *NBME* (Neutrophils, Basophils, Mast cells, Eosinophils); Agranulocytes/mononuclear cells ⇒ Monocytes & LymphocytesMnemonic
444416Hematology and OncologyAnatomyHematopoiesishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2085133-overviewA mnemonic to remember the white blood cell count differential in order of greatest to fewest white blood cells: Never Let Me Eat Bananas (Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils). It can also be helpful to remember the approximate percentage of each one, and some students may find it easier to remember a number instead of a range. As such, students may benefit from remembering 60% (Neutrophils), 30% (Lymphocytes), 6% (Monocytes), 3% (Eosinophils), and 1% (Basophils). The 60-30-6-3-1 guideline is easy to remember and applicable for many USMLE Step 1 topics.Mnemonic
445416Hematology and OncologyAnatomyNeutrophilsNot neededNeutrophil chemotactic agents (see attached document for clarity): Come, Let’s Invent New Knowledge to HElp People – C5a, LTB4, IL-8, N-fMET, Kallikrein, 5-HETE, Platelet-activating factorMnemonic
446417Hematology and OncologyAnatomyErythrocytesN/ATo remember that anisocytosis is varying sizes: anisocytosis = any size-tosisMnemonic
447422Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysPhysicians’ Desk Reference; 2021, 75th Edition {Fondaparinux exerts antithrombotic activity as a result of antithrombin III (ATIII)-mediated selective inhibition of factor Xa.} https://www.uptodate.com/contents/fondaparinux-dosing-and-adverse-effects#subscribeMessage {Fondaparinux (Arixtra) is a synthetic anticoagulant based on the pentasaccharide sequence that makes up the minimal antithrombin (AT) binding region of heparin. Similar to low molecular weight heparins, it is an indirect inhibitor of factor Xa, but it does not inhibit thrombin at all.} https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/021345s010lbl.pdf {ARIXTRA® (fondaparinux sodium) Injection is a sterile solution containing fondaparinux sodium. It is a synthetic and specific inhibitor of activated Factor X (Xa).}Fondaparinux is a LMWH; it shouldn’t be placed as separate from LMWH in the list of anticoagulants aimed at Xa in the illustration of the coagulation and kinin pathways on page 422. It should read like this: LMWH (eg, dalteparin, enoxaparin; fondaparinux selectively inhibits Xa).Major erratum
448422Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysI like the stock*Thrombin(IIa) is used for amplification as it is able to activate more thrombin via +ve feedback on factors V XI and VIII....[Thrombin is factor II & it activates 3 other factors just add 3 to 2 three times to remember them 2+3=5 (V) 5+3=8 (VIII) 8+3=11 (XI)Mnemonic
449422Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwayshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/high-molecular-weight-kininogenInstead of simply "HMWK" in the cascade it should state: "kininogen (HMWK)" & have a reference below describing the abbreviation of HMWK - high-molecular-weight kininogenClarification to current text
450422Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiasFirst Aid 2020 pg 422Sickle Cell Anemia Complications PRADA Pain Crisis, Priapism, Renal Papillary Necrosis, Autosplenectomy, Dactylitis, Acute Chest SyndromeMnemonic
451422Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaNASee Mike? He ate 14 Jaw Breakers. C-myc, He 8:14 Jaw (For endemic Burkitt Lymphoma) Breakers.Mnemonic
452423Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiasN/A- came up with the mnemonic on my ownCold AI hemolytic anemia is due to IgM Ab's, 'M' for 'M'innesota which is a 'COLD' state; Warm AI hemolytic anemia is due to IgG Ab's, 'G' for 'G'eorgia which is a 'WARM' stateMnemonic
453423Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vitamin-k-and-the-synthesis-and-function-of-gamma-carboxyglutamic-acid?search=vitamin%20k&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Vitamin K its produced by baKteriaMnemonic
454424Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/954356-overview#:~:text=Acanthocytosis%20is%20a%20red%20cell,(see%20the%20images%20below).Acanthocytes are Spur cells. "San Antonio SPURS" with emphasis on the A in Antonio.Mnemonic
455425Hematology and OncologyMetabolismHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningn/aMnemonic for heme synthesis: Go Save All Possible Humans U C Pleading For HelpMnemonic
456426Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC inclusionsn/awords that contain I and N from IroN contain iron such as heINz bodies and pappeNheImerMnemonic
457426Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=HEME%2F71989It is written that basophilic stippling is seen on sideroblastic anemias thalassemias and we should add LEAD POISONING to it as it is seen in lead poisoningClarification to current text
458426Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=HEME%2F71989in basophilic stippling we should add LEAD POISONING to the box as it causes inhibition of pyrimidine 5’nuclutidase which leads to undigested pyrimidines in ribosomes/RNA so accumulation of pyrimidines/RNA not lead accumulationClarification to current text
459427Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasmnemonicNormocytic Extrinsic anemias can be remembered with "AIMM" → Autoimmune, Infections, Microangiopathic, MacroangiopathicMnemonic
460427Hematology and OncologySystemsReticulocyte production indexhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/calculator-reticulocyte-production-index-rpi-in-adults?search=reticulocyte%20production%20index&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~4&usage_type=default&display_rank=1RPI = ([reticulocyte % * actual Hct] / normal Hct ) / maturation timeMajor erratum
461429Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/childhood-lead-poisoning-exposure-and-prevention/abstract/45exposure risk to lead is high in old houses (built before 1978) essentially when lead based paint was bannedClarification to current text
462430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaNone requiredDiffuse large B-CeLL lymphoma has mutations in BCL genes.Mnemonic
463431Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasHarrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20th edition, page 727- Aplastic anemia laboratory studies- in left column, paragraph 4, lines 2 and 3.Dear authors/ Editorial board members    Thanks for your great work.   I have found something not true about aplastic anemia at "Firstaid 30th edition, page 431, right column, line 7" that says dry bone marrow tap.   Because the bone marrow aspiration is hypocellular not dry tap, a “dry tap” instead suggests fibrosis or myelophthisis.   Reference: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20th edition, page 727- Aplastic anemia laboratory studies- in left column, paragraph 4, lines 2 and 3.   Yours sincerely,   Mohammad M Fanaeian, M.D.Major erratum
464431Hematology and OncologyPathologyNormocytic, normochromic anemiasn/aintravascular hemolysis mechanism: breakdown within vesselsClarification to current text
465431Hematology and OncologyPathologyNormocytic, normochromic anemiasPROOF 1:According to https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/bilirubin-glucuronide "Only conjugated bilirubin is passed into the urine" // Proof 2: On page 385 GI-pathology it was stated "Indirect bilirubin: unconjugated; water insoluble" hence unconjugated bilirubin cannot be excreted in urine// PROOF 3: "Unconjugated bilirubin is not water-soluble and so is not excreted in the urine" according to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BilirubinThe mistake was on page 431 where uncongjugated bilirubin was mentioned as one of the findings in urine. FULL SENTENCE: "Hemolysis can lead to increases in LDH, reticulocytes, *unconjugated bilirubin*, pigmented gallstones, and urobilinogen in urine"Minor erratum
466431Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlasma cell dyscrasiasPathoma 2018 (WBC disorders P63)Multiple Myeloma MR BAILOMA, M spike in SPEP, Roulex formation, Bence Jones Proteins (Myeloma Kidney), AL Amyloidosis, Infection, Osteoclastic activating factor, Monoclonal IgG or IgA, AnemiaMnemonic
467432Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttp://www.labex-grex.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/LdCosta-Boold-review-2013.pdf ; https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/anemias-caused-by-hemolysis/hereditary-spherocytosis-and-hereditary-elliptocytosis#:~:text=About%2025%25%20of%20cases%20are,RBCs%20are%20oval%20or%20elliptical.;www.uptodate.com/contents/hereditary-elliptocytosis-and-related-disorders#H4087002577Difference between hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis - elliptocytosis milder hemolysis absent or slight +/-splenomegaly . genetic mutations result in weakness of the cytoskeleton of the cell, leading to deformation of the cell. The abnormally shaped RBCs are taken up and destroyed by the spleen. Confirm diagnosis spherocytosis ektacytometry shows narrower curve that moves to the right, elliptocytosis shows a change of shape and lower height of curveClarification to current text
468432Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://www.drugs.com/history/empaveli.htmlA first in-class medication was approved for the use of Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Pegcetacoplan binds to complement protein C3 and its activation fragment C3b, thereby regulating the cleavage of C3 and the generation of downstream effectors of complement activation. This is a novel target of the complement pathway.High-yield addition to next year
469432Hematology and OncologyPathologyPyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyReddit approvesPyruvate Kinase def. go *Burrrrrrrrrrrrr*Mnemonic
470433Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cold-agglutinin-disease#:~:text=INTRODUCTION%20Cold%20agglutinin%20disease%20(CAD,the%20body%20and%20hemolytic%20anemia.In Cold AIHA, it is written that it is an extravascular hemolysis upon exposure to cold. However, it is important to specify that there is a component of intravascular hemolysis happening, such as in the case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections (which causes the elevated LDH levels and elevate reticulocytes count).Minor erratum
471433Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/rT0fH2?q=autoimmune%20hemolytic%20anemia#Z6ea395e8a2f1814c9b2cfca2c06c5b2aIn warm AIHA - we have IgG which, better fits for splenic macrophage FC receptor - so it causes more extravascular hemolysis. In cold AIHA IgM, much better activates complement - intravascular hemolysis, instead of extravascular, as per 2021 FA.Major erratum
472434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningmnemonic"A"cute Intemittent Porphyria - porphobilinogen de"A"minase; porphyria "C"utanea tarda - uroporphyrinogen de"C"arboxylaseMnemonic
473434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttp://www2.csudh.edu/nsturm/CHE452/13_Heme%20Metabolism.htmDiagram depicting heme synthesis depicts conversion from ALA to porphobilinogen mediated by ALA DEHYDROGENASE. The correct enzyme is ALA DEHYDRATASE.Major erratum
474434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningFirst Aid 2020, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560836/"Aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase" should say "Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase"Minor erratum
475434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1174752-overview?src=mbl_msp_iphone {Lead blocks the activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and leads to hemoglobin oxidation, which along with the lipid peroxidation can result in red cell hemolysis.} https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537329/ {Lead Poisoning: Lead interacts with zinc cofactors for ALA dehydratase and ferrochelatase leading to inhibition of these two enzymes in the biochemical biosynthetic pathway of heme. This inhibition leads to mostly ALA and some protoporphyrin IX accumulating in urine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, fatigue irritability and developmental disability in children.}The illustration of heme synthesis at the bottom of page 434 should contain the enzyme ALA dehydratase in the step from aminolevulinic acid to porphobilinogen; ALA dehydrogenase is incorrect.Major erratum
476434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningLiu, G., Sil, D., Maio, N. et al. Heme biosynthesis depends on previously unrecognized acquisition of iron-sulfur cofactors in human amino-levulinic acid dehydratase. Nat Commun 11, 6310 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20145-9One of the enzymes of the synthesis of the heme group (FA 2021) is: "ALA dehydrogenase" (eliminates a hydrogen ion); instead, in all the literatures this enzyme is refer to as "ALA dehydratase" (removes a molecule of water). I suggest to change the name of this enzyme as the prior version of FA 2020.Minor erratum
477434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningN/Aheme synthesis mnemonic: ''Some Good Angels, Palpate Hearts Under Chest Procedures"' & porphyrias: AIT= deAminase PCT=deCarboxylaseMnemonic
478434Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/221906938_ALAD_d-aminolevulinic_Acid_Dehydratase_as_Biosensor_for_Pb_ContaminationThe enzyme ALA dehydrogenase in the drawing below should be Ala dehydratase AND IT SHOULD NOT BE DRAWN IN THE MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE IN FACT IT IS A CYTOPLASMIC ENZYME so it should be written in the cytoplasmic part of the drawingMinor erratum
479436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinNone requiredUnfractionated HEPARin undergoes HEPAR (hepatic) clearence (hepar is latin for liver).Mnemonic
480436Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordersnot neededBernard-Soulier : Big platelets (both starting with B), instead of large plateletsMnemonic
481436Hematology and OncologyPathologyThrombotic microangiopathieshttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpuraFART'N "Fever, Anemia (hemolytic), Renal dysfunction, Thrombocytopenia, Neurological dysfunction"Mnemonic
482436Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACTfirst aid 2020 427Bernard - Soulier syndrome and Glanzman thrombasthenia occur in alphabetical order ( B comes first so does gp1b adhesion),then G comes ( gp2b3a)Mnemonic
483436Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACTno reference(B)ernard-Soulier- GpI(b)= the dirst letter is (b) / Gl(a)nzman-GpIIb/III(a)= third letter is (a)Mnemonic
484437Hematology and OncologyPathologyAmino acidsnot neededFacto V Leiden deficiency --> in the book it says it is a guanine --> adenine substitution however that is incorrect it is guanine--> arginine.Minor erratum
485437Hematology and OncologyPathologyHereditary thrombophiliashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534802/Add "replacement of arginine with glutamine at amino acid 506" in brackets beside Arg506Gln mutation in order to aid in a better understanding of such fact.Clarification to current text
486437Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2202749-overviewMentioning that "Neonatal purpura fulminans is associated with a hereditary deficiency of the anticoagulants protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III" for Protein C or S deficiencyHigh-yield addition to next year
487439Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/203085-overview#a6 (Fact is also supported by Robbins Basic Pathology, tenth edition, 2018, p. 469 as it mentions that mantle cell lymphoma "occurs mainly in men older than 50 years of age"It's mentioned that mantle cell lymphoma primarily affects male adults. This can be misleading as it can reflect the fact that mantle cell lymphoma occurs in adults through out all ages equally. This is not true such that while mantle cell lymphoma can occur at any age, its median age of presentation is 68 years. Suggestion is to change "adults" into "older adults."Clarification to current text
488439Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaNoneDiffuse Large *B*-*c*e*l*l lymphoma has mutations in *Bcl*-2 and *Bcl*-6Mnemonic
489439Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaNot neededBurkitt lymphoma is associated with a hallmark starry sky appearance: StarBurst (Starry sky – Burkitt lymphoma)Mnemonic
490440Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlasma cell dyscrasias.Multiple Myeloma Clinical Features Mnemonic: PYRAMIDS. P (Punched-out lytic bone lesions on x-ray),Y, R (Rouleaux formation),A [AL (1° Amyloidosis)],M (M spike on serum protein electrophoresis),I [Ig light chains in urine (Bence Jones protein)],D [Date ( “clock‑face” chromatin )],S (Susceptibility to infection)Mnemonic
491440Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia?search=waldenstrom&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~91&usage_type=default&display_rank=1WaldenströM MacroglobulineMia -> M spike -> IgMMnemonic
492442Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://web.archive.org/web/20190616072445/http://web2.airmail.net/uthman/cdphobia/cdphobia.htmlThese two flow charts illustrate very well the CD marker expression used for diagnosis of leukemias and lymphomas.High-yield addition to next year
493444Hematology and OncologyPathologyChromosomal translocationshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/197802-overview#a6t(8;21) : AML (good prognosis)High-yield addition to next year
494444Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosisFA 2021Langerhans cell histiocytosis: he plays “100” times with “tennis rackets” to get a “CD-1” from “mesoderm”.Mnemonic
495444Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosisIt’s written that it’s proliferative disorders of langerhans cells but in fact LCH is so named because the morphology and immunophenotype of the pathologic cells resemble Langerhans cells, which are specialized dendritic cells found in the skin and mucosa. However, LCH is derived from myeloid progenitor cells from the bone marrow, and is not derived from the Langerhans cell of the skin.Clarification to current text
496444Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosisFA p. 228 and https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6524701/Mentions "cells express S-100 (mesodermal origin)" but I believe the site of origin for cells expressing S-100 is neural crest cells, which would be ECTODERM, as mentioned in FA p. 228 (Important immunohistochemical stains). Note, I saw someone tried submitting this already and it was marked gray but please consider again - perhaps they didn't specify the right section. These two pages in FA contradict so one is either wrong or needs clarificationMinor erratum
497444Hematology and OncologyLymphocytesSerum tumor markershttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10354916/S100 mesodermal origin tumor marker which is wrong. It’s neural crestMinor erratum
498445Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600013/Treatment for HIT type 2 is direct thrombin inhibitors (argatroban, dabigatran, bivalirudin). My suggested mnemonic is DIRECT HIT for quick recall of an alternate non-heparin anticoagulant.Mnemonic
499446Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyRotator cuff muscleshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rotator-cuff-tendinopathy?search=rotator%20cuff%20anatomy&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H5&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~91&display_rank=1#H5Teres minor and Infraspinautus rotate Externally "TIE"Mnemonic
500446Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyRotator cuff musclesMy brain :DMnemonic to remember that subscapularis is related to internal rotation and adduction: "Please ADD more INto my SUBway sandwich"Mnemonic
501446Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyRotator cuff muscleshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physical-examination-of-the-shoulder?search=empty%20can%20test&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H11044410Supraspinatous tested by empty can test. "Empty can of sup (soup)".Mnemonic
502446Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyThrombolyticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/rivaroxaban-drug-information?topicRef=8265&source=see_linkDirect Factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) drugs ending in -xaban, ban XaMnemonic
503446Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyWarfarinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=EM%2F89478First line for rapid reversal of warfarin anticoagulation is Prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K. Because of its large volume requirement and the delay for blood compatibility tests, FFP is second line and is used only when PCC is not available. I think this should be clarified in the text.Clarification to current text
504447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAnticoagulation reversalhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andexanet_alfaAndexanet alfa is a reversal agent for direct factor Xa inhibitors. (an) indirect (de)coy of (Xa), thus direct inhibitors are (net)ted.Mnemonic
505447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAnticoagulation reversalhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IdarucizumabIdarucizumab: (i)ntravenously given (da)bigatran (r)eversal agent to (u)n(c)over (i)nhibited factor (2)a (u)sing (m)onoclonal (a)nti(b)odyMnemonic
506447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cilostazol-drug-information?search=cilostazol&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~33&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Cilostazol mechanism of action: Inhibition of phosphodiesterase increases cAMP leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.Major erratum
507447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Mechanism of action is mentioned to be inhibition of phosphodiesterase and thus decreasing cAMP. However, phosphodiesterase inhibitor function increases cAMP to decrease platelet aggregation.Minor erratum
508447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195739/Under phosphodiesterase blocker's mechanism of action. The correct mechanism should be Increased in cAMP which leads to cAMP dependent platelet inactivation.Minor erratum
509447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8957237/Cilostazol increases cAMP since it blocks phosphodiesteraseMajor erratum
510447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/cilostazolCilastazol, dipyridamole increase cAMP in cell. in 2021 book it says cAMP is decreased.Major erratum
511447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.dynamed.com/drug-monograph/cilostazol#GUID-D80301DD-22E6-42C2-92DF-30733148C335Cilostazol and dipyridamole are phosphodiesterase inhibitors that INCREASE levels of cAMP in platelets. FA 2021 incorrectly states that these drugs decrease cAMP levels in platelets..Major erratum
512447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsFirst Aid for Step 1 (2021 edition) Page 249Dipyridamole increases cAMP in plateletsMinor erratum
513447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www-uptodate-com.huaryu.kl.oakland.edu/contents/cilostazol-drug-information?search=cilostazol&topicRef=1086&source=see_link#F151413You state that cilostazol and dipyrimadole decrease cAMP in platelets. They actually increase cAMP.Minor erratum
514447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8957237/on the book it say increase but it should be (decrease cAMP on the platelet inhibitor)Mnemonic
515447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136Cilostazol, dipyridamole Block phosphodiesterase and increase cAMP in platelets, not decreaseMinor erratum
516447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsSudo, Toshiki, Hideki Ito, and Yukio Kimura. "Phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) by the anti-platelet drug, cilostazol, in platelets." Platelets 14.6 (2003): 381-390.Cilostazol, dipyridamole: Block phosphodiesterase leading to increased [NOT decreases] cAMP in plateletsMajor erratum
517447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/antiplatelet-therapy-for-the-secondary-prevention-of-ischemic-stroke?search=cilostazol&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~28&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Under Antiplatelets for Cilostazol, dipyridamole it describes the mechanism as decreasing (downward arrow) cAMP in platelets, however they actually increase cAMP leading to decrease platelet aggregation.Minor erratum
518447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6356465/It states that dipyridamole decreases cAMP in platlets, but that is incorrect. cAMP would be increased.Major erratum
519447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Cilostazol inhibits phosphodiesterase III, causing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to increase, which in turn inhibits platelet aggregationMajor erratum
520447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559276/Phosphodiesterase inhibitors row reads: (forgive me that the arrows will not paste into this space): “Block phosphodiesterase (horizontal arrow) (down arrow) cAMP in platelets.” I believe it should say “increases (up arrow)” cAMP levels. Honestly, this is a “honest” mistake (assuming I am correct)—because phosphodiesterase enzymes do decrease cAMP in platelets—but inhibiting or blocking those enzymes, increases cAMP in platelets.Minor erratum
521447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsnot neededUnder PDE inhibitors (cilostazol and dipyridamole) it says that blockage of PDE leads to a decrease in cAMP but it should be Increase in cAMP, which then in tern leads to decrease in platelet aggregationMinor erratum
522447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544363/#:~:text=Mechanism%20of%20Action&text=Cilostazol%20exerts%20its%20action%20by,in%20platelets%20and%20blood%20vessels.The two antiplatelets, cilostazol and dipyridamole, are said to “block phosphodiesterase” which “decreases cAMP in platelets”. While it is true that they block phosphodiesterase, I believe that the result should be an increase in cAMP in platelets because phosphodiesterase breakdown cAMP.Major erratum
523447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136Hello, for page 447 of First aid, you said Cilostazol and dipyradimole decreases Camp but it increase the camp bacuseuse the phosphodiesterase is inhibitied.Clarification to current text
524447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Phosphodiesterase is responsible for degrading cAMP. For this reason, Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, such as Cilostazol and Dipyridamole cause an increase in cAMP in platelets, instead of a decrease, as per FIRST AID 2021.Major erratum
525447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Cilostazol and dipyridamole block phosphodiesterase → increasing cAMP (↑ cAMP) instead of decreasing cAMP in platelets.Minor erratum
526447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/406951_4Cilostazol, dipyridamole: Block phosphodiesterase --> INCREASE (not decrease) cAMP in platelets. Increase in cAMP leads to activation protein kinase A which subsequently prevents platelets aggregation.Major erratum
527447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplatelets.Regarding Cilostazol and Dipyridamole .. the arrow before cAMP should be going up not downMinor erratum
528447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Section states that Cilostazol and Dipyridamole block phosphodiesterase causing a decrease in cAMP in platelets. It should state that there is an increase in cAMPMinor erratum
529447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8957237/Cilostazol and Dipyridamole increase cAMPMajor erratum
530447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/platelet-biology?search=Cilostazol%20camp&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~130&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Block phosphodiesterase "increases" cAMP in platelets, instead of "decrease"Minor erratum
531447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/em0xeg?q=cilostazol#Z7d1a981f00b5c328a891d4c6d44b65fc. AND https://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Cilostazol and dipyridamole increase cAMP (They don't decrease it as mentioned in First Aid 2021)Major erratum
532447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsDescription says it decreases cAMP when it says it increases it on page 249. Also there is no mention of the vasodilator property which differentiates it from the other platelet inhibitors. NBME 27 uses this vasodilatory effect to hint they are referring to Cilostazol compared to other anti-platelet inhibitors; not knowing this, I got the question wrong. I would like to save future students from making the same mistake.I found in the 2021 version of First Aid on page 447, Cilostazol is said to have decreased cAMP in platelets when it is actually increased. I also noticed that the previous year's version did not have this error, instead it said that cAMP was increased and the drug also caused vasodilation. This is vital information that I think should be added back into next years book. I took NMBE practice test 27 yesterday and one of the questions asked for a platelet inhibitor that also vasodilates. The vasodialatory action of this drug is unique and key to differentiating this drug from others. I think the cAMP mistake should be fixed as well as adding the vasodilatory property should be added back to prevent others from getting this question and others like it wrong like I did. Thank you.High-yield addition to next year
533447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/circj/72/11/72_CJ-08-0289/_pdfIncorrectly states that Cilostazol inhibition of phosphodiesterase "DECREASES" cAMP in platelets. Not true, according to page 249, which states cilostazol INCREASES cAMP.Major erratum
534447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544363/Under the mechanism of action of Clistazol/Dipyridamole it is listed as a decrease in cAMP in the platelets. Blockage of PDE leads to an increase in cAMP in the platelets which is responsible for the anti-platelet action.Major erratum
535447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Cilostazol/dipyridamole are phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which leads to increased cAMP in platelets which further inhibits platelet aggregation.” Whereas the first aid 2021 on page 447 under topic antiplatelets, quotes that phosphodiesterase inhibitors like cilostazol *decrease cAMP in platelets*. This is a major error and can lead to significant loss of scores of a student. Kindly rectify it asapMajor erratum
536447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cilostazol-drug-information?search=cilostazol%20MOA&topicRef=1577&source=see_link#F151413Cilostazol, dipyridamole ; Phosphodiesterase inhibitor increases cAMP in platelets.Minor erratum
537447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www-uptodate-com.rossuniversity.idm.oclc.org/contents/cilostazol-drug-information?search=cilostazol%20moa&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~31&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1#F151413As written, "Cilostazol and dipyridamole MOA is by Blocking phosphodiesterase which DECREASES cAMP in platelets." This is incorrect as an inhibition of PDE3 leads to an INCREASE in cAMP in platelets and blood vesselsMinor erratum
538447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10Cilostazol and Dipyrimadole block phosphodiestrerase which INCREASES cAMP. The text says it "DECREASES cAMP"Minor erratum
539447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.04.027The mechanism of Cilostazol & Dipyridamole; Block PDE which would increase cAMP in platelet (not decrease cAMP as written in the text )Minor erratum
540447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544363/the cAMP increases by bocking the phosphodiesterase not decreases as it is writtenMinor erratum
541447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsBlock phosphodiesterase cAMP in platelets: Isn't it supposed to be that it increases cAMP levels?... that is how it is explained also in the Express video.Major erratum
542447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsDipyridamole is stated to inhibit phosphodiesterase increasing cAMP which impairs platelet aggregation in the PDE drug chapter. However on page 447 it states that dipyridamole decreases cAMP.Major erratum
543447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsInhibition of phosphodiesterase causes Increased cAMP and activation of PKA not decreased cAMP as written here.


" The inhibition of PDE3 allows for a rise in cAMP in platelets and blood vessels. Increased concentrations of cAMP subsequently lead to increased concentrations of the active form of protein kinase A (PKA), and increased PKA is directly related to the inhibition of platelet aggregation.[5]"

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544363/#:~:text=Mechanism%20of%20Action&text=Cilostazol%20exerts%20its%20action%20by,in%20platelets%20and%20blood%20vessels.
Major erratum
544447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntiplateletsTypo - This should say leads to INCREASED cAMP (here in this page, it says mechanism of action leads to decreased cAMP). In another page here, page 249, this information is correct.Major erratum
545447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCoagulation disordersCilostazol exerts its action by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity and suppressing cAMP degradation. The inhibition of PDE3 allows for a rise in cAMP in platelets and blood vessels.Cilostazol marked wrong as decrease in cAMP, while it decreases degradation of cAMP, thus increasing cAMPMajor erratum
546447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cilostazol-drug-information?search=cilostazol&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~33&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Cilostazol mechanism of action: Inhibition of phosphodiesterase increases cAMP leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.....my previous submission had wrong page no.Minor erratum
547447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/search?search=cilostazol&sp=0&searchType=PLAIN_TEXT&source=USER_INPUT&searchControl=TOP_PULLDOWN&searchOffset=1&autoComplete=true&language=&max=0&index=1~6&autoCompleteTerm=cilsCilostazol, dipyridamole Block phosphodiesterase by increasing cAMP not decreasing cAMP.Minor erratum
548447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6356465/There is a mistake in the mechanism of action of cilastazole, dipyridamole. it should increase cAMP rather than decreasing it because its phosphodiesterase inhibitor.Minor erratum
549447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8957237/In the 2021 version, it reads that Cilostazol & dipyridamole decrease cAMP in platelets when in fact they increase. Note: it is correct in 2020 but not 2021Minor erratum
550447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxylocal/contents/platelet-biology?search=cilostazol%20MOA&source=search_result&selectedTitle=5~33&usage_type=default&display_rank=4It should read "block phosphodiesterase leading to an increase in cAMP in platelets" not a decrease in cAMP, it is also already correctly stated this way on page 272Minor erratum
551447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorsSketchy Micro and GooglePhosphodiesterase inhibitors increase cAMP in plateletsClarification to current text
552447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/pletal-cilostazol-342136#10In the Antiplatelet drugs: cilostazol, dipyridamole, the mechanism of these drugs there is written as phosphodiesterase blocking leading to decreased level of cAMP. But I think there should have been "increased level of cAMP".Major erratum
553447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB01166The text says that cilostazol decreases cAMP in platelets by blocking phosphodiesterase. However cilostazol increases cAMP in platelets by blocking phosphodiesterase, which leads to inhibition of platelet aggregation.Minor erratum
554447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544363/Cilostazol is a phopshodiesterase inhibitor and thus should increase cAMP, contrary to what stated in this pageMinor erratum
555447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorsCheck any other med resource.It says that cilostazol and dipyridamole block phosphodiesterase and decrease cAMP in platelets. That’s not true. It increases cAMP and therefore blocks platelet aggregationMajor erratum
556447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www-uptodate-com.naharia-ez.medlcp.tau.ac.il/contents/platelet-biology?search=dipyridamol&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H25&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=5~107&display_rank=5#H25Dipyridamole (Phosphodiesterase inhibitor) *increase* and not decrease the levels of cAMP in the platelets.Clarification to current text
557447Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyNEW FACTBrachial plexus on p448The axillary nerve is one of the branches of the posterior cord (same as the radial nerve/C5-T1). Since the posterior cord comes from all posterior divisions of C5-T1, why the roots of axillary nerve are particularly C5-C6?Major erratum
558447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyNEW FACTFirst Aid 2020 Pg 246; UpToDate "Cilostazol: Drug information": https://www-uptodate-com.dartmouth.idm.oclc.org/contents/cilostazol-drug-information/print?search=cilostazol&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~34&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1first Aid 2021 says "Block phosphodiesterase decrease cAMP in platelets" while first Aid 2020 says " In platelets: increase cAMP"; can you clarify which one is correct and/or why there was a change?Clarification to current text
559447Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyNEW FACTRefer to page 249 in first aid 2021Cilostazol and dipyridamole increase camp concentration in plateletsMajor erratum
560448Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMotoneuron action potential to muscle contractionNot neededI band is thIn, A band is fAt, M line is in the Middle (Zs and Hs are embedded in their respective shape)Mnemonic
561449Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntitumor antibioticsfirst aid book 2021 pg 42Dactinomycin inhibits RNA polymerase in eukaryotes and prokaryotesClarification to current text
562449Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntitumor antibioticshttps://www.drugs.com/mtm/bleomycin.htmlBleomycin remembered as BleoLYSIN (causing break in DNA strands) to differentiate it from Busulfan, which is an ULKylating agent..Mnemonic
563451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip musclesN/AWhat are the muscles used to flex the hip? (Tensor fascia lata, Rectus femoris, Iliosopas, Pectineus, and Sartorius) – "Felix TRIPS when he doesn't flex his hip muscles"Mnemonic
564451Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAlkylating agentsFirst AidAdverse effects of triazenes (Procarbazine) can be remembered as follows (mnemonic letters are capitalized): Procarbazine and Dacarbazine Treat lymphoma but cause Leukemia (P - Pulmonary toxicity, D - Disulfiram-like reaction, T - tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis, L - Leukemia)Mnemonic
565451RenalPathologyKidney stoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations-of-struvite-stonesStruvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) kidney stones are shaped like a S-arcophagusMnemonic
566452Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAnticancer monoclonal antibodieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ipilimumab-drug-information?search=ipilimumab&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~104&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Ipilimumab can lead to fatigue and aplastic anemia.High-yield addition to next year
567452Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTamoxifenhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/managing-the-side-effects-of-tamoxifen-and-aromatase-inhibitors?search=tamoxifen-drugs-&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H4Tamoxifen an its adverse thromboembolic events: ThromboxifenMnemonic
568452Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTopoisomerase inhibitorsMnemonics do not need any reference i guess.“I (I, roman 1) can push you to (II) side” With highlighting ‘can’ and ‘side’ as name of topoisomerase 1 inhibitors are Irinotecan and topotecan which have -can in their ends so it’s a way to remember that 1 inhibitors are those which have ‘can’ in their end. Similarly for etoposide and teniposide which are topoisomerase 2 inhibitors and have -side in their end. As the boards ask directly names of 1 and 2 inhibitors, this mnemonic can help us to remember the examples straight in our mind.Mnemonic
569452Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyNEW FACTfirst aid 442topoisomerase 2 inhibitors ( etoposide and teniposide ) both have 2 iMnemonic
570453Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAnticancer small molecule inhibitorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3606625/Erlotinib, and other EGFR inhibitors are also used for Glioblastoma, Breast and Prostate cancer.High-yield addition to next year
571453Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAnticancer small molecule inhibitorshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1044579X20302686Imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib can cause hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as an adverse effectClarification to current text
572457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1141515-overviewUlnar nerve lesion does not affect the thumb. First aid 2021 mentions ulnar nerve lesion causes thumb adduction.Major erratum
573458Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyBrachial plexus lesionshttps://step1.medbullets.com/msk/107018/brachial-plexus"Remember To Drink Cold Beer" (Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches) instead of Randy Travis since its not so easy to remember the name for the mnemonic.Mnemonic
574458Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-thoracic-outlet-syndromes#H455545323The trunks of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery pass between the anterior and middle scalene muscles while the subclavian vein courses anteromedial to the scalene triangle. Cervical ribs and anomalous first ribs may compress the scalene triangle.High-yield addition to next year
575460Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyDistortions of the handSelfMnemonic for nerve lesion if clinical presentation given. Patient presenting with either pope’s hand or okay sign. Use mnemonic dr claw (d- lesion distal,r-hand at rest,claw-damage to nerve suppling clawing fingers) and PAS(P- proximal lesion,A- actively making fist,S-damage to nerve suppling fingers which are straight )Mnemonic
576460Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyDistortions of the handmnemonicYou can remember that a lesion of the ulnar nerve results in the "OK gesture" via the mnemonic "It's Ul good" because saying "its all good" is synonymous with saying "its ok"Mnemonic
577461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip musclesnot neededSTRIP to flex. Highlight the first letter of each muscle and flex in flexors.Mnemonic
578462Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyLower extremity nerveshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/meralgia-paresthetica-lateral-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment?search=meralgia%20paresthetica&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~23&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Meralgia paresthetica : Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve leads to tingling, numbness and burning pain in the outer part of the thigh.Clarification to current text
579465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://nyulangone.org/conditions/retinoblastoma-in-children/diagnosis https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/412746-overview#a1Retinoblastoma presents with high calcium deposits.High-yield addition to next year
580465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologySigns of lumbosacral radiculopathyNo needDisc herniates into spinal canal (where the spina cord is )not into the central canal (which is in the spinal cord)Minor erratum
581465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueNeoplasiaNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20953407/Ewing sarcoma previously was thought to be from neuroectodermal origin but now is confirmed that is a mesenchymal stem cell neoplasm.Clarification to current text
582465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-lumbosacral-radiculopathy-pathophysiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis#H24Straight leg raise, the contralateral straight leg raise, and the reverse straight leg raise (also referred to as femoral stretch) are positive in radicular pain.High-yield addition to next year
583467Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyTypes of skeletal muscle fibersFA 2021 p467Please highlight "II" in "Type II" to match current mnemonic .Clarification to current text
584468Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMuscle proprioceptorsFA 2021 p468Please remove highlight from ltter "l" in "length" because it dosen't match any mnemonic.Clarification to current text
585469Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACTNot neededOsteoBlast Builds bone by secreting collagen and catalyzing mineralization in alkaline “Basic” (also starts with B same as osteoBlast) environment. OsteoClast dissolves (“crushes”) bone in “aCidic” environment (aCidic - osteoClast)Mnemonic
586470Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyWrist and hand injurieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431063/Guyon canal syndrome is also associated with fracture / displacement of the hook of the hamate.High-yield addition to next year
587471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon knee conditionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury?search=unhappy%20triad&topicRef=88813&source=see_link#H8It says unhappy triad is due to a "laterally directed force." This is not true. The unhappy triad is actually due to a medially-directed force on the lateral aspect of the leg (valgus force). I recommend having two legs visible (instead of one) in the accompanying diagram to further illustrate this.Minor erratum
588471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon knee conditionsFirst Aid 2021p464 (has the definition of a valgus force)The diagram for the Unhappy Triad is very confusing. In the description it says that the injury is due to a lateral directed valgus force on the planted foot, but the diagram shows an arrow representing the valgus force pushing on the knee in the medial direction (varus force). The foot is more laterally displaced then the knee but this diagram needs to be other corrected or show the valgus force not on the knee but instead on the foot.Minor erratum
589471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon knee conditionsNo needIn the picture, the force is shown is varus not valgus. The whole picture should be changed because te force should be lateral (this force is medial and you can know that by observing the feet)Major erratum
590471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon knee conditionshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/826792-clinicalUnder unhappy triad the mention of the direction of force is incorrect, it is indeed a lateral force(as said in the 20th edition), but directed medially. You’ve updated the in 21st edition to say ‘laterally directed force’, which isn’t correct. To explain this is more commonly seen in footballers, where the injury is from the lateral aspect, towards the medial side of the body. So to speak it is a ‘valgus force’ which is medially directed.Minor erratum
591471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717300/Inclusion of patellar fractures and its symptoms - Cannot extend knee against gravity. Patient develops acute swelling and a palpable gap in the extensor mechanism.High-yield addition to next year
592471Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/826792-clinicalUnder unhappy triad the mention of the direction of force is incorrect, it is indeed a lateral force(as said in the 20th edition), but directed medially. You’ve updated the in 21st edition to say ‘laterally directed force’, which isn’t correct. To explain this is more commonly seen in footballers, where the injury is from the lateral aspect, towards the medial side of the body. So to speak it is a ‘valgus force’ which is medially directed.Major erratum
593472Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionsUW 19911Dupuytren Contracture - Condition caused by fibroblastic proloferation and thickening of the superficial palmar fascia. Tipically involves the fascia at thr base of the middle ring and little fingers. Unknown etiology; most frequently seen in males >50 years of Northern European Ancestry.High-yield addition to next year
594473Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionshttps://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2021_FAS1_Foreword-2.pdfLack of person-first language: "obese young adolescents"Spelling/formatting
595475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteitis deformanshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC546434/Osteoclasts are markedly increased in number and size and can contain up to 100 nuclei.High-yield addition to next year
596477Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyEmbryologic derivativeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathology-and-molecular-genetics-of-the-ewing-sarcoma-family-of-tumors/abstract/44Ewing Sarcoma is from mesenchymal stem cell neoplasm, from uptodate plus mentioned in UWMinor erratum
597477Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsFA itselfA mnemonic for osteosarcoma; think of osteo-SOCK-oma: Sunburst (x-ray), Osteosarcoma; Codman triangle, Knee (regio often affected)Mnemonic
598477Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-pathology-and-molecular-genetics-of-the-ewing-sarcoma-family-of-tumors/printAnaplastic cells were previously thought to be of neuroectodermal origin but are of mesenchymal stem cell originMajor erratum
599478Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisUW 7556Osteoarthritis presents with fissuring and flanking of the articular cartilage whereas Rheumatoid arthritis presents with SYNOVIAL HYPERPLASIA. Current text in first aid points the synovial hyperthrophy to the Ostheoarthritis diagram while on the Rheumatoid arthritis diagram is not mentioned.Clarification to current text
600478Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisFirst AidBouchard nodes at PIP and Heberden nodes at DIP. (B is PROXIMAL to H in the alphabet)Mnemonic
601478Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritishttps://www-uptodate-com.rossuniversity.idm.oclc.org/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-felty-syndrome?search=felty%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H542650413Felty Syndrome: SANTA - Splenomegaly, Anemia, Neutropenia, Thrombocytopenia, Arthritis (Rheumatoid)Mnemonic
602478Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisno reference needed just a kind mnemonic suggestionOsteoarthritis happens at the end of life, end of day and on end of fingers. Referring to the predisposing factor of age, its presentation usually after usage (end of day) and its affection of the DIP and PIP.Mnemonic
603479Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCalcium pyrophosphate deposition diseasehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1001073/Calcium pyrophosphate disease is associated with hypothyroidismHigh-yield addition to next year
604479Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyGouthttps://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225080698Von Gierkes diease has been listed as a cause of gout due to overproduction of uric acid, it should also be listed as under excertion. The hypoglycemia due to glucose 6 phosphatase deficency leads to lactic acidemia whcih competes with uric acid secretion at URAT1 transporter in the kidney.Minor erratum
605480Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordershttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/23181864_Oral_lesions_in_patients_with_pemphigus_vulgaris_and_bullous_pemphigoid/figures?lo=1Pemigus Vulgaris occurs in middle-aged (not older adults) compared to bullous pemphigoidMinor erratum
606480Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-bullous-pemphigoid-and-mucous-membrane-pemphigoidMnemonic: “Bullous pemphigoid is like a bull. Bulls are heavy and strong.” Explanation: In Bullous pemphigoid (“Bulls”), IgG antibodies attack hemidesmosomes (“heavy” rhymes with “hemi”). Blisters are tense, not flaccid (they are “strong”).Mnemonic
607481Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/reactive-arthritis?search=Reactive%20Arthritis%20&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~141&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Reactive arthritisMnemonic
608483Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPolymyositis/dermatomyositisI'm not a Cat....I like StonksIn Polymyositis (endomysial inflammation = muscles are deeper to skin "endo-") while in Dermatositis (perimysial inflammation = think of "Peri-" skin surrounds muscles also think "Derma = skin and we have 4 limbs so it's CD4+ mediated"Mnemonic
609484Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVasculitidesDVF go BrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrBehcet syndrome is a Triad of U's: you can highlight U in each word with red aphthous "U"lcers genital "U"lcers "U"veitisMnemonic
610484Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVasculitideshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10817557/IL-6 is an important driver of inflammation in Giant cell (temporal) arteritis and correlates with disease activity.High-yield addition to next year
611484Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVasculitideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034467/#:~:text=Bilateral%2C%20nonexudative%20conjunctivitis%20typically%20begins,Rash%20tends%20to%20be%20polymorphic.In Kawasaki Disease , Conjunctival injection should be changed to non exudative conjunctivitisClarification to current text
612484Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVasculitideshttps://pancreas.imedpub.com/hydropic-gallbladder-in-three-patients-with-poorly-controlled-diabetes-mellitus-what-constitutes-optimal-management.php?aid=4928Kawasaki Disease causes Hydropic Gall BladderHigh-yield addition to next year
613485Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNEW FACTN/AThe immunofluorescence images of c-ANCA and p-ANCA can be differentiated by the fact that p-ANCA looks like popcorn (both start with a p) and c-ANCA is a shaped like a circle (both start with a c)Mnemonic
614486Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNeuromuscular junction diseasesnot neededL comes before/pre M in the alphabet - Lambert-Eaton (L - presynaptic) - Myasthenia gravis (M - postsynaptic)Mnemonic
615487Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin layersno link neededthe deepest layer of the epidermis is called „Stratum basale“ not „stratum basalis“ -> stratum is a neuter noun, basale is the neuter form of the adjective basalisMinor erratum
616491Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyCommon skin disordersNelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Temporal changes in gene expression in the skin of patients treated with isotretinoin provide insight into its mechanism of action. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May;1(3):177-87. doi: 10.4161/derm.1.3.8258. PMID: 20436886; PMCID: PMC2835911.Acne treatment: Retinoids (work by normalizing keratinization and by decreasing epithelial cohesiveness)High-yield addition to next year
617492Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyVascular tumors of skinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aids-related-kaposi-sarcoma-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=kaposi%20sarcoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H865064605 ///////// https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-bartonella-infections-in-persons-with-hiv?search=kaposi%20sarcoma&topicRef=5512&source=see_link#H28105043 /////////// https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=ID%2F62100&topicKey=ID%2F16504&search=kaposi%20sarcoma&source=outline_linkThe differentiation between Kaposi sarcoma and Bacillary angiomatosis IS NOT based on the types of cellular infiltrate, but rather with a Warthin-Starry stain proving Bartonella within the lesion. UpToDate & Robbins Pathology also mention that the histologic findings in Kaposi sarcoma are "whorls of spindle-shaped cells with LEUKOCYTIC infiltration and neovascularization with aberrant proliferation of small vessels", not lymphocytic only/always. Staining is way more reliable.Major erratum
618492Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVascular tumors of skinnone neededstrawberry vs cherry hemangioma age predilection - strawberry shortcake cartoon character (children) vs maraschino cherries (only for adults)Mnemonic
619495Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyLower extremity ulcershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=CARD%2F63577&topicKey=EM%2F6485&source=see_linkThe explanation of a neuropathic ulcer is traditionally "punched out appearance", not arterial ulcers as stated in the current text.Clarification to current text
620497Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyRule of 9’shttps://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/torso - https://www.uptodate.com/contents/assessment-and-classification-of-burn-injury#H759874080The word "torso" is a synonym for "trunk" and involves both thorax and abdomen combined, so the entire torso covers 36% of body surface area, not 18%.Minor erratum
621499Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyArachidonic acid pathwaysNoneCOX-1 inhibition -> antithrombotic. COX-2 inhibition -> thrombotic. If you're the only 1 to get cox blocked you bleed out. If 2 of you get cox blocked you can stick together.Mnemonic
622500Neurology and Special SensesImmune ResponsesImmune system organsUWORKDUworld has been asking several questions about immune privlidgeHigh-yield addition to next year
623500Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIschemic brain disease/strokeNo needIn ischemic stroke, remove acute blockage of vessels and replace it by Ischemia (Because in the description below, hypo perfusion is a cause of stroke and that doesn't fit into acute blockage)Clarification to current text
624501Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCerebral perfusionhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/brain-hypoxia https://www.headway.org.uk/about-brain-injury/individuals/types-of-brain-injury/hypoxic-and-anoxic-brain-injury/#:~:text=support%20from%20Headway-,What%20is%20hypoxic%20brain%20injury%20%2F%20anoxic%20brain%20injury%3F,about%20four%20minutes%20without%20oxygen.Cerebral anoxia (hypoxia) is maximally tolerated for 3-4 minutes.High-yield addition to next year
625501Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyGout drugshttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372903For Acute Drugs: Gout (Glucocorticoids), Never (NSAIDs), Comes (Colchicine)Mnemonic
626501Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyGout drugshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548599/Probenecid is a sulfa drug and thus contraindicated in patients with sulfa allergy. The other sulfa drugs already have this addition however probenecid does not. I believe it would be a helpful addition to the gout drugs section.High-yield addition to next year
627502Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyNEW FACTMeInhibiting (Infliximab) TNF-a (Adalimumad) Erupts (Etanercept) Caseating (Certolizumab) Granulomas (Golimumab)Mnemonic
628504Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologyCentral and peripheral nervous systems originsNot needed per se, but can refer to any embryology textbook for clarification1) Under this topic is mentioned that the Neuroepithelia in neural tube gives rise to CNS neurons, CNS glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells); while the neural crest cells give rise to the PNS Neurons. But to clarify that although the Skeletal motor neurons are a part of the PNS, they are derived from the basal plate(part of neural tube) and that ultimately forms the anterior horn. A clarification for that would be better as this could mislead a reader to feel that all PNS neurons are derived from the neural crest which isn't correctMinor erratum
629504Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-genodermatoses-an-overview?search=waardenburg&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H24&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~14&display_rank=1#H24Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder in which abnormal distribution of melanocytes during embryogenesis results in patchy areas of depigmentation, particularly of the hair (white forelock) and skin. Other distinctive features include abnormal iris pigmentation (heterochromia irides) and a broad nasal root, secondary to lateral displacement of the inner canthi of the eyes. Congenital deafness, cleft lip and palate and neural tube defects (eg, spina bifida, myelomeningocele) have also been associated.High-yield addition to next year
630505Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologyHoloprosencephalyN/AIt says it may be seen with "maternal alcohol use" which is inconsistent with First Aid's current gender inclusive language. Change to "fetal alcohol syndrome."Clarification to current text
631507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerve reflexeshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/accommodation-reflex https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542189/#:~:text=On%20a%20cellular%20level%2C%20the,oculomotor%20and%20Edinger-Westphal%20nuclei.Accommodation reflex afferent by II cranial nerve and afferent by III cranial nerve.High-yield addition to next year
632507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerve reflexeshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/glabellar-reflex https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/487634Glabellar reflex afferent by V cranial nerve and efferent by VII cranial nerve.High-yield addition to next year
633507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerve reflexeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1836134-overview#a1 https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/vestibulo-ocular-reflexVestibulo-ocular reflex afferent by VIII cranial nerve and efferent by III, IV, VI + cranial nerves.High-yield addition to next year
634507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyTongue developmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507782/#:~:text=Taste%20to%20the%20anterior%20two,trigeminal%20nerve%20(CN%20V3).2 Good Mnemonics for taste and sensory: Taste :Finger-licking (VII, Facial), Good (IX, Glossopharyngeal), Vegetables (X, Vagus), Sensory: Touching (V3, Trigeminal), Green (IX, Gloss), Vegetables (X, Vagus)Mnemonic
635507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyTongue developmentnot applicableIn the labelled image of the tongue under the Tongue Development section, the foramen cecum is labelled as "foramen caecum." I know this is an acceptable spelling, but it is inconsistent with how you spell it throughout the rest of the text so it cannot be found when searching the document or index for "foramen cecum"Spelling/formatting
636509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeuron action potentialFirst aid 2021Number 3- “gate “is written twice for no reason.Spelling/formatting
637509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeuron action potentialhttps://books.google.com/books?id=A8H_9S4E0I4C&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780443057793500094, https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ap.html#:~:text=This%20means%20that%20some%20event,no%20action%20potential%20will%20fire.The threshold potential is listed at -40 mV; I believe this should be -55 mV.Minor erratum
638509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySensory receptorshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32647077/"MeiSSner corpuscles on hairleSS skin" first aid often bolds letters in red to facilitate comprehension or linkage to relations in this case making the double s (SS) on meiSSner and hairleSS would facilitate the comprehensionSpelling/formatting
639509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySensory receptorsmnemonicMeissners (MeISSners) corpuscle is located on hairless skin → it is MISSing HAIRMnemonic
640509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySodium-potassium pumpspellingreads "K activation gate gate opens" and there should only be one "gate"Spelling/formatting
641510Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyChromatolysishttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/immunology-and-microbiology/nissl-substanceCurrently reads "dispersion of Nissl substance throughout cytoplasm" but could be clarified by instead stating that "Nissl disperses throughout cytoplasm and is no longer visible on stain"Minor erratum
642510Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNeurotransmitter changes with diseasenot relatedGABA= grab a cucumber ; Serotonin = Sr. Raphe ; Norepinephrine = NEw lookMnemonic
643511Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/hippocampal-sclerosis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26060898/Hippocampal sclerosis can be a good example for hippocampaus in common brain lesions.High-yield addition to next year
644511Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyMeningesnot needed.The picture "referring to the meninges" shows shadows, as the names are unclear , please fix it.Minor erratum
645511Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyMultiple sclerosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-in-adults?search=oligoclonal%20bands%20and%20MS&source=search_result&selectedTitle=6~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=6. This shows that oligoclonal bands can be present in other diseases of the CSF, and thus the presence of oligoclonal bands aids in MS diagnosis but is not diagnostic by itselfOligoclonal bands are highly suggestive of MS especially if found in the CSF and absent in the serum, but there presence doesn't provide a definitive diagnosis of MS.Clarification to current text
646511Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyVomiting centerN/AIn the vomiting center paragraph , they mention the five receptors of the chemoreceptor trigger zone: Muscarinic, Dopamine, Neurokinin , 5HT Serotonin, and Histamine receptors. I came up with a mnemonic to make it simple: “Most Douches Have 5 Neurons” M- muscarinic D- Dopamine H- Histamine 5- 5HT serotonin N- neurokininMnemonic
647513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIntracranial hemorrhagehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/epidural-hematoma#:~:text=Epidural%20hematomas%20are%20most%20often,an%20associated%20venous%20sinus%20injury. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518982/ https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/824029-overviewEpidural haematoma is commonly accompanied with temporal bone fracture caused by direct trauma to the temple region.High-yield addition to next year
648513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIntracranial hemorrhagehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/dementia-pugilisticaPunch drunk syndrome can be a result out of frequent subdural hematoma especially in elderly patients.High-yield addition to next year
649513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIntracranial hemorrhagehttps://www.healthline.com/health/epidural-hematoma#treatment https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1137065-treatmentMild epidural hematoma can be managed with hyper-osmotic agents as, mannitol, glycerol and hypertonic solution. In severe cases surgical intervention is needed such as craniotomy or aspiration.High-yield addition to next year
650513Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIntracranial hemorrhagehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22137800/cavernous hemangioma are vascular malformations that happen most commonly intraparanchymal not subarachnoid. Got this question wrong on world bc first aid says atrivenous malformations are subarachnoid hemorrage not intraparanchymal.Clarification to current text
651514Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyCommon cranial nerve lesionsNo needIn upper motor neuron lesion, mention that sensory function and salivation and lacrimation are intact because these are supplied by other nucleiHigh-yield addition to next year
652514Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDopaminergic pathwayshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279126/Note for Tuberoinfundibular pathway: "Tuberal hypothalamus = part of hypothalamus near pituitary stalk; infundibulum = pituitary stalk; DA released from hypothalamus to act on pituitary (DOWN ARROW prolactin)"Clarification to current text
653514Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDopaminergic pathwaysN/ANigroSTRIDEatal pathway affects your movementMnemonic
654514Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyLimbic systemnot neededHis Emotions Caused A lot of Mean Attitude -> the limbic system consists of Hippocampus, Entorhinal cortex, Cingulate gyrus, Amygdalae, Mammillary bodies, Anterior thalamic nucleiMnemonic
655514Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyLimbic systempersonal mnemonicEBOLA - initials corresponding to the functions of the limbic systemMnemonic
656515Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCerebellumFA 2021 515Remove highlight from "structures" in "medial structures" , it is not needed.Spelling/formatting
657515Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCerebellumFA 2021 p515Why is this phrase "Tests: finger-to-nose" highlighted ? please remove highlight from it.Spelling/formatting
658517Neurology and Special SensesPathologyIschemic brain disease/strokeNo needIn ischemic stroke, remove acute blockage of vessels and replace it by Ischemia (Because in the description below, hypoxia is a cause of stroke and that doesn't always fit into acute blockage)Clarification to current text
659517Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyMotor neuron signsNo needThe row of babinski should be changed. Babinski sign is when there is dorsiflexion, so we don't say positive or negative. we say normal plantar reflex or babinski sign.Clarification to current text
660517Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1138728-overviewIn status epilepticus, add recurrent seizures without full recovery in betweenHigh-yield addition to next year
661517Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/seizures-and-epilepsy-in-children-classification-etiology-and-clinical-features?search=focal%20seizures&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H3&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=3~150&display_rank=3#H3Since 2017, the classification of seizures has changed. Among these changes is important to note that seizures are not only divided into Focal and Generalized seizures since a third division has been added which is the "Unknown". It would be great if you added to the text and mention that it exists. Also, the figure can be updated with more information and examples. Uptodate has new information about this, so I attach the link.High-yield addition to next year
662517Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://www.epilepsy.com/article/2016/12/2017-revised-classification-seizuresAccording to 2017 Revised Classification of Seizures , Complex partial seizures are now focal onset impaired awareness seizures , Simple partial seizures are now focal aware seizuresHigh-yield addition to next year
663518Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCerebral arteries—cortical distributionNeuroanatomy through Clinical Cases - Hal Blumenfeld - 2nd edition - P. 396Anterior portion of corpus callosum is supplied by ACA, middle portion by MCA, and posterior portion by PCA. In First Aid, it seems as though ACA supplies most of the corpus callosum.Minor erratum
664518Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadachesnot neededMigraines, cluster headaches and tension-type headaches are primary headaches. Other secondary causes of headache include subarachnoid hemorrhage (“worst headache of my life”), meningitis, hydrocephalus, neoplasia, giant cell (temporal) arteritis.Clarification to current text
665519Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDural venous sinuseshttps://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Ftopics%2Fneuroscience%2Fsuperficial-cerebral-veins&psig=AOvVaw2i5xiHtDCGKBruYe7mI6BK&ust=1613582007667000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAMQjB1qFwoTCPifoMbz7u4CFQAAAAAdAAAAABArArrow in dural venous sinus blood flow is pointing wrong way (from transverse sinus to confluence of thee sinusesSpelling/formatting
666519Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDural venous sinuseshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30242780/I think the arrow on the transverse sinus should be pointing the opposite direction.Minor erratum
667519Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDural venous sinusesnot neededBottom arrow in illustration should be downwards, as confluence of sinuses drains into transverse sinusMinor erratum
668520Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyVentricular systemhttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/WK0P2S?q=dural%20venous%20sinuses#Z7b75e39d86336187cfd3a147125bcf75CSF made by choroid plexuses located in the lateral and fourth ventricles should be changed to include 3rd ventricles as wellMinor erratum
669521Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerve nucleiPage 506 "Nucleus aMbiguus: CN IX, X, XI""Medulla—nuclei of CN IX, X, XII" Should CN XI (cranial portion) be included too?Minor erratum
670522Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerves and arteriesresearchgate.netIn the current picture, the cranial nerve VI is going in between AICA and Basilary artery; As per other anatomical pictures and resource, the path of CN VI is in between AICA and labyrinthine artery (slightly above from the current position).Minor erratum
671522Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerves and vessel pathwaysN/A - spelling/formatting suggestionThe arrows on the image on the right side are hard to follow because they are so close together. I think readers would benefit if the arrows alternated color (for example every other arrow is either black and gray or black and green) so that it is easier to understand the labeled cranial nerves and associated vessels.Clarification to current text
672523Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerveshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_anatomy_mnemonicsOn (olfactory) On (optic) On (Oculomotor) They (Trochlear) Traveled (Trigeminal) And (Abducent) Found (Facial) Voldemort (Vestibulocochlear) Guarding (Glossopharyngeal) Very (Vagus) Ancient (Accessory Spinal) Horcruxes (Hypoglossal)Mnemonic
673524Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyMastication muscleshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549799/Mute (Close Jaw): Medial Pterygoid. Laugh (Open Jaw):Lateral PterygoidMnemonic
674524Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyMastication muscleshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538486/Mute,Muffled,Tongue-tied (CLOSE jaw):Masseter,Medial Pterygoid,Temporalis. Laugh(OPEN jaw):Lateral PterygoidMnemonic
675524Neurology and Special SensesPathologyOther demyelinating and dysmyelinating disordersNot neededBottle calves = inverted champagne (MARIE like her CHAmpagne upside down)Mnemonic
676527Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/data/interactiveguide/physexam/neuro/reflexesanatomy.htmlBrachioradialis reflex should have C6 in bold and Biceps reflex C5 in bold seperately.Minor erratum
677527Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/the25/tendon.htmlPlease add Bold C5 biceps reflex and C6 for Brachioradialis reflex seperately.Minor erratum
678528Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyBrain stem—ventral viewhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559158/Weber Syndrome is not mentioned in the brainstem lesions. I made a mnemonic that can help.Mnemonic
679528Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyIschemic brain disease/strokehttps://n.neurology.org/content/90/15_Supplement/P3.251Frontal eye fields Destructive lesions (eg, MCA stroke): eyes look toward brain lesion (ie, away from side of hemiplegia),THE OPPISIT SHOULD HAPPEN ,as the FEF stroke the eye will look to the side of the lesion and to hemiplegic sideMajor erratum
680529Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesions1. Zakeri A, Jadhav AP, Sullenger BA, Nimjee SM. Ischemic stroke in COVID-19-positive patients: an overview of SARS-CoV-2 and thrombotic mechanisms for the neurointerventionalist [published online ahead of print, 2020 Dec 9]. J Neurointerv Surg. 2020;neurintsurg-2020-016794. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016794 2. NEJM Journal Watch: Summaries of and commentary on original medical and scientific articles from key medical journals. Jwatch.org. https://www.jwatch.org/na51499/2020/05/27/ischemic-stroke-young-adults-presenting-with-sars-cov-2. 3. Yaghi S, Ishida K, Torres J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System [published correction appears in Stroke. 2020 Aug;51(8):e179]. Stroke. 2020;51(7):2002-2011. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030335 4. Valderrama EV, Humbert K, Lord A, Frontera J, Yaghi S. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection and Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2020;51(7):e124-e127. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030153 5. Markus HS, Brainin M. COVID-19 and stroke-A global World Stroke Organization perspective. Int J Stroke. 2020;15(4):361-364. doi:10.1177/1747493020923472 6. Fifi JT, Mocco J. COVID-19 related stroke in young individuals. Lancet Neurol. 2020;19(9):713-715. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30272-6 7. Bhatia R, Pedapati R, Komakula S, Srivastava MVP, Vishnubhatla S, Khurana D. Stroke in Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review. J Stroke. 2020;22(3):324-335. doi:10.5853/jos.2020.02264 8. Wang Z, Yang Y, Liang X, et al. COVID-19 Associated Ischemic Stroke and Hemorrhagic Stroke: Incidence, Potential Pathological Mechanism, and Management. Front Neurol. 2020;11:571996. Published 2020 Oct 27. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.571996 9. Jillella DV, Janocko NJ, Nahab F, et al. Ischemic stroke in COVID-19: An urgent need for early identification and management. PLoS One. 2020;15(9):e0239443. Published 2020 Sep 18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239443 10. COVID-19 linked to worse stroke outcomes. UCL News. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/2020/nov/covid-19-linked-worse-stroke-outcomes. Published 2021. Accessed January 31, 2021. 11. Can COVID-19 Cause a Stroke?. Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/can-covid-19-cause-a-stroke/. Published 2021. Accessed January 31, 2021. 12. Stroke May Be First Symptom of COVID-19 in Younger Patients. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/938344. Published 2021. Accessed January 31, 2021. 13. Hughes S. Strokes Linked to COVID-19 Are More Severe, More Likely Embolic. Medscape. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/931207. Published 2021. Accessed January 31, 2021.Cryptogenic stroke and Ischemic stroke can occur due to severe COVID-19 infection, which is caused by rapid increased hypercoagulability.High-yield addition to next year
681529Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon brain lesionshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33298508/ https://www.jwatch.org/na51499/2020/05/27/ischemic-stroke-young-adults-presenting-with-sars-cov-2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32432996/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32396456/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32310017/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32822622/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33053948/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33193019/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32946512/ https://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/2020/nov/covid-19-linked-worse-stroke-outcomes. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/can-covid-19-cause-a-stroke/ https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/938344 https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/931207Cryptogenic stroke and Ischemic stroke can occur due to severe COVID-19 infection, which is caused by rapid increased hypercoagulability.High-yield addition to next year
682531Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyIntracranial hemorrhage[E] is figure 2 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2590611/Dr. Iyer is a ScholarRx employee who has this comment about how we describe figure E: The book refers to [E] as bleeding due to saccular aneurysm. The image actually shows postop bleeding after resection of a brain tumor.'"Major erratum
683531Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyIntracranial hemorrhage[E] is figure 2 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2590611/Dr. Iyer is a ScholarRx employee who submitted the following new description for E and F: E. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (hyperdense "starfish" shaped lesion indicated by red arrow) on non-contrast CT, axial section, "Brain" Window. F. Intraventricular hemorrhage (hyperdense lesions indicated by red arrows) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (hyperdensity filling the R cerebral sulci) on non-contrast CT, axial section, "subdural" window. Both images taken intraoperatively after surgical glioblastoma removal (R craniotomy and resection site seen on panel E in the R temporal lobe).Major erratum
684531Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyIntracranial hemorrhagehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1163977-overviewMnemonic for Epidural hematoma: "Watch the EPIc MMA fight through a BICONVEX lens". The EPIc is for epidural; the MMA is for middle meningeal artery; the BICONVEX lens is for the biconvex image on CT scan. Mnemonic for Subdural hematoma: "The SUB CROSSES under the BRIDGE under the CRESCENT moon." The SUB (as in submarine) is for subdural; the CROSSES is for crosses suture lines; the BRIDGE is for bridging veins; the CRESCENT is for the crescent shaped hemorrhage on CT scan.Mnemonic
685532Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyCommon cranial nerve lesionsNo needIn upper motor neuron lesion, mention that sensory function and salivation and lacrimation are intact because these are supplied by other nucleiClarification to current text
686532Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyEffects of strokesNo need/ any neuroanatomy book/ Moore clinically oriented anatomy cranial nerves sectionIn Anterior inferior cerebellar artery, replace facial nucleus by facial nuclei because the facial nucleus is pure motor, but other nuclei that supply the facial nerve such as solitary nucleus (mentioned in the anatomy and physiology section)supplies sensory input,and there other nuclei such as superior salivary nucleus which supplies the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.Clarification to current text
687532Neurology and Special SensesPathologyEffects of strokesN/AAICA is spelled backwards in fACIAl nucleusMnemonic
688533Neurology and Special SensesPathologyEffects of strokesN/APikachu can't chew – PICA strokes result in dysphagiaMnemonic
689534Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyConjunctivitishttps://www.umkelloggeye.org/conditions-treatments/seasonal-allergic-conjunctivitis-hayfever#:~:text=Itching%20is%20a%20dominant%20symptom,involving%20the%20nose%20and%20throat. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/allergic-conjunctivitisAllergic conjunctivitis is associated with watery discharge if acute, and mucoid discharge if chronic.High-yield addition to next year
690534Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyConjunctivitishttps://www.columbiaeye.org/education/digital-reference-of-ophthalmology/cornea-external-diseases/infectious/follicular-conjunctivitis#:~:text=Acute%20follicular%20conjunctivitis%20is%20usually,by%20chronic%20chlamydial%20infection%20(trachoma%2C https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470271/Viral conjunctivitis is associated with conjunctival follicles.High-yield addition to next year
691534Neurology and Special SensesPathologyFever vs heat strokehttps://www-uptodate-com/contents/severe-nonexertional-hyperthermia-classic-heat-stroke-in-adultsAn additional complication of heat stroke to include would be DIC. I received a question in which a patient had the risk factors of heat stroke and was asked about potential complications, the only correct one being DIC.High-yield addition to next year
692534Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyNEW FACThttps://www.webmd.com/eye-health/keratitis-facts#1 - https://www.medicinenet.com/keratitis/article.htm - https://www.healthline.com/health/keratitis - https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/eye-disorders/corneal-disorders/peripheral-ulcerative-keratitisKeratitis - Inflammation of the cornea - Clinical presentation - Red eye, Pain, Photophobia, Discharge. Risk factors - Risk: dry eye, contact lens user, trauma. Causative agents - Bacterial: Staph, Strep. Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriace ae Fugal: Aspergillus, Candida Viral: HSV, VZV AcanthamoebaHigh-yield addition to next year
693535Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRefractive errorshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/nursing-and-health-professions/hypermetropiaAlternative name to hyperopia is hypermetropiaHigh-yield addition to next year
694535Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyNEW FACThttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/lens-subluxation https://www.aao.org/disease-review/homocystinuria-3 https://www.marfan.org/about/body-systems/eyes#:~:text=About%206%20in%2010%20people,(called%20zonules)%20is%20weak.Lens Subluxation (Ectopia Lentis) is a disease characterized by partial dislocation of the lens from the zonules, common risk factors include Marfan's syndrome and homocystinuria.High-yield addition to next year
695536Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyGlaucomahttps://www.nei.nih.gov/about/news-and-events/news/glaucoma-silent-thief-begins-tell-its-secrets https://rosseye.com/glaucoma-the-silent-thief-of-sight/Open angle glucoma is called "silent thief of sight" since it damages the optic nerve in a slow and asymptomatic progression. The patient doesn't complain from any signs or symptoms unless a late stage, so a regular follow-up with an ophthalmologist is a necessary in people with increase risk factors.High-yield addition to next year
696536Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyGlaucomahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6253313/ https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/798811-clinical#b1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279256/#:~:text=The%20symptoms%20of%20acute%20glaucoma,the%20ocular%20and%20abdominal%20symptoms.Acute angle closure glucoma can be misdiagnosed with gastroenteritis, since there is abdominal pain and discomfort due to reflex vagal stimulation.High-yield addition to next year
697536Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHeadacheshttps://next.amboss.com/us/article/YL0nwg?q=headache#Z67ba0252fff6842349617790ed19ae54for cluster headache, the horner syndrome is actually "partial horner" as there is no anhidrosis but only ptosis and miosisClarification to current text
698536Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyUveitishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2855662/ https://www.hopkinsvasculitis.org/types-vasculitis/behcets-disease/Uveitis can be associated with Behçet's disease which is characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers.High-yield addition to next year
699537Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyDiabetic retinopathyhttps://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-complications/diabetic-maculopathy.html#:~:text=Diabetic%20maculopathy%20is%20a%20condition,builds%20up%20on%20the%20macula. http://www.diabeticretinopathy.org.uk/diabetic_maculopathy.htmlThe most severe form of diabetic retinopathy is diabetic maculopathy. It affects the macular directly so there is marked drop of vision or blindness. It's treatment is laser surgery upon detection to avoid progression.High-yield addition to next year
700537Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMovement disordersNot neededUnder restless legs syndrome: nightime should have 2 t's in it → nighttimeSpelling/formatting
701537Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinal vein occlusionhttps://www.mdfoundation.com.au/content/about-retinal-vein-occlusion https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/14206-retinal-vein-occlusion-rvo#:~:text=Retinal%20vein%20occlusion%20happens%20when,problems%20that%20affect%20blood%20flow. https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/retinal-vein-occlusion https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007330.htmOther causes than nearby arterial atherosclerosis for retinal vein occlusion can be nearby arterial hypertension and diabetes.High-yield addition to next year
702537Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinal vein occlusionhttps://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-central-retinal-vein-occlusion https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1223746-overview#a4Central retinal vein occlusion presents with neovascularization, noticable irritation and pain.High-yield addition to next year
703538Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyLeukocoriahttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003315.htm https://www.aao.org/eyenet/article/stepwise-approach-to-leukocoriaCoat's disease, endophtalmitis, tractional retinal detachment and uveitis are additional causes for white pupil (leukocoria).High-yield addition to next year
704538Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurodegenerative disordersn/aApoE-2 is Pro(two)ctive, ApoE-4 is FOR AlzheimerMnemonic
705538Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyRetinitis pigmentosahttps://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/retinitis-pigmentosa https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/article-abstract/633050#:~:text=These%20patients%20constitute%20a%20recognizable,and%20a%20good%20visual%20prognosis.Retinitis Pigmentosa is well diagnosed by electroretinogram.High-yield addition to next year
706539Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyMarcus Gunn pupilhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/marcus-gunn-pupil https://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/blog/archive/2013/Do-you-know-Marcus-Gunn.htmlRetinal detachment is a common cause for marcus gunn pupil.High-yield addition to next year
707539Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNeurodegenerative disordershttps://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-sheets/Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Disease-Fact-Sheet#:~:text=The%20only%20way%20to%20confirm,be%20examined%20by%20a%20neuropathologist.Real Time-Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is a new advanced test that demonstrates a very high sensitivity and specificity of the disease, it differs from traditional surrogate markers of prion disease ex. 14-3-3 and tau proteins CSF levelsHigh-yield addition to next year
708539Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyPupillary controlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/argyll-robertson-pupil https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537179/Argyll Robertson pupil is characterized by loss of pupillary light reflex due to damage of pretectal nucleus with preservation of accommodation reflex. It's caused by syphilis.High-yield addition to next year
709540Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHydrocephalusLecture from Dr. Bradley Cole, LLUHello! Under Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Dr. Brad Cole (Neurology professor @ LLU & Faculty Advisor for FA) says that the order of presentation for NPH is typically: "Wobbly, wacky, & then wet"Clarification to current text
710540Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyOcular motilityNot neededSIIS mnemonic for eye directionsMnemonic
711540Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyOcular motilityhttps://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/eye-and-vision-conditions/strabismus?sso=y https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-strabismus https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15065-strabismus-crossed-eyes https://www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/crossed-eyes-strabismus-a-to-zDisorders for ocular motility should mainly include strabismus (crossed eye or squint) with its' different types e.g. esotropia, esophoria, extotropia and exophoria. Those are commonly high yield ocular motility disorders for ophthalmology.High-yield addition to next year
712541Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyCN III, IV, VI palsieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537108/#:~:text=The%20cardinal%20signs%20of%20uncal,)%2C%20and%20the%20corticospinal%20tract. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/uncusThe cardinal signs of uncal herniation are an acute loss of consciousness associated with ipsilateral pupillary dilation and contralateral hemiparesis.High-yield addition to next year
713541Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMultiple sclerosisn/aUhthoff's phenomenon - sign of temporary worsening of MS symptoms with increase in temperature. Mnemonic : Uhthoff = UhtHOT.Mnemonic
714541Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMultiple sclerosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/manifestations-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-adults?search=Lhermitte%27s%20sign&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~21&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3348420977Mentions electric shock sensation along cervical spine upon neck flexion - it's called 'Lhermitte's sign'High-yield addition to next year
715541Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyMultiple sclerosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis?search=MS%20and%20EBV&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Almost all people with MS have been exposed to EBV in the pastHigh-yield addition to next year
716544Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyAdult primary brain tumorsnot neededMeningeoma "occurs alongside surfaces of brain and spinal cord" not just brainClarification to current text
717544Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy therapyNot applicableI would like to suggest the following mnemonic for lamotrigine uses: LamoTRIgine (is used in THREE kinds of epilepsy: partial/focal.tonic-clonic and absence seizures)Mnemonic
718544Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy therapyFACarbamazepine Cutaneous damage (SJS) Ataxia Retention of water (SIADH) Blur vision (diplopia) Aplastic anemia Maternal contraindication (teratogenesis) Agranulocytosis Zero (none here) Erythematosus (SLE) P450 inducer Inhibiting liver Neuralgia (trigeminal) EmesisMnemonic
719544Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy therapySelfMnemonic to help remembering the mechanism of anti-epilepsy therapy. Carbamazepine - Carba”Na”zepine - blocks Na channel Ethosuximide - EthosuximiTT - blocks Thalamic T-type Ca channel Gabapentin - Ga”Ca”pentin - inhibits Ca channels Lamotrigine - La”Na”trigine - blocks voltage-gated Na channel Levetiracetam - Le”Ve”tira”Ca”tam - SVee-2A receptor blockers and inhibit voltage-gated Ca channel Phenytoin - Phe”Na”toin - blocks Na channels Topiramate - Topira”Na”te - blocks Na channels.Mnemonic
720545Neurology and Special SensesPathologyAdult primary brain tumorsNo need/https://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-of-hypopituitarism?search=pituitary%20apoplexy&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~28&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In pituitary adenoma, remove that pituitary apoplexy can cause hyperpituitarism because it is a sudden hemorrhage that causes only hypopituitarism.Major erratum
721546Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyBenzodiazepineshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/benzodiazepine-poisoning-and-withdrawal“ATOM” pneumonic implies midazolam does not produce active metabolites but Uptodate states midazolam produces active metabolites. Pneumonic for shortest half-life benzo’s: Tri Mi Shorts on (triazolam, midazolam = short acting)Clarification to current text
722546Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyBenzodiazepineshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014019/ https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/24734306.2020.1752551Flumazenil is used in treatment of benzodiazepines toxicity. Mnemonic: BenFluMnemonic
723546Neurology and Special SensesPathologyChildhood primary brain tumorshttps://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cnstumorpilocyticastrocytoma.html; https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cnstumormedulloblastoma.html; https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cnstumorependymoma.html; https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cnstumoradamcraniopharyngioma.html; "The Practice of Surgical Pathology A Beginner's Guide to the Diagnostic Process" Diana Weedman, 2018, sections concerning "Descriptive Terms in Anatomic Pathology" and "Brain and Meninges"Pilocytic astrocytoma: in the MRI pictured (A), the lesion in question does appear to have the classic cystic appearance with a mural nodule, but the arrow points only to the nodule. In the description provided in the table, the term mural nodule isn’t mentioned, despite that term being readily associated with pilocytic astrocytomas across other sources. It may also be helpful to have an additional arrow pointing to the cystic area, given that “Cystic + solid (gross)” is given in the table, although strangely under the “Histology” section of said table. The histologic section (B) that is given is not great and I’d recommend finding a new section. The arrows are pointing to Rosenthal fibers, though it is extremely difficult to decipher these fibers from the rest of the neuropil, unless you know what you’re looking for. A squash prep slide may be best in representing this finding. In addition, the large eosinophilic granules that are also characteristic of pilocytic astrocytomas, which are abundant in that tissue slide, are not even mentioned in the histologic description in the table above (assuming of course that that is what those structures are, they may even be engorged cytoplasm of astrocytes given how large they are). Medulloblastoma: the histologic section (D) that is given is supposed to be representative of a Homer-Wright rosette. A Homer-Wright rosette can more or less be defined as a cluster of cancer cells surrounding a central core of neuropil. The textbook appearance of these rosettes, is, well, a rosette (Fr. little rose), i.e. the cancer cells are arranged in a circle. The oblong appearance of the Homer-Wright rosette given in histologic section (D) is sure to cause confusion (as confirmed with my classmates). An additional minor suggestion is that in the description under the “Histology” section of the table is to specify that the tumor contains sheets of small blue cells, rather than simply stating “small blue cells.” Ependymoma: the histologic section (F) is at far too low a power to be able to appreciate the perivascular pseudorosettes. In addition, this tissue section does appear to have true ependymal rosettes as well, which the lower arrow appears to be pointing at. A distinction between both types of rosettes is warranted in the “Histology” section of the table. I’d recommend removing the mention of the presence of blepharoplasts altogether as those can be seen only on electron microscopy. Craniopharyngioma: the word “adamantinomatous” may be of some use in the description of this tumor, i.e. that it is hard, that it is tooth-like. I think that histologic section (H) should be removed entirely in favor of a tissue section that better shows the xanthogranulomatous reaction (i.e. “Cholesterol crystals found in ‘motor-oil’-like fluid within tumor”). I’d also recommend substituting out the word “crystals” for “clefts.” In addition, other hallmark features of this tumor are the stellate reticulum, palisading epithelium, and wet keratin, which would require a tissue section of their own. If the desire is to keep things simple, then histologic section (H) needs to be replaced with a higher resolution section that better shows calcification, as generally speaking with H&E sections calcification is a more basophilic phenomenon; “calcification” would have been low on my list of things that the two black arrows in section (H) were pointing to.Major erratum
724546Neurology and Special SensesPathologyChildhood primary brain tumorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pineal-gland-masses Also Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease, 10e, Ch 24 p 1130-31Pinealoma is not an accepted term for germ cells tumors of the pineal gland. Tumors derived from pinealocytes may be referred to as "pineolomas" but are better designated as pineocytoma or pineoblastoma, depending on degree of differentiation. Germ cell tumors also arise in the pineal/suprasellar space a should be subclassified based on their histolopathlogy, eg germinoma, teratoma.Clarification to current text
725546Neurology and Special SensesPathologyNEW FACTUW QID 1261IF THE germ cell tumor is in suprasellar region,then it causes precocious puberty as it compresses pituitary,whereas pinealoma compresses only cerebral aqueduct and causes obstructive hydrocephalus and upward gaze palsy but not precocious puberty.Clarification to current text
726547Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHerniation syndromesNot neededCingulate (subfalcine) herniation can compress the ACA: cingulACAMnemonic
727548Neurology and Special SensesPathologyParkinson disease therapyhttps://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781461458357COMT is expressed on the postsynaptic terminal instead of presynaptic, as shown in the reference link below (page 758)Clarification to current text
728548Neurology and Special SensesPathologySpinal lesionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/disease-modifying-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis/abstract/15 . https://www.uptodate.com/contents/disease-modifying-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis/abstract/16 . https://www.uptodate.com/contents/disease-modifying-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis/abstract/19 .Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that is thought to reduce oxidative stress . its used now for the management of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis . it was found to slow functional deterioration in some patients with ALS in addition to Riluzole . Side effect : gait disturbance, and headacheHigh-yield addition to next year
729548Neurology and Special SensesPathologySyphilishttps://www-uptodate-com.rossuniversity.idm.oclc.org/contents/neurosyphilis?search=tabes%20dorsalis&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H13&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~16&display_rank=1#H13Tabes DORSALIS: Dorsal column degeneration, Orthopedic pain (charcot joint), Reflexes decreased (deep tendon), Shooting pain, Argyll-Robertson pupils, Locomotor ataxia, Impaired proprioception, SyphilisMnemonic
730550Neurology and Special SensesPathologyCommon cranial nerve lesionshttp://neuroanatomy.ca/modules/CNXI_XII/story_html5.html; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20647524/The supranuclear fibers to the sternocleidomastoid appear to have a double decussation in the brainstem. The first occurs caudal to the oculomotor complex in the pontine tegmentum, and the second at the cervicomedullary junction (Bender, Shanzer and Wagman, 1964). Therefore at this level a single lesion can produce an ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid weakness and contralateral trapezius weakness.Major erratum
731550Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyIntravenous anestheticsnot neededPropofol anesthesia use: rapid anesthesia induction "Propo-fall asleep"Mnemonic
732551Neurology and Special SensesOtologyAuditory anatomy and physiologyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948643-overview#a2SLIMS: Superior Olivary Nucleus (pons) Lateral Leminiscus (midbrain) Inferior Colliculus (midbrain) Medial Geniculate Body (thalamus) Superior Temporal Gyrus (cortex)Mnemonic
733552Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyGlaucoma therapyhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/osmitrol-mannitol-343061 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/article-abstract/626975 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470392/Mannitol infusion can be used to rapidly decrease the elevated Intraocular pressure in emergent glaucoma cases, such as acute angle closure glucoma, by 1.5-2 g/kg IV infused over 30-60 minutes.High-yield addition to next year
734552Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyPeripheral nerveNo need. It's known. But this can help https://www.uptodate.com/contents/benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo?search=dix%20hallpike&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~6&usage_type=default&display_rank=2In BPPV, since we mentioned the treatment (Epley maneuver), it's beneficial to mention the diagnostic maneuver (DIX-hallpike) since if it's positive, we'll do epley directly to treat.High-yield addition to next year
735552Neurology and Special SensesOtologyVertigoNot neededMen wear VeSTs (Ménière disease – peripheral Vertigo, Sensorineural hearing loss, Tinnitus)Mnemonic
736552Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyVertigoBates Guide for physical examination p 271, almost all peripheral vertigo causes are associated with nausea and vomiting vs centralIn peripheral vertigo, it's usually associated with nausea and vomiting.High-yield addition to next year
737552Neurology and Special SensesOtologyVertigohttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/meniere-disease-evaluation-diagnosis-and-managementMnemonic for Meniere's: too FULL (excess endolymph production), too HIGH (vertigo), CAN'T HEAR OUT ONE SIDE (sensorineural hearing loss)Mnemonic
738556Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyAge-related macular degenerationNot neededWet like the river Rapids – Wet macular degeneration progresses RapidlyMnemonic
739556Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyAge-related macular degenerationBlack people: "African or African American" can be a better term.Clarification to current text
740557PsychiatryPathologyChildhood and early-onset disordersnot neededThe word, "Sudden" repeated twiceMinor erratum
741561Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyCN III, IV, VI palsiesNo new supporting references. I'm just pointing out an inconsistency between the text describing the image and the arrow in the image.In the row for CN VI damage, the text describing the image refers to the affected eye (displaced medially), while the arrow in the picture is pointing to the normal eye. The arrow should point to the other eye (the patient's left eye)Major erratum
742561Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyCN III, IV, VI palsiesmnemonichighlight Ps extended ⇒ *P*arasympathetic = *P*eripheral = com*P*ression = blown *P*upil (vs. Motor = diabetes Mellitus = Metabolic dzs)Mnemonic
743563PsychiatryPathologyGeneralized anxiety disordernot neededAnxiety over CRIMES = Concentration, Restlessness, Irritability, Muscle tension, Energy, SleepMnemonic
744564PsychiatryPathologyDiagnostic criteria by symptom durationhttps://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm07This diagram lists Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as an anxiety disorder whereas in the DSM V it is plased under Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders.Major erratum
745564Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyEpilepsy therapyhttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=3778Carbamazepine side effects slightly modified to begin with the letters A to H Ataxia, Blood dyscrasias (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia) , Cleft lip/palate and spina bifida Diplopia, Enhances cytochromeP-450,  Flow of ADH (SIADH) , “Grill” the skin (SJS), Harms the liver(liver toxicity )Mnemonic
746564PharmacologyPharmacologyHyperammonemiahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/819315-overviewValproic acid undergoes mitochondrial beta-oxidation in the liver and is converted into toxic metabolite valproyl Co-A. This metabolite depletes the N-acetyl glutamate by inhibition of N-acetyl Glutamate synthetase, which is a cofactor for urea cycle rate-limiting enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS 1). Depletion of N- acetyl glutamate results in inhibition of CPS 1. This inhibition blocks the conversion of ammonia to urea leading to rising in ammonia levels. Also, this fits in with pneumonic provided in the first aid book, VALPPROaTTE. A for Ammonia.High-yield addition to next year
747564PsychiatryPathologyTrauma and stress-related disordersnot neededPTSD - mnemonic bad DREAMS - Distress, Re-experience, Event precedes symptoms, Avoidance of associated stimuli, Month or more, Sympathetic (hyper) arousalMnemonic
748568PsychiatryPathologyEnuresismneumonic2+3=5 starting from the shortest (week) to the longest (year). Enuresis is bedwetting at least 2 times/week for at least 3 months in a child at age of at least 5 yearsMnemonic
749568Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease therapyn/aEntacapone and Tolcapone - Al Capone kills COMTMnemonic
750569Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease therapyhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30271159/ https://www.medscape.com/answers/1831191-9950/how-effective-is-safinamide-xadago-in-in-increasing-the-benefit-of-levodopa-in-the-management-of-parkinson-disease-pd#qna https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nmt-2020-0017Safinamide is used for Parkinson's disease patients as an adjunctive treatment to carbidopa/levodopa. The mechanism of Safinamide action is to prevent dopamine breakdown by inhibition of MAO-B and modulation of glutamate release. Safinamide is used in the mid/late stage of Parkinson's disease, providing a more safe solution with few or no adverse effects.High-yield addition to next year
751570Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyIntravenous anestheticsMultiple UWorld questions, SketchyPharm Neuro/Psych 2.1Please consider adding etomidate to the list of IV anesthetics (notable for its relative hemodynamic neutrality.) Additionally, please consider adding that ketamine preserves respiratory drive.High-yield addition to next year
752571Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyLocal anestheticsNot neededOrder of loss: pAin, tEmperature, tOuch, pRessure (2nd letters are in alphabetical order)Mnemonic
753571Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyNeuromuscular blocking drugshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-use-of-neuromuscular-blocking-agents-in-anesthesia#H1229812700Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs mechanism should say "competitive antagonists of nicotinic receptors" instead of "competitive ACh antagonists"Clarification to current text
754572Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyOpioid detoxification and relapse preventionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-opioid-intoxication-in-adultsNal-OX-one treats opioid t-OX-icity. Nalt-RE-xone prevents RE-lapse.Mnemonic
755573Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyGlaucoma therapynot neededThese drugs used to "TAMP" down glaucoma : (T)imolol, (A)2 agonists, (M)annitol, (P)ilocarpineMnemonic
756573Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyGlaucoma therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1936355/#:~:text=Brimonidine%20has%20a%20dual%20mechanism,(Toris%20et%20al%201995)."Brimonidine has a dual mechanism of IOP lowering: it both reduces aqueous humor production and stimulates aqueous humor outflow through the uveoscleral pathway (Toris et al 1995)"Minor erratum
757575PsychiatryPharmacologyTricyclic antidepressantsNot applicableClopramine is used in patients with OCD (highlighting th C as the first letter in clopramine and the second in OCD)Mnemonic
758576PsychiatryPsychologyClassical conditioningNot neededClassical conditioning elicits involuntary responses: classIcal – Involuntary (I - I)Mnemonic
759576PsychiatryPsychologyClassical conditioninghttps://www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.htmlWe were taught PAVLOV'S EXPERIMENT in CLASSMnemonic
760576PsychiatryPsychologyOperant conditioningNot neededOperant conditioning elicits voluntary responses: Operant – vOluntary (O - O)Mnemonic
761576PsychiatryMiscellaneousOperant conditioningnoneI came up with a slightly different table style for operant conditioning while studying for the MCAT. I found it to be much easier to apply to the way questions are written (eg like a real life scenario). The only thing you have to remember is that reinforcement = increases behavior and punishment = decreases behavior. I created a couple of crude sample tables. Thanks.Mnemonic
762576PsychiatryPsychologyOperant conditioninghttps://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.htmlPUNISHMENT and REWARDS teach us how to OPERATEMnemonic
763578PsychiatryPsychologyNormal infant and child developmentit's a mnemonic to an already written infoPrimitive reflexes disappear mnemonic: MR. Peanut Butter (M: moro; R: rooting; P:palmar; B: Babinski)Mnemonic
764580PsychiatryPathologyChildhood and early-onset disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853646/Intermittent Explosive Outburst - outbursts may provide immediate sense of relief usually followed by remorse.Clarification to current text
765581PsychiatryPathologyDeliriumCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Causes I WATCH DEATH Infection Withdrawal Acute metabolic Trauma CNS pathology Hypoxia Deficiencies Endocrinopathies Acute vascular Toxins or drugs Heavy metalsMnemonic
766581PsychiatryPathologyDeliriumCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Life-threatening causes WWHHHHIMPS* Wernicke’s encephalopathy Withdrawal Hypertensive crisis Hypoperfusion/hypoxia of the brain Hypoglycemia Hyper/hypothermia Intracranial process/infection Metabolic/meningitis Poisons Status epilepticusMnemonic
767581PsychiatryPathologyDeliriumCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Deliriogenic medications ACUTE CHANGE IN MS14 Antibiotics Cardiac drugs Urinary incontinence drugs Theophylline Ethanol Corticosteroids H2 blockers Antiparkinsonian drugs Narcotics Geriatric psychiatric drugs ENT drugs Insomnia drugs NSAIDs Muscle relaxants Seizure medicinesMnemonic
768581RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration barrierhttps://search.medscape.com/search/?q=slit%20diaphragmThere is minor error in FA 2021, in Renal physiology, it says Slit diaphragm (prevents entry of molecules >4-5 nm (instead of 40-50 nm)Minor erratum
769582PsychiatryPathologyPsychosisNo needIn auditory hallucinations (more common in psychiatric illness than medical) replace medical by physical or any equivalent word because psyhciatric illness is a type of medical illness. Do the same in the visual hallucinations; replace medical by physical or any equivalent word.Clarification to current text
770583PsychiatryPathologyManic episodeDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th EditionHospitalization of the patient and marked functional impairment with ≥ 3 of the symptoms is required for the diagnosis (not only hospitalization) so it is more clear to be writtien like this : "Diagnosis requires marked functional impairment with ≥ 3 of the following lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary):Clarification to current text
771583PsychiatryPathologySchizophrenia spectrum disordersN/Aapathy, anhedonia instead of apathy. anhedoniaSpelling/formatting
772583PsychiatryPathologySchizophrenia spectrum disordersNot needed"apathy. anhedonia" should be changed to "apathy, anhedonia"Spelling/formatting
773583PsychiatryPathologySchizophrenia spectrum disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541012/In schizoaffective disorder, a patient must have greater than or equal to 2 weeks of psychotic symptoms without a manic or depressive episode (not greater than 2 weeks alone) according to DSM 5Minor erratum
774584RenalPhysiologyGlucose clearancesimple math + I also confirmed it from the graph in Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 13ed pg. 351The GFR in the graph from my rough calculations of the filtered slope seem to be 125 ml/min. equation: y=125x where y equals the filtered load, excretion, secretion, or reabsorption, and x equals the arterial plasma concentration of glucose. If so, the point of intersection between the excreted curve and the reabsorbed curve should be at 600 mg/dl not past that. Explanation: Glucose filtered at 600 mg/dl is equal to: 125 ml/min * 6 mg/ml = 750 mg/min thus at 600 mg/dl both excreted and reabsorbed glucose must be 375 mg/min each because (filtered = excreted + reabsorbed) and reabsorption can't go past 375. But from the graph, excreted glucose at 600 mg/dl is less than 375 mg/min.Minor erratum
775585PsychiatryPathologyPeripartum mood disturbancesAmerican Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2017. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5.Change text "Meets MDD criteria with onset no later than 1 year after delivery." to "Meets MDD criteria with onset no later than 1 month or 4 weeks after delivery."Major erratum
776586PsychiatryPathologyGeneralized anxiety disorderhttps://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad/index.shtml"I FARTS" [ Irritability / Fatiguability / Absent minded (decreased concentration) / Restlessness / Tension in the muscles / Sleep Disturbances ]Mnemonic
777586PsychiatryPathologyPhobiasDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th EditionMarked fear or anxiety about two (or more) of the following five situations: 1. Using public transportation 2. Being in open spaces 3. Being in enclosed places 4. Standing in line or being in a crowd. 5. Being outside of the home alone. Individuals with agoraphobia may fear and avoid social situations because escape might be difficult or help might not be available in the event of incapacitation or panic-like symptomsHigh-yield addition to next year
778587PsychiatryPathologyTrauma and stress-related disordersDSM-5 entry on post-traumatic stress disorderFor the entry on PTSD, "rape" should be changed to "sexual violence", both in accordance with current DSM criteria/language and in the spirit of inclusivity and accuracy. Additionally, "experiencing, or discovering that a loved one has experienced" should be changed to: "exposure to (through experiencing, witnessing, or discovering that a loved one has experienced)" on similar grounds.Minor erratum
779588PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Schizotypal personality disorder: ME PECULIAR (five criteria) M [2]Magical thinking or odd beliefs E [3] Experiences unusual perceptions P [5]Paranoid ideation E [7] Eccentric behavior or appearance C [6]Constricted (or inappropriate) affect U [4]Unusual (odd) thinking and speech L [8]Lacks close friends I [1]Ideas of reference A [9]Anxiety in social situations R Rule out psychoticMnemonic
780588PsychiatryPathologyCluster B personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Borderline personality disorder: AM. SUICIDE (fIve criteria)2 A {1]Abandonment M [6] Mood instability (marked reactivity of mood) S [5}Suicidal (or self-mutilating) behavior U [2}Unstable and intense relationships I [4}Impulsivity (in two potentially self-damaging areas) C [8]Control of anger I [3]Identity disturbance D [9}Dissociative (or paranoid) symptoms that are transient and stress related E [7]Emptiness (chronic feelings of)Mnemonic
781588PsychiatryPathologyCluster B personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Histrionic personality disorder: PRAISE ME (five criteria) P [2] Provocative (or sexually seductive) behavior R [8}Relationships (considered more intimate than they are) A [1}Attention (uncomfortable when not the center of attention) I [7}Lnfluenced easily S [5}Style of speech (impressionistic, lacks detail) E [3]Emotions (rapidly shifting and shallow) M [4]Made up (physical appearance used to draw attention to self) E [6}Emotions exaggerated (theatrical)Mnemonic
782588PsychiatryPathologyCluster B personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Narcissistic personality disorder: SPE1CIAL (five criteria) S [3]Special (believes he or she is special and unique) P [2] Preoccupied with fantasies (of unlimited success, pov- er, brilliance, beauty or ideal love) E [8] Envious (of others, or believes others are envious of him or her) E [5]Entitlement E [4] Excess admiration required C [1] Conceited (grandiose sense of self importance) I [6]Interpersonal exploitation A [9]Arrogant (haughty) L [7]Lacks empathyMnemonic
783588PsychiatryPathologyCluster C personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: LA\V F! RMS (four criteria) L [1}Loses point ofactivity (due to preoccupation with de- tail) A [2]Abihity to complete tasks (compromised b’ perfecionism) w [5}Worthless objects (unable to discard) F [3]Fniendships (and leisure activities) excluded (due to a preoccupation with work) I [4] Inflexible, scrupulous, overconscientious (on ethics, values, or morality, not accounted for by religion or culture) R [6] Reluctant to delegate (unless others submit to exact guidelines) M [7]Miserly (toward selfand others) S [8}Stubbornness (and rigidity)Mnemonic
784589RenalPathologyPyelonephritisno new info is being presentedTo remember which is an UPPER vs LOWER urinary tract infection (acute cystitis or pyelonephritis) use this fun rhyme! Py(elonephritis) is high (ie upper UTI infection)! Say 'pye is high' and you will never forget! Acute nephritis, on the other hand, does not rhyme with 'high', so you know it is alternatively, a lower UTI.Mnemonic
785590PsychiatryPathologyEating disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/binge-eating-disorder-in-adults-overview-of-treatment?search=Binge-eating%20disorder&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1For patients with binge eating disorder who do not respond to one to two courses of an SSRI, we suggest an antiepileptic (eg, topiramate)High-yield addition to next year
786591PsychiatryPathologyCluster A personality disordershttps://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ps.48.9.1197Schizotypal personality disorder: ME PECULIAR (five criteria) M [2]Magical thinking or odd beliefs E [3] Experiences unusual perceptions P [5]Paranoid ideation E [7] Eccentric behavior or appearance C [6]Constricted (or inappropriate) affect U [4]Unusual (odd) thinking and speech L [8]Lacks close friends I [1]Ideas of reference A [9]Anxiety in social situations R Rule out psychotic disorders and pervasive developmental disorderMnemonic
787591PsychiatryPathologySubstance use disorderCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Substance dependence ADDICTeD Activities are given up or reduced Dependence, physical: tolerance Dependence, physical: withdrawal Intrapersonal (Internal) consequences, physical or psychological Can’t cut down or control use Time-consuming Duration or amount of use is greater than intendedMnemonic
788591PsychiatryPathologySubstance use disorderCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Substance abuse WILD Work, school, or home role obligation failures Interpersonal or social consequences Legal problems Dangerous useMnemonic
789593PsychiatryPathologyPsychiatric emergenciesCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.29Serotonin syndrome HARMED Hyperthermia Autonomic instability Rigidity Myoclonus Encephalopathy DiaphoresisMnemonic
790594PsychiatryPathologyPsychoactive drug intoxication and withdrawalhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7224271/ https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1010821-clinical#b4PCP intoxication can mydriasis (6.2%) or miosis( 2.1%) . In both of these cases , the incidence is low and is not an important diagnostic clue. so, it is better not to mention it in the FAMinor erratum
791594PsychiatryPathologyPsychoactive drug intoxication and withdrawalFA2021 p594CannabisMnemonic
792594Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://thecorrespondent.com/352/deciphering-the-pandemic-a-guide-to-understanding-the-coronavirus-numbers/46555890304-c23a82afIn the equation of Case fatality rate , it is 100% not 100 ( it is mathematically incorrect)Minor erratum
793595RenalPathologyGlomerular diseasesPathoma, FA 2020 (this is just a mnemonic that goes along with what's in FA already)nephr*I*tic syndrome ; *I*nflammatory nephr*O*tic syndrome ; pr*O*teinuria. *letter* = boldedMnemonic
794595RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Nephritic_syndromeNephritic-nephrotic syndrome: proteinuria >3.5 g/day + features of nephritic (book incorrectly reads " and features of nephrotic)Major erratum
795595RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeNoneOn the table for clinical presentation, I believe nephritic-nephrotic syndrome should read "nephrotic-range proteinuria and concomitant features of nephritic syndrome" instead of the current "concomitant features of nephrotic syndrome"Spelling/formatting
796597PsychiatryPharmacologyAntipsychoticsN/AJust a suggestion - to reformat the antipsychotics page so that the drugs are classified in tables (using colored boxes, for example on p. 616) - so that the page isn't a wall of text and comparisons can be made more easily. Hopefully this will simplify the page. I started sketching a quick example in case helpful!Spelling/formatting
797599RenalPathologyUrinary incontinencehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/453539-overviewNeurogenic bladder is classified under overflow incontinence but presents clinically as urgency incontinenceMajor erratum
798599RenalPathologyUrinary incontinencehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/symptom-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-adultsIn FA, Multiple Sclerosis is listed as being associated with overflow incontinence and neurogenic bladder, but there is a U World question saying MS is associated with urge incontinence due to UMN spasticity. U World specifically says that MS is NOT associated with overflow incontinence/ neurogenic bladder, but cauda equina is. There is conflicting information online and an argument could be made that MS is associated with all three types of bladder dysfunction, but resources overwhelmingly say that MS is most closely associated with urgency incontinence. A small clarifying remark about this in FA would be very helpful!Clarification to current text
799602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologynot neededIn the metanephros section there is an extra period.Spelling/formatting
800602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologynone neededa double period: "week 36 of gestation.."Spelling/formatting
801602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologytypo(minor error , a double period): "week 36 of gestation.."Spelling/formatting
802602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologyFirst AidUnder "Metanephros", there is an extra period after "week 36 of gestation".Spelling/formatting
803602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologynon neededIt is written that pronephros - week 3 of development which is not true. It forms and degenerates on week 4Minor erratum
804602RenalEmbryologyKidney embryologygestation.." Double period.Spelling/formatting
805603RenalEmbryologyHorseshoe kidneyNot neededHorseshoe kidney is associated with Turner syndrome and the trisomies: it’s my Turn to Tri Horseback riding (Turner, Trisomies – Horseshoe kidney)Mnemonic
806604RenalAnatomyNEW FACThttps://micro2tele.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/histoquarterly_renal-corpusle-mp.png?w=640in the histology picture, whats labelled as DCT is not right. this is the PCT. Brush border is seen in the PCT.Minor erratum
807605RenalPathologyAcute cystitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-simple-cystitis-in-womenNitros in Urine need Nitrofurantoin then try Trimethoprim!Mnemonic
808605RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration barrierhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/biology-of-glomerular-podocytes?search=slit%20diaphrgm&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1slit diaphram size is 50-60nm not 5-6nmMinor erratum
809605RenalPhysiologyGlomerular filtration barrierN/AIt says "Charger barrier" but I think it should read "Charge barrier"Spelling/formatting
810609RenalPharmacologyDiuretics: electrolyte changesN/AUnder urine NaCl, it says that the strength of the increase in urine NaCl varies based on the potency of diuretic effect. As potency refers to the amount of drug needed to produce an effect, and efficacy refers to the strength of the effect of the drug itself, the structure of the sentence may cause confusion. The sentence should be: strength varies based on the efficacy of the diuretic.Clarification to current text
811609RenalPharmacologyPotassium-sparing diureticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mechanism-of-action-of-diuretics#H5use the mnemonic "SEA-TAN" to quickly differentiate potassium-sparing diuretics: (Spironolactone, Eplerenone for Aldosterone antagonist VS. Triamterene, Amiloride for Na+ Channel Blockers)Mnemonic
812610RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/genetic-disorders-of-the-collecting-tubule-sodium-channel-liddles-syndrome-and-pseudohypoaldosteronism-type-1#H10"Give LIDDLE a RIDE" - Liddle syndrome is treated with AmiloRIDE!Mnemonic
813611PsychiatryPathologyDeliriumCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.32Causes I WATCH DEATH Infection Withdrawal Acute metabolic Trauma CNS pathology Hypoxia Deficiencies Endocrinopathies Acute vascular Toxins or drugs Heavy metalsMnemonic
814611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Paranoid personality disorder SUSPECT Spousal infidelity suspected Unforgiving (bears grudges) Suspicious Perceives attacks (and reacts quickly) Enemy or friend? (suspects associates and friends) Confiding in others is feared Threats perceived in benign eventsMnemonic
815611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Schizotypal personality disorder ME PECULIAR9 Magical thinking Experiences unusual perceptions Paranoid ideation Eccentric behavior or appearance Constricted or inappropriate affect Unusual thinking or speech Lacks close friends Ideas of reference Anxiety in social situations Rule out psychotic or pervasive developmental disordersMnemonic
816611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Schizotypal personality disorder ME PECULIAR Magical thinking Experiences unusual perceptions Paranoid ideation Eccentric behavior or appearance Constricted or inappropriate affect Unusual thinking or speech Lacks close friends Ideas of reference Anxiety in social situations Rule out psychotic or pervasive developmental disordersMnemonic
817611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Borderline personality disorder IMPULSIVE Impulsive Moodiness Paranoia or dissociation under stress Unstable self-image Labile intense relationships Suicidal gestures Inappropriate anger Vulnerability to abandonment Emptiness (feelings of)Mnemonic
818611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Schizoid personality disorder DISTANT Detached or flattened affect Indifferent to criticism or praise Sexual experiences of little interest Tasks done solitarily Absence of close friends Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships Takes pleasure in few activitiesMnemonic
819611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Antisocial personality disorder CORRUPT Cannot conform to law Obligations ignored Reckless disregard for safety Remorseless Underhanded (deceitful) Planning insuff cient (impulsive) Temper (irritable and aggressive)Mnemonic
820611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.30Borderline personality disorder DESPAIRER Disturbance of identity Emotionally labile Suicidal behavior Paranoia or dissociation Abandonment (fear of) Impulsive Relationships unstable Emptiness (feelings of) Rage (inappropriate)Mnemonic
821611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Histrionic personality disorder PRAISE ME Provocative or seductive behavior Relationships considered more intimate than they are Attention (need to be the center of) Inf uenced easily Style of speech (impressionistic, lacking detail) Emotions (rapidly shifting, shallow) Make up (physical appearance used to draw attention to self) Emotions exaggeratedMnemonic
822611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Narcissistic personality disorder GRANDIOSE Grandiose Requires attention Arrogant Need to be special Dreams of success and power Interpersonally exploitative Others (unable to recognize feelings/needs of) Sense of entitlement EnviousMnemonic
823611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Dependent personality disorder RELIANCE Reassurance required Expressing disagreement diff cult Life responsibilities assumed by others Initiating projects diff cult Alone (feels helpless and uncomfortable when alone) Nurturance (goes to excessive lengths to obtain) Companionship sought urgently when a relationship ends Exaggerated fears of being left to care for selfMnemonic
824611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Histrionic personality disorder ACTRESSS Appearance focused Center of attention Theatrical Relationships (believed to be more intimate than they are) Easily influenced Seductive behavior Shallow emotions Speech (impressionistic and vague)Mnemonic
825611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Avoidant personality disorder CRINGES Criticism or rejection preoccupies thoughts in social situations Restraint in relationships due to fear of shame Inhibited in new relationships Needs to be sure of being liked before engaging socially Gets around occupational activities with need for interpersonal contact Embarrassment prevents new activity or taking risks Self viewed as unappealing or inferiorMnemonic
826611PsychiatryPathologyPersonalityCurrent Psychiatry Vol. 7, No. 10, p.31Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder SCRIMPER* Stubborn Cannot discard worthless objects Rule obsessed Inf exible Miserly Perfectionistic Excludes leisure due to devotion to work Reluctant to delegate to othersMnemonic
827611RenalPathologyNEW FACT.glomerulonephritis with polyangitis fomerly known as (Wegner) not (Churg-strauss)Minor erratum
828613RenalPhysiologyJuxtaglomerular apparatushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/major-side-effects-of-beta-blockersIt is writen under the heading Juxtaglomerular apparatus that, "In addition to vasodilatory properties, Beta blockers can decrease BP by.....". The starting of this sentence is incorrect. Blood vessels have beta-2 receptors and they, when stimulated, cause vasodilation. Therefore, non selective beta blockers block this beta 2 receptor and they cause vasoconstriction and increased peripheral vascular resistance.. Beta blockers do not cause vasodilation.Minor erratum
829614ReproductiveEmbryologyNEW FACTUWorld question ID 12262Angiotensin II is required for normal fetal renal development. Low levels of angiotensin II may impair cranial vascularization and result in hypoplasia of skull bonesClarification to current text
830616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosisNot needed.Under the GOLDMARKS acronym for increased anion gap metabolic acidosis , ketones is spelled as "keytones".Spelling/formatting
831616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fasting-ketosis-and-alcoholic-ketoacidosis"Ketones" misspelled as "keytones" in GOLDMARKSpelling/formatting
832616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/simple-and-mixed-acid-base-disorders?search=acidosis%20alkalosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H365263262Use ROME when looking at pH to determine whether respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Respiratory = Opposite (eg pH is decreased but [HCO3-] is increased) ; Metabolic = Equal (eg pH is decreased and PCO2 is decreased). Same mnemonic can be used for alkalosis. Respiratory = Opposite (eg increased pH but decreased [HCO3]; Metabolic = Equal (eg increased pH and increased PCO2).Mnemonic
833616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosisprevious edition of the first aid bookMnemonic GOLDMARK ; L- L-lactate D- D-lactate instead have it as L - lactate (lactic acidosis/exogenous) and D - diabetic ketoacidosisClarification to current text
834616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosisnot requiredin increased anion gap metabolic acidosis section, last word should be ketones instead of 'keytones'Spelling/formatting
835616RenalAnatomy and PhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosisdictionaryUnder Anion Gap, Ketones is spelled “Keytones”Spelling/formatting
836616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosismnemonicA COW hypoventilates sometimes: The causes of respiratory acidosis due to hypoventilation start with the letters "A COW": Airway obstruction, Acute lung disease, Chronic lung disease, Opioids/sedatives, Weakening of respiratory musclesMnemonic
837616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fasting-ketosis-and-alcoholic-ketoacidosisChange Keytones to KetonesSpelling/formatting
838616RenalPhysiologyAcidosis and alkalosisLower right quadrant of the text says KEYTONES instead of ketonesSpelling/formatting
839616RenalPhysiologyKetone bodieshttps://www.pathoma.com/playjw?chapter=15&speed=1x#In increased anion gap box, the last one "Keytones" should be "ketones". It's not that important but I just wanted to help you guys make first aid flawless. ThanksSpelling/formatting
840617RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosisFA 2021 P617Please highlight number "1" in "type 1" to match mnemonic "stone" and highlight number "4" in "type 4" to match mnemonic "NH4".Clarification to current text
841617RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosishttps://eclinpath.com/chemistry/kidney/physiology/renal-ammonia-2/#:~:text=The%20kidney%20is%20capable%20of,from%20glutamine%20(amino%20acid).&text=1)%20In%20the%20proximal%20tubule,%2B)%20is%20generated%20from%20glutamine.In the graphic for Hyperkalemic tubular acidosis (RTA type 4), ammonia (NH3) is written with a positive charge "NH3+"[sic]. Ammonia should not have a positive charge. If it were positively charged, it would not be able to freely diffuse across the cell membrane into the urine lumen (as drawn in the graphic).Major erratum
842617RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-and-pathophysiology-of-renal-tubular-acidosis-and-the-effect-on-potassium-balance#H42786907Not showing that RTA1 is also caused by mutations in the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE1 (SLC4A1). Not shown is the Na/HCO3 cotransporter that is mutated in RTA2.Major erratum
843619RenalPathologyNephrotic syndromeWiki: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephrotic_syndrome ; Uptodate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/complications-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-childrenIncreased risk to infections due to Ig loss in urine. Common infections are peritonitis, meningoencephalitis and septicemia caused by Strep. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae.High-yield addition to next year
844620RenalPathologyGlomerular diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisIn the "Rapidly Progressive/Crescentic Glomerulonephritis" the pauci-immune section reads as follows "Granulomatosis with Polyangitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss)". Granulomatosis with polyangitis was formerly known as Wegener's, while Churg-Strauss corresponds to eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitisMinor erratum
845620RenalPathologyGlomerular diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewUnder the Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis section the phrasing "granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)" is used. This is incorrect as granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Wegner's polyangiitis not Churg-Strauss syndrome.Minor erratum
846620RenalPathologyGlomerular diseasesGranulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis article from UpToDategranulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome). the former name is Wegner's granulomatosis while Churg-strauss syndrome is the former name for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitisMinor erratum
847620RenalPathologyGranulomatous inflammationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisgranulomatosis with polyangiitis(formerly name Churg Strauss) actually formerly name is Wegener GranulomatosisMinor erratum
848620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeFirst aid 2020 editionWell this error is in 2021 edition. As you haven't started taking error of this edition, I have to submit it here. First aid 2020 edition page 596 -Rapidly Proliferative Glomerulopathy- granulomatosis with polyangitis(Wegner). In Firstaid 2021, page 620 Nephritic syndrome- Rapidly Proliferative Glomerulopathy - granulomatosis with polyangitis(formely called Churg-Strauss Syndrome). Please, its Wegner disease not Churg Strauss. Please correct it.Major erratum
849620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeFirst Aid 2020 page 596Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is not formerly called Churg-Strauss it is called Wegener's granulomatosisMinor erratum
850620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis#H182265351Under "Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis" granulomatosis with polyangitis is listed as "formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome - c-ANCA". However, this should read "formerly Wegener's granulomatosis." Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (p-ANCA) was formerly known as Churg-Strauss.Clarification to current text
851620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromePage 485 of the text states that Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss, not granulomatosis with polyangiitisThe text states granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndromeMinor erratum
852620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-respiratory-tract-involvement?search=c%20anca&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3#H7ƒNegative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)—PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Microscopic polyangiitis—MPO-ANCA/p-ANCAMajor erratum
853620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www-uptodate-com.arktos.nyit.edu/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=wegener%20granulomatosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as *Wegener granulomatosis*. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as *Churg Strauss*Clarification to current text
854620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=1203I caught a typo. You guys wrote that Granulomatosis with Polyangitis used to be called Churg Strauss and I believe you meant to write "formerly called Wegener's Granulomatosis" I attached a screen shot of the errorMajor erratum
855620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351088#:~:text=Granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis%20is%20an,to%20some%20of%20your%20organs.It says " granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome)" this incorrect. it was formerly known as "Wegener granulomatosis".Major erratum
856620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24485158/"granulomatosis with polyangiitis(formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)—PR3-ANCA." Its formerly known as a WEGENER, not Churg-Strauss syndrome, which is known as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.Major erratum
857620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeSGUn the Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis section: it says " granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome)" this incorrect. it was formerly known as "Wegener granulomatosis". eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss.Minor erratum
858620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewgranulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly Wegener's, not Churg-StraussMinor erratum
859620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overview&ved=2ahUKEwi-_KyQl-TuAhX1lFwKHUsmC-gQFjAXegQIFBAB&usg=AOvVaw3n3qIMu7hU6nbegpvFs1-6Granulomatosis with polyangitis (formerly Wegener's)Minor erratum
860620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis/#:~:text=Granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis%20(GPA)%20is,in%20adults%20and%20older%20people.Under the rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis section, it says "granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)" which is wrong, as GWP was previously called Wegener's granulomatosisMinor erratum
861620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeNot needed.Under Pauci-immune RPGN, it states "Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Struass)". This is incorrect as it was formerly known as Wegner's GranulomatosisMajor erratum
862620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prognosis-of-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss?search=churg%20strauss&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~104&usage_type=default&display_rank=2It currently reads "granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) - PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA". The issue is two fold. One is that it was actually formerly Wegener's granulomatosis. Secondly, this phrasing would lead one to believe that Churg-Strauss is c-ANCA positive, whereas is it actually p-ANCA positive. Churg Strauss syndrome is actually eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.Major erratum
863620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewFA has listed, “granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)”. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as Wegener’s polyangitis. In regards to Churg-Strauss syndrome Churg-Strauss syndrome it is now known as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.Major erratum
864620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30404111/In the Nephritic Syndromes, under Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis it states that Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss Syndrome where in fact it was actually formerly known as Wegener Granulomatosis. Eosinophillic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss Syndrome.Minor erratum
865620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeBoards and Beyond "Nephritic Syndrome" , First Aid 2021 page 485Churg Strauss Syndrome should have a P-ANCA as properly noted on page 485 of First Aid 2021 as well as Boards and Beyond. However, on page 620 First Aid 2021 there is the following statement: (Churg Strauss Syndrome)-PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA" seen under the rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. I believe it should be MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA as opposed to the PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA.Minor erratum
866620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeN/AOn the 3rd bullet point under RPGN, the book states that Granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly called Churg Strauss. However, granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly Wegener's Granulomatosis. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly Churg Strauss Syndrome. Bullet point should read: Negative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis)—PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss Syndrome) or Microscopic polyangiitis —MPO-ANCA/p-ANCAMinor erratum
867620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=wegener%20granulomatosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1In the "Rapidly Progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis" subsection, the parenthetical to describe Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is listed as "formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome." However, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis was formerly Wegener's granulomatosis and is still referred to as such in some sources.Minor erratum
868620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/333492-overview#a5The text says: “granulomatosis with polyangiitis is c-ANCA, but is p-ANCAMajor erratum
869620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewUnder rapidly progressive gloerulonephritis section, line #7, it is mentioned "granulomatosis with polyangitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)" but, this disease was formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis. "Churg-Strauss syndrome" should be used for "eosinophilic granulomarosis with polyangitis".Major erratum
870620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewit reads:' granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)' this is not correct. The correct information is: granulomatosis with polyangitis (formely Wegener's granulomatosis)Minor erratum
871620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisIn the text it is stated that granulomatosis with polyangiitis being formerly called Churg-Strauss syndrome, while Wegener's granulomatosis is the formal name for granulomatosis with polyangiitis.Major erratum
872620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1says Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Formerly known as Churg-strauss) - should be formerly known as Wegners granulomatosis. Churg-strauss syndrome was formerly known as eosinophillic granulomatosis with polyangitits. both are still c-ANCA +veMinor erratum
873620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisIn the section on Rapidly Progressive (crescentic) Glomerulonephritis, it lists the possible disease processes for a negative IF. It incorrectly states that granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Churgg-Strauss. However, granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Wegener's (I believe), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Churgg-Strauss.Major erratum
874620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351088"granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)" It should be granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis)Minor erratum
875620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557827/In the text, granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly referred to as 'Churg-Strauss syndrome); however it is supposed to be 'Formerly referred to as Wegeners granulomatosis'. Churg-strauss is also known as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis which can be added later on in this paragraph.Minor erratum
876620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewChange text "Negative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)" to "Negative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener Granulomatosis)"Major erratum
877620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromecompare the 2 pages on p485 and p620 from firstaid. I took screenshots and highlighted the mistakes. Here is a link proving Churg-Strauss being Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis ==> https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/churg-strauss-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20353760.wrong information provided on page 620 concerning Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis. in addition, the information contradicts what is written on page 485Major erratum
878620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromecompare the 2 pages on p485 and p620 from firstaid. I took screenshots and highlighted the mistakes. Here is a link proving Churg-Strauss being Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis ==> https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/churg-strauss-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20353760. I attached a picture with the correct answers.wrong information provided on page 620 concerning Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis. in addition, the information contradicts what is written on page 485Major erratum
879620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisUnder "Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis", granulomatosis with polyangiitis is noted to be "formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome" when Churg-Strauss syndrome is actually "eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly "Wegener's granulomatosis.Minor erratum
880620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisGranulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly named Wegener's granulomatosis [ not Churg-Strauss, which is the former name of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis]Major erratum
881620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromemnemonicThe different nephritic syndromes can be remembered with "I AM RAD": IgA nephropathy, Alport Syndrome, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, Acute PSGN, DPGNMnemonic
882620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7609341/In Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, Churg strauss vasculitis is associated with p-ANCA/MPO-ANCA and Wegener vasculitis is associated with c-ANCA/PR3-ANCA.IN 2021 VERSION OF FA,THERE IS AN ERROR IN THE RENAL SECTION UNDER NEPHRITIC SYNDROMEMajor erratum
883620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewGranulomatosis with polyangitis was formerly known as wegners not churg-straussMinor erratum
884620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=wagner%20granulomatosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) change to formerly wegener's granulomatosisMinor erratum
885620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromehttps://medlineplus.gov/granulomatosiswithpolyangiitis.htmlStates that granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, however it was formerly known as Wegener's GranulomatosisMinor erratum
886620RenalPathologyNephritic syndromeGranulamtosis wih polyangitis formrly Known as Wegnar which is C-ANCA positive and Eosinophilic granulomatosis is Churg stuassNegative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)—PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Microscopic polyangiitis—MPO-ANCA/p-ANCAMajor erratum
887620RenalPathologyRenovascular diseasehttps://usmle-rx.com/submit-errata-and-suggestions-for-first-aid-step-1/Under the "Negative IF/Pauci-immune section related to RPGN, the book describes granulomatosis with polyangitis as formerly being called Churg Strauss syndrome. It was formerly known was Wegener syndrome.Major erratum
888620RenalPathologyVasculitidesNAUnder rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis -- negative IF/Pauci-immune: it says that granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Churg Strauss Syndrome where as it actually is formerly Wegner's and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly known as Churg Strauss.Minor erratum
889620RenalPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869584/In the rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis statement it says: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg -Strauss syndrome) where it should say (formerly Wegener)Minor erratum
890620RenalPathologyVasculitideshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/333492-overviewFirst Aid Says: "Negative IF/Pauci-immune (no Ig/C3 deposition): granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome)—PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Microscopic polyangiitis—MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA". My correction is about a mixed up between Churg-Strauss Syndrome, that is known as Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, and with Wegener's Granulomatosis, which is known as Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.Minor erratum
891620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-straussUnder pauci-immune causes for rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis was listed as being formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome. This should be corrected to eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis being formerly known as Churg-Strauss.Minor erratum
892620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=Granulomatosis%20with%20Polyangiitis&topicRef=3105&source=see_linkFor Negative IF/Pauci-immune: Text says "granulomatosis with polyangitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) -PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA, eosinophillic granulomatosis with polyangitis or Microscopic polyangitis- MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA." I believe it should be formerly WegenersMajor erratum
893620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332622-overviewIn the renal section discussing RPGN (p620) it appears they mispoke when referencing granulomatosis w/ polyangitis, calling it Churg-Strauss (which is eosinophilic granulomatosis w/ polyangitis). Granulomatosis w/ polyangitis is Wegener. Though it looks like splitting hairs, they had the markers incorrect as well. So Churg-Strauss is p-anca (MPO-anca) and Wegener is c-anca (PR3-anca).Major erratum
894620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/333492-overviewOn the rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis it is written that granulomatosis with polyangiitis was formerly known as the churg-struass syndrome which is incorrect it was formerly known as the wegeners granulomatosis,eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is the disease known as churg-struass syndrome .Minor erratum
895620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www-uptodate-com.rosalindfranklin.idm.oclc.org/contents/clinical-spectrum-of-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibodies?search=p%20and%20c%20anca&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H7&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H7In the section for Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis, it says "granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churgg-Strauss syndrome)" but it should be "formerly known as Wegener's Granulomatosis". Additionally, later it says "eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis" which afterwards should have "(also known as Churgg-Strauss Syndrome)".Major erratum
896620RenalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www-uptodate-com.elibrary.einsteinmed.org/contents/overview-of-and-approach-to-the-vasculitides-in-adults?sectionName=Eosinophilic%20granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis%20(Churg-Strauss)&search=granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis&topicRef=3117&anchor=H262394573&source=see_link#H262394573Under rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis, it says granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly called Churg-Strauss. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is formerly called Wegener's granulomatosis. Churg-Strauss was formerly called eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.Major erratum
897621RenalPathologyNephrotic syndromehttps://doi.org/10.34067/KID.0006172020focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is higher prevalence in both black and hispanic populationMinor erratum
898623RenalPathologyUrinary incontinencehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19542265/MS was only listed underneath Overflow incontinence. In patients with MS, their incontinence is first due to detrusor overactivity which would be more in line with "Urgency incontinence," and then can progress to overflow incontinence as the disease progresses and the bladder becomes atonic and dilated.Minor erratum
899626RenalPathologyConsequences of renal failuremnemonic by memnemonic for memorizing the manifestations of uremia. the mnemonic is "Purple PEAN". P- pericarditis, P- platelet dysfunction, E- encephalopathy, A- asterixis, N- nausea and anorexiaMnemonic
900627ReproductiveAnatomyAutonomic innervation of male sexual responsehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538516/Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system utilize acetylcholine (ACh). Norepinephrine is released by sympathetic fibers from the hypogastric nerve that run through the pelvis splanchnic nerves.Clarification to current text
901628RenalPathologyRenal cell carcinomaMy desperate mind during dedicated7 P's. PCT origin, Polygonal clear cells, Passes to renal vein to metastasize elsewhere, Palpable masses, Pain in flank, Persistent: often resistant to chemo and radiation, Paraneoplastic (PEAR-aneoplastic) syndrome. You're welcome to shorten or make it fewer P's. I found this useful, hope it helps!Mnemonic
902628RenalPathologyRenal cell carcinomaNone needed"Class triad" should be "Classic triad"Spelling/formatting
903628RenalPhysiologyNEW FACThttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/string-of-beads-sign-renal-artery-1?lang=usFor Fibromuscular dysplasia, Please have an imaging study picture showing classic beads on string appearance. Its so easy to correlate renal cause of hypertension with presence of that imaging picture .Clarification to current text
904629RenalPathologyNephroblastomahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/presentation-diagnosis-and-staging-of-wilms-tumorI remember that the Wilms tumor is a mutation on chromosome 11 by thinking "W11ms" tumor.Mnemonic
905629RenalPathologyUrothelial carcinoma of the bladderFA 2021 P629Please remove red color from "smoking, chronic nephrolithiasis" except letter "s" in smoking to match exist mnemonic.Clarification to current text
906630RenalPharmacologyDiuretics site of actionUSMLE-Rxthis article does not some up in search results for mannitol, acetazolamide, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics etc.Clarification to current text
907631RenalPharmacologyLoop diureticshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584568/Why loop diuretics cause ototoxicity ? Loop diuretics block NKCC2 transporters which are also present in the ear. It maintains proper endolymphatic and perilymphatic electrolyte concentration. Blockade of such transporter (ex. Loop Diuretics ) cause electrolyte imbalance and damage -> Ototoxicity.High-yield addition to next year
908632RenalPharmacologyAcidosis and alkalosisNot neededLow K+ -> aLKalosisMnemonic
909636ReproductiveEmbryologyEarly fetal developmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065984/Week 8 is when you see fetal movementMajor erratum
910637ReproductiveEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativesusmlerx.comI had corrected tracheal cartilage from neural crest to mesoderm which you have changed in this new edition but have not acknowledged me.Minor erratum
911639ReproductiveEmbryologyFetal alcohol syndromehttps://firstaidteam.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/2021_FAS1_Foreword-2.pdfIt says "patients who consumed alcohol". But this ambiguous to just say "patient" Also, FA resolved to replace "mother" with "preganentat patient" which is less ambiguous than just saying "patient"Clarification to current text
912639ReproductiveEmbryologyFetal alcohol syndromeshould say "mothers" who consumed alcohol. The father's alcohol consumption does not directly cause Fetal Alcohol SyndromeClarification to current text
913641ReproductiveEmbryologyTwinninghttps://step1.medbullets.com/embryology/103006/monozygotic-vs-dizygotic-twinsMonozygotic "Identical Twins" arise from 1 fertilized zygote (1egg + 1 sperm). The error in First Aid says arises from 1 fertilized "egg" which should instead say zygoteMinor erratum
914644ReproductiveEmbryologyPharyngeal pouch derivativesNot neededIn the 3rd pharyngeal pouch (venTral wings : Thymus)Mnemonic
915645ReproductiveEmbryologyOrofacial cleftsUWorld QI: 1740Due to failure of fusion of the intermaxillary segment and medial nasal processes.Minor erratum
916646ReproductiveEmbryologyNEW FACTBhoil R, Sood D, Sharma T, et al. Contrast Intravasation During Hysterosalpingography. Pol J Radiol. 2016;81:236-239. Published 2016 May 17. doi:10.12659/PJR.896103Hysterosalpingogram: Spillage of contrast into peritoneum is normal and indicates patency of fallopian tube. No spillage =block = infertilityHigh-yield addition to next year
917649ReproductivePathologyBreast pathologyN/AAmongst the labelling on the structures of the breast under "Breast Pathology", I would suggest rewording "lactiferous ducts" to lactiferous SINUS" as Major duct and lactiferous duct are used interchangeably, also the lactiferous sinus is specifically the area of the lactiferous duct that is dilated and located right beneath the nipple. This minor word change will help the students orient themselves properly and prevent any future confusion about origins of different breast pathologiesClarification to current text
918649ReproductiveAnatomyFemale reproductive anatomyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/surgical-female-pelvic-anatomy?search=anatomy%20uterine&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H16592485The structure pointed as the Cardinal ligament is misrepresented and it's more likely to be a misplaced Ureter, considering the Cardinal ligament is a membranous ligament that comprehends the Uterine vessels, instead of a string-like structure that goes along with the Uterine vessels.Major erratum
919651ReproductiveAnatomyAutonomic innervation of male sexual responseNot neededT11-L2 is involved in emission/ejaculation: T11-L2 - shoot your GooMnemonic
920653ReproductivePhysiologySpermatogenesishttps://webcampus.drexelmed.edu/neurobio/embryology/page1/page5/primary spermatocyte should have 92 sister chromatids (not 46) and secondary spermatocyte should have 46 sister chromatids (not 23). Same for oogonia on p 655.Minor erratum
921654ReproductivePhysiologyEstrogenCostanzo Physiology 6th ed.EFG (alphabetic) = Estrogen, FSH, Granulosa cells; vs. Theca cells = Testosterone & progesTerone = Top (outer)High-yield addition to next year
922654ReproductivePhysiologyEstrogensMnemonicTwo Ovaries = estraDiol; Three blood vessels in placenta = esTRIol; One big blob of adipose fat = estrONEMnemonic
923656ReproductivePharmacologySelective estrogen receptor modulatorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559292/ClomiPHEne blocks estrogen negative “PHEEdback”(feedback) in hypothalamus. CLOMiphene is used as a treatment for the “CLUMp of cysts” (PCOS).Mnemonic
924657ReproductivePhysiologyPhysiologic changes in pregnancyhttps://www.webmd.com/diabetes/insulin-resistance-syndromeInstead of "Insulin resistance and HYPOGLYCEMIA" should be HYPERGLYCEMIAClarification to current text
925657ReproductivePhysiologyPregnancyhttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-trends-of-HCG-estrogen-and-progesterone-during-pregnancy-The-yellow-line-represents_fig1_327132785Estrogen level become higher than progesterone at later weeks of gestatsionMajor erratum
926658ReproductivePhysiologyHuman placental lactogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1668/2021 FA edition currently says that the function of Human placental lactogen is to stimulates insulin production in pregnant patients. This fact should say that Human placental lactogen blocks insulin production during pregnancy.Major erratum
927659ReproductivePhysiologyAndrogensmnemonicTIDE ⇒ *T*estosterone = *I*nternal genitala; *D*HT = *E*xternal genitaliaMnemonic
928661ReproductivePathologySex chromosome disordershttps://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/98/1/20/2823039 (also explained in UWorld question ID 582)I suggest replacing "testicular atrophy" with "testicular hyalinization". Technically, the small, firm testes seen in Klinefelter Syndrome are due to progressive destruction and hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules. In contrast, atrophic testes are a feature of central hypogonadism (low LH/FSH/testosterone, e.g., Kallman syndrome).Clarification to current text
929661ReproductivePathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/physiology-of-the-normal-menstrual-cycle?source=related_linkIncreased FSH leads to increased estrogenMajor erratum
930662RespiratoryAnatomyRespiratory treehttp://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/respiratory/conducting.phpCurrent edition says respiratory bronchioles don’t have ciliated epithelium in the figure on page 662.Where as other resources and university websites say they do have ciliated columnar epithelium.High-yield addition to next year
931664RespiratoryPhysiologyLung volumes and capacitieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482502/#:~:text=Tidal%20volume%20is%20the%20amount,mL%20in%20a%20healthy%20female.Tidal Volume = air that moves in & OUT of lung with each respiratory cycle.Clarification to current text
932665RespiratoryPhysiologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/measurement-and-interpretation-of-pleural-pressure-manometry-indications-and-techniqueIn Between alveolar and intrapleural pressure please add trans-pulmonary pressure.High-yield addition to next year
933667ReproductivePathologySupine hypotensive syndromehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8164943/Compression on IVC relieved by placing patient in left lateral recumbent position or elevating right hipHigh-yield addition to next year
934668RespiratoryPhysiologyPulmonary circulationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967759/Exercise is NOT an example of a diffusion limitation in respiratory physiology as listed in the text on Page 668. Exercise leads to considerable increase in diffusion and gas exchange.Minor erratum
935668ReproductivePathologyVulvar pathology1- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691475/ 2- https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13697137.2017.1343295?journalCode=icmt20 3- https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40257-018-0364-7Patients with lichen sclerosus often have perianal skin involvement in a figure-eight pattern that can result in painful defecation and anal fissures. In severe cases, normal anatomic structures may be obliterated or atrophied, such as loss of the labia minora and clitoral hood, which can cause narrowing of the vaginal introitus and dyspareunia.High-yield addition to next year
936670ReproductivePathologyOvarian tumorsFirst Aid 208, 2019, 2020pseudomyxoma peritonei is seen in mucinous carcinoma, not mucinous cystadenomaMinor erratum
937670RespiratoryPhysiologyResponse to exercisehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967759/Exercise and hyperventilation leads to recruitment of additional alveoli and accompanying increase in cardiac output reduces transit time of blood in the pulmonary circuit leading to significant increase in DLcoHigh-yield addition to next year
938671RespiratoryPathologyDeep venous thrombosisnoneI understand why the entry for deep vein thrombosis is placed just before the pulmonary embolism entry in the respiratory chapter given the close association of the two conditions. However, I think it would be more helpful to place the entry for DVT in the cardiovascular chapter. Many questions highlight the VASCULAR pathology of DVT, with causes being traced back to Virchow's triad. Treatments also center on anticoagulation, thrombolytic, and such therapies which center on hemodynamics. It would help students tackle questions better, conceptualizing DVT as a form of vasculitis. The reference to pulmonary embolism would allow students to turn to that chapter for the specific pulmonary manifestations of DVT leading to PE.High-yield addition to next year
939671ReproductivePathologyOvarian tumorshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/254489-overview#:~:text=Granulosa%2Dtheca%20cell%20tumors%2C%20more,in%20varying%20degrees%20and%20combinations.granulosa cell tumors AKA Granulosa-theca cell tumorsHigh-yield addition to next year
940672ReproductivePathologyHallmarks of cancern/aMneumonic for Endometrial Cancer "COLD NUT" C: Cancer (ovarian, breast, colon) O: obesity L: late menopause D: diabetes mellitus N: nulliparity U: unopposed estrogen, PCOS, anovulation, HRT T: tamoxifen (chronic use)Mnemonic
941672RespiratoryPathologyMediastinal pathologyhttps://www.google.com/search?q=pneumomediastinum&sxsrf=ALeKk00W3lcdGCuFV0CNNVAkhGFDeoAHGg:1608917912936&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIjrGl1untAhUKXRUIHZHjAwcQ_AUoAXoECB0QAw&biw=1514&bih=982#imgrc=M9aIhOGgND5vzMThe picture illustrating pneumomediastinum is very SMALL. Can't appreciate anything.Clarification to current text
942672ReproductivePathologyUterine conditionshttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Extragenital_endometriosis.jpgIn page, 672, about the endometriosis, the picture (A) is the laparoscopic picture of endometriosis of the peritoneum and it is not the picture of endometrioma, so I will suggest to put the phrase ( oval structures above and below the astrikes in {A}) after the the phrase of { peritoneum ( yellow- brown "powder burn" lesion }. Thank you!Clarification to current text
943673ReproductivePathologyBenign breast diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-benign-breast-diseasesSclerosing adenosis and epithelial hyperplasia are not clearly listed as subtypes of proliferative lesions. The current wording makes it sound like they are subtypes of non-proliferative lesions, which is incorrect. Changing the phrase "Subtypes include:" to "Subtypes of proliferative lesions include:" would clarify this point.Clarification to current text
944673ReproductivePathologyBenign breast diseasesRobbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th editionUnder subheading fibrocystic changes, after mentioning non-proliferative subtypes, its written "risk of cancer is usually not increased. Subtypes include: sclerosing adenosis and epithelial hyperplasia". Then its mentioned both sclerosing adenosis and epithelial hyperplasia are associated with increased risk of cancer. Reconsider reclassifying sclerosing adenosis and epi hyperplasia as proliferative fibrocystic changes.Clarification to current text
945674ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/breast-cancer-in-men/abstract/18-23Men get BReast CAncer 'two'Mnemonic
946674ReproductivePathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/breast-masses-in-children-and-adolescents?search=mammary%20duct%20ectasia&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H12&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~9&display_rank=1#H12Mammary duct ectasia: inflammation with dilation of subareolar ducts. Presents as a periareolar mass with green-brown discharge in a multiparous postmenopausal woman; plasma cells seen on biopsy. Benign finding- distinguish from carcinoma.High-yield addition to next year
947675ReproductivePathologyTesticular torsionhttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p835.htmlIt is very high yield to note that the bell clapper deformity is due to inadequate fixation of testis to tunica vaginalis of scrotal sac. This comes up very often on exams.Clarification to current text
948677ReproductivePathologyChoriocarcinoma(https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.1995.5.425 ) ( Case Reports Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) . 2016 Jan;29(1):42-3. doi: 10.1080/08998280.2016.11929353. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis) (BMJ case report, 2011;2011:bcr0420114163)Human glycoprotein hormone family (hCG, TSH, LH, and FSH) all share an identical alpha subunit, but it is not the one which confers the specific biologic properties and it is not the real cause of the paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism in testicular choriocarcinoma patients. Indeed, it is the beta subunit which confers the specific biologic properties of each of the glycoprotein hormone. Many published papers showed that the identical alpha subunit of the FSH, LH, hCG, and TSH is not the cause of paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism, otherwise hyperthyroidism can be seen in cases of elevated levels of FSH or LH and that is not the case. It is the beta subunit of the hCG which share a significant sequence homology with the beta subunit of THS, that allows hCG to bind and activate the TSH receptor on the thyroid gland and cause the paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism in patient with testicular choriocarcinoma who have a very high levels of hCG.Clarification to current text
949677ReproductivePathologyHormone levels in germ cell tumorsnot neededplacental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is incorrectly abbreviated as PALP instead of PLAPSpelling/formatting
950677ReproductivePathologyTesticular tumorsnot neededPlacental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP) is incorrectly abbreviated as "PALP" instead of "PLAP" in both the "Testicular Tumors section" and in the "Hormone levels in germ cell tumors" chart.Spelling/formatting
951682ReproductivePharmacologyTestosterone, methyltestosteronehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28526632/, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22528986/Suggest adding increased risk for prostate cancer and thromboembolism to adverse effects of testosterone therapy. (Came up in a UWorld question - it's thought that the mechanism is testosterone suppresses hepcidin -> increased intestinal iron absorption -> erythrocytosis -> increased blood viscocity -> risk of thromboembolism). Monitor PSA and hematocrit.High-yield addition to next year
952684RespiratoryEmbryologyLung developmentFirst aid 2021A baby can live at Canalicular stageMnemonic
953687RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyhttps://radiologykey.com/aspiration/While supine -usually enters Posterior segment of the right upper lobe & Superior segment of the right lower lobeHigh-yield addition to next year
954687RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyhttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/aspiration-pneumonia?lang=us#:~:text=The%20posterior%20segment%20of%20the,middle%20lobe%2C%20and%20lingula%202.&text=chronic%20aspiration%20pneumonia,-Treatment%20and%20prognosisWhile supine - aspirated/inhaled foreign body enters Posterior segments of the right upper lobe & Superior segments of the right lower lobeMajor erratum
955687RespiratoryAnatomyLung anatomyUW 1745Due to gravity, supine patients typically aspirate into the posterior segments of the upper lobes and superior segments of the lower lobes. Patients who are upright tend to aspirate into the basilar segments of the lower lobes. Aspirated material is more likely to travel down the right main bronchus.Clarification to current text
956690Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid Reviewgeneral formatting suggestionRapid review in flashcard format is ideal for 2-person study. I would suggest having a section at the end of each chapter like this. If possible, have the question/prompt/clue in simple terms, so that non-medical people (friends, family) can quiz students.Spelling/formatting
957691RespiratoryPhysiologyCyanide vs carbon monoxide poisoningNot neededUnder cyanide where it says curve normal: CYANiDe - Does Not Alter Your CurveMnemonic
958693RespiratoryPhysiologyVentilation/perfusion mismatchFirst AidMore Air at the Apex, more Blood at the Base (to remember ventilation is greater at the apex and perfusion is greater at the base)Mnemonic
959694RespiratoryPhysiologyResponse to exercisehttps://www.statpearls.com/ArticleLibrary/viewarticle/26710The text shows that there is no change in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) during exercise, however a few pages earlier (pg. 692) exercise is shown to be a diffusion limited process, which means that gas equilibrium doesn't take place along the length of the capillary. This means that if the alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) is 104mmHg, and the systemic PaO2 is 40 mmHg, at the end of the length of the capillary the PaO2 in the pulmonary vein would be around 70 mmHg and not 104 mmHg. This proves that there is a decrease in the PaO2 because of diffusion limitation as the blood flow to the lungs as increased as a response to exercise. Therefore, a change (decrease) will be seen in the PaO2 in exercise.Major erratum
960694RespiratoryPhysiologyResponse to high altitudenot neededLine 5: ODC dissociation curve (delete "dissociation curve")Spelling/formatting
961695RespiratoryPatholog