National O&C Register- Public Version
Opportunity & Constraint TitleNGN Reference IDOC Description - with subregion specificsComment for external feedback (approx 100 words)RegionSubregionCapture Date
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1
Access to long coleoptile varieties and agronomy to match
NGN0002This issue has been a high priority in WA, with all subregions rating this as a high priority in 2021. An issues capture was completed in the Albany and Esperance Port Zones. It's a two-part issue; growers want access to these genetics through breeding program AND they want to understand the agronomy for these crops in order to be able to adopt them as quickly as possible.GRDC currently invests in a local Demonstration and Extension project with SLR Pty Ltd with trial sites in all Port Zones to extend the current opportunities and best practices for commercially available varieties and new long coleoptile varieties in development. This project started in 2021 and will have trial sites continuing into 2022. Project Code: SLR2103-001RTXWestAll WA Subregions12/08/21
2
Earwig management and control
NGN0004High earwig and slater numbers are becoming more of a common occurrence, particularly on heavy soil types. This is costing many growers in establishment especially for canola and pulses. While Grower Network members note that case studies are great, they also note that unfortunately they are not showing anything different than has already been figured out, with growers noting that the current case study information is not helping them learn more about these pests, particularly earwigs. Adding to the issue is the fact that there are very limited registered control options particularly for earwigs. To get around this, growers are making their own wheat baits that are not registered.GRDC is analysing this issue to identify research and development opportunities for difficult to control, emerging pests that currently have limited management options available.

GRDC investments related to this issue:

CSP1805-016RTX: Post-doctoral fellowship - When are earwigs pests and when are they beneficial (earwig biology, ecology and management)

Research findings: https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/08/earwigs-latest-research-on-these-damaging-pests

UOM1403-002RTX: PhD - Predicting insect pest issues in Australian grain crops (slaters, Portugese millipedes)

Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information.

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2020/new-knowledge-on-pests-and-beneficials-in-grains
WestAlbany Port Zone
Esperance Port Zone
12/08/21
3
Low rainfall non-glyphosate options
NGN0007Grower Network members from the Esperance and Albany low rainfall zones have ranked non-glyphosate options as a high priority this year again after a number of years having it in their top issues. These zones have raised this over time, and it is of particular interest to them, as they are pushing cropping boundaries and often using a glyphosate pass 3-5 times in a cropping season, increasing the risk of this chemical being lost. This use of glyphosate is also increased due to the frequency of summer rains in those zones, with glyphosate being a herbicide of choice (often as a mix) to tackle summer weeds.GRDC is analysing this issue in a bigger context as a priority. As part of this, GRDC commissioned a Special Workshop titled “Profitable cropping in a herbicide limited world” and an earlier Workshop focussed on “Market access requirements and the implications for managing weeds.” The workshops developed a number of recommendations which GRDC will assess as part of its strategic analysis in this space.

GRDC continues to invest in reducing the impact of weeds on farm and providing growers cost effective solutions to weed control and has a suite of investments for non-chemical alternatives and integrated weed management. Investments include:

UOA1707-005RTX: Crop competition for weed management and maintenance of crop yield
RnD4Profit 115-02-005: Biocontrol solutions for sustainable management of weed impacts to agricultural productivity (https://www.agrifutures.com.au/related-projects/csiro-weed-biocontrol-rnd4profit-15-02-005/)
UOS1806-002AWX: Intelligent robotic non-chemical weeding

An Alternatives to Glyphosate project has been developed and is funded by DPIRD, evaluating the effectiveness of single herbicides that have an Australian registration, as well as potential herbicide mixtures. For more details, contact Megan Broad or Alex Douglas from DPIRD.
WestAlbany Port Zone
Esperance Port Zone
12/08/21
4
Marshmallow management
NGN0010Growers in the Albany and Esperance port zone raised the issue of marshmallow management as a sporadic problem, though growers who had little or no stock did not find marshmallow to be an issue in crop. Those that had experienced issues, noted that they had a lot of difficulty trying to kill marshmallow, and ensuring that it is dead before running the seeder through. These growers also noted, however, that while marshmallow was in most paddocks with some years worse than others, it was normally worse in a dry start.GRDC have recently approached the market with a tender to address this issue:
Demonstrating effective management of late summer/early autumn germinating marshmallow (Malva parviflora) in southern Western Australia

GRDC investments related to this issue:

UOA1505-001RTX: Emerging weeds (Seed-bank biology of emerging weeds)
DAW00257 (DAW1607-002RTX): Locally important weeds

Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information.

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2010/07/taming-small-flowered-mallow-marshmallow

https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/audio/podcast/the-seedbank-life-of-emerging-problem-weeds

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2021/ecology-of-major-emerging-weeds

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/common-weeds-of-grain-cropping-the-ute-guide
WestAlbany Port Zone
Esperance Port Zone
12/08/21
5
Russian Wheat Aphid management
NGN0013Growers and advisors in the Esperance port zone experienced Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) for the first time in 2020, when they were found late in the growing season.

Many farmers sprayed – but in hindsight many said they did it because they panicked, and because they were already going over the paddock for other issues so thought they would include a budworm spray as well.
GRDC has a number of investments related to this issue:

UOA1805-018RTX: Russian Wheat Aphid Risk Assessment and Regional Thresholds
PPL00001-A: Evaluation of insecticide options for the control of Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) in wheat and barley

Search the contract number (UOA1805-018RTX or PPL00001-A) on the GRDC website for more information.

Research findings and useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/russian-wheat-aphid
WestEsperance Port Zone03/02/21
6
Caltrop management and seed bank reduction
NGN0014Esperance Port Zone growers recognize the need to manage caltrop in problem areas to reduce spread across their properties. Caltrop flowers prolifically and is hard seeded (up to 7 years seed viability), and germinates from spring to autumn after rain, growing rapidly and producing deep roots (Borger 2020). In WA it can grow all year round, though grows mainly in the warmer months. This ability to grow rapidly and its ability to seed set quickly makes this weed difficult to manage.GRDC is analysing this issue to identify research and development opportunities for difficult to control, summer weeds, particularly caltrop, for Australian grain growers.

GRDC investments related to this issue:

UOA1505-001RTX: Emerging weeds (Seed-bank biology of emerging weeds)

Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information.

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2021/02/weed-ecology-the-key-to-weed-control

https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/west/2020/november/paddock-practices-caltrop-can-be-controlled-with-careful-management

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/common-weeds-of-grain-cropping-the-ute-guide

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2014/05/grdc-manual-summerfallowweedmanagement
WestEsperance Port Zone06/08/20
7
Better thresholds for Budworm and Aphids
NGN0015Budworm in wheat have been present for the last 3 seasons (2018-2020). This is unusual – normally they are found in pulse crops but numbers and damage caused by them in wheat is less common and less is known about them in that scenario. Knowing what is driving this pest presence and knowing what potential yield damage they may cause by feeding on green leaf material would be beneficial. Severtson (2020) notes that this is most likely occurring due to the presence of wild radish and volunteer hosts when moths lay eggs, as well as cyclone activity in breeding areas of the rangelands in February. If this is the case, then 2021 is likely to again see increased incidence of budworm in cereals as cyclone activity was again experienced in the NAR in early April.

Another concern for the Grower Network members is that budworm damage is being seen in lupins and canola at later growth stages as pods are leathering. Do the thresholds change when pods start to mature? Little research appears to have been done on pod maturity vs damage, with old DAFWA economic thresholds now not adequate for grain buyers due to seed damage. In pulse crops, there are questions around if we are being too lenient with numbers, and by assuming that yield damage is the only economic cost. However, if grub damage is leading to damaged grain, is that leading to quality downgrades? This may not be picked up by the economic thresholds.
A new investment was contracted in 2021 to help address and understand the issue of budworm impacting cereals:

DAW2106-001RTX: Determining the economic impact of Native Budworm (Helicoverpa punctigera) in cereal crops in the Western Region

Research results will be forthcoming.

Developing, updating and validating economic thresholds for major pests in grains is a priority for GRDC.

DAQ1803-001RMX: Economic thresholds for the major pests reducing profitability in the Australian grains industry.

This project was developed to engage with the grains industry and provide an industry report for developing or updating Economic Thresholds. The report comprises of a framework for describing strategic investment opportunities and potential outcomes, and specific recommendations around regional priorities and appropriates approaches/methodologies.
WestGeraldton Port Zone15/02/21
8
Rhizoctonia (R. solani AG8) is increasing
NGN0021Growers in the Kwinana East port zone have noted that rhizoctonia appears to be increasing in area and severity, however they have also noted that identification and awareness is lacking with many growers not aware of or not knowing how to identify the disease.

Grower Network members believe that continuous cropping and min-till is exacerbating the issue, with a lack of soil disturbance noted when using knife points. There is the belief that growers can't deep rip every year and the knowledge that one (or even two) years of a break crop is not enough to break the cycle. Rhizoctonia is also showing up after 2 years of break crop in this port zone.
GRDC investments related to this issue:

DAW1901-006RTX: Increasing farming system profitability and longevity of benefits following soil amelioration. A variation to this investment was done to understand, measure and determine the survival of significant soilborne diseases after soil amelioration.

DJP1907-002RMX: Soilborne disease interaction in Australian farming systems

FLR1912-003RTX: Soilborne pathogens of winter cereals: extension of identification and management strategies

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/cereal-disease-management-using-learnings-from-2021-to-improve-management-in-2022

https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/audio/podcast/rhizoctonia-id-and-management

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4fN0Bcvvws
WestKwinana East Port Zone24/02/21
9
Matricaria management, particularly in pasture
NGN0022One of the main concerns about matricaria is its’ continual and rapid spread over recent years. In the early 1970s both species of matricaria were only found in small regions, however they have spread to encompass a large region of the wheatbelt with globe chamomile now being found in the Central to Southern region between Northam and Merredin and down to Esperance whilst calomba daisy is found in the Central to Northern region between Northam and Southern Cross and up to Geraldton (https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au).GRDC investments related to this issue:

DAW00257 (DAW1607-002RTX): Locally Important Weeds. Matricaria is one of the main species where control options have been evaluated and extension material has been made available for control options in pasture.

Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information.

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/02/biology-and-management-of-matricaria-oncosiphon-piluliferum
WestKwinana East Port Zone05/08/21
10
Agronomy packages to manage brome and barley grass
NGN0029Kwinana West port zone Grower Network members noted that management of brome and barley grass is becoming an increasing issue. Developing a package to control these weeds and manage them long term in the face of developing herbicide resistance and no HWSC options will be a great investment.Improved brome grass management is currently being analysed as a priority issue.

A project on improved barley grass management in the West and South has been in progress since 2019. Useful information and strategies from this project will continue to be provided to grain growers to better manage this weed in their farming systems.

UOA1904-004SAX: Demonstrating and validating the implementation of integrated weed management strategies to control barley grass in the low rainfall zone farming systems

GRDC investments related to this issue:

UOA1505-001RTX: Emerging weeds (Seed-bank biology of emerging weeds)
UOA1711-005RTX: Cultural management for weed control and maintenance of crop yield
UCS1810-001SAX: Localised barley grass seed collection for subsequent herbicide resistance testing in low rainfall farming systems

Useful resources:

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/advances-in-controlling-brome-and-barley-grass

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/factsheets/2021/brome-grass-factsheet

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2021/07/new-pre-emergence-herbicides-opportunities-and-challenges

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/03/best-rotations-for-barley-grass-management

https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2021/ecology-of-major-emerging-weeds
WestKwinana West Port Zone24/02/21
11
Disease Resistant Varieties
NGN0044"Growers are seeking disease resistant varieties. Discussion was centered around varieties being bred for yield, with disease being secondary. Many are concerned about the over use of chemicals and are keen to re-focus on disease resistance traits. Some felt that disease issues are worse now than they were 20 years ago. Many have a 3 fungicide strategy and are keen to know more about the best practice approach considering resistance and control. A priority for breeding in the south-east is resistance for Rust and Septoria, which have been prevalent this year.
Growers also discussed concerns on disease resistance in the following:
a) Cereals - rust/Septoria
b) Beans - asco/choc spot
c) Canola - blackleg
Growers report that Septoria continues to be a disease of significance in the south-east HRZ. There is some confusion over the best approach to manage Septoria. Growers are advised to spray at growth stage 31 and 39, but the disease has well and truly taken off by then. Is there an alternative approach which should be considered? And what are the specific rules to ensure we do not get fungicide resistance. Seed borne diseases in pulses were raised as an issue (i.e. Prats). What are the seed treatment options or control options for the HRZ."
GRDC currently invests in a range of ways to provide tools for growers to stave off fungicide resistance.
Pre-breeding to provide tools for breeders is a key component of this work. There is a limit ot the genetic traits that can be selected for so it is crucially important that breeders can prioritise these objectives. Breeders generally select their objectives based on direct engagement and market research with growers, but are also in regular communication with GRDC about the targets and the breeding tools required to meet these objectives.
Rust resistance has been a long term objective of cereal breeding program and continues to be. Despite the breakdown of one resistance gene in 2021, there are a number of genetic markers available that will enable breeders to breed new resistance to the current disease isolates.
Septoria is increasing in its importance as a breeding objective and has been the focus of a significant investment by GRDC with NSW DPI to provide tools for breeding (DPI1507-002BLX - DAN00203-BA - Effective genetic control of Septoria tritici blotch (STB)).

In addition to these there is a large degree of investment around disease epidemiology in different environments to provide advice for growers about where and when to spray and manage /prevent resistance. Recent examples include variation to the hyper yielding crops project to include Septoria management as well as a program of work to tailor management advice for different rainfall zones.
GRDC also invests in providing consistent extension and communication on an industry wide collaborative level through the Australian Fungicide Resistance Extension Network AFREN.

Chocolate spot and Aschocyta resistances in faba beans and Blackleg resistance in canola also continue to have significant programs of research which GRDC invests in.
SouthSouth East SA28/10/21
12
IMI Residues
NGN0051"IMI RESIDUES: Sustainability of imi herbicides: Growers are seeing residue problems with Imi’s, along with resistance issues (with applications at label rates). The product is not working in prolonged dry periods in these soil types (high pH) – and residues in the soil are impacting crop performance. Growers noted the following:
- Propizamide on clay layer (this is a group d)
- In low rainfall years - sakura is knocking oats around. Not geting that flush.
- Issues on calcareous soils. Been around for 203 years and it is still showing.
Growers are seeking an action plan and knowledge on how to get off the imi “bandwagon”. Knowledge is needed on How and when to get off, resistant weeds, where do we go? Alternative solutions? "
GRDC currently has a number of related investments in this space ranging from the development of new herbicides through the Herbicide Innovation Partnership https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/national/2020/december/major-herbicide-research-effort-enters-new-phase to Herbicide Behaviour workshops and associated resources. https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/herbicide-behaviour?utm_source=website&utm_medium=hero_search_buttons&utm_campaign=resource_landing_page&utm_content=Herbicide%20behaviour
Understanding herbicide behaviours with regard to solubility and mobility in soil provides a great context for why some herbicides are risky for use with disc systems and will not result in new permits for use under these systems. The ‘Soil Behaviour of Pre-emergent Herbicides in Australian Farming Systems’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2018/soil-behaviour-of-pre-emergent-herbicides publication addresses how herbicides behave if applied to dry soils and experience continued dry conditions. ‘Rotational Crop Constraints for Herbicides used in Australian Farming Systems’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2019/rotational-crop-constraints-for-herbicides-used-in-australian-farming-systems is another resource for growers and advisers to increase their understanding of herbicide persistence and the influencing factors.
In response to this forum, a GRDC Herbicide Behaviour workshop has now been planned for the Yorke Peninsula in 2022 to provide an opportunity for growers to understand herbicide chemistry and soil and plant interactions. This workshop will focus on herbicide behaviour of pre-emergent herbicides.
Broadleaf control in lentils is a focus for GRDC’s investment in ‘Development and extension to close the economic yield gap and maximise farming systems benefits from grain legume production in South Australia’. This project began in 2021 and is being conducted by SARDI with local trial work and extension sub-contracted to Trengove Consulting.
SouthYorke Peninsula22/09/21
13
Effective and timely monitoring of slugs and snails in the HRZ
NGN0039Slugs continue to be raised as a major issue in the HRZ. NGN members are seeking to understand why certain areas and plants are more susceptible to slugs? It is suggested there are higher populations on heavier clay soils that crack open (This might be due to better habitat to lay eggs), it was also suggested (anecdotally) that populations of snails get worse when you put gypsum out. Members are seeking knowledge to inform the management of slugs and snails through different projects (i.e. need to separate the slug and snail projects as they need different management approaches). They report that there are so many patches and variability that it is hard to monitor, and then by the time you identify all the patches management can be too late. Specific knowledge gaps include:
- Baiting strategies: i.e. Can we bait at 20kg upfront at the start? Is there a different way to approach this? Note that this year people were baiting via an aeroplane and mixing slug and mouse bait.
- Extension on population dynamics / slug ID / baiting procedure. Bait $12 kg / need 4-5. Need to do this more than once. So it is expensive and a more strategic approach to management is required.
- Investigation of using drones / satellite imagery to monitor dispersal. Is there a better way we can monitor populations and damage? Can plant phenotyping be used to look at plant damage and response to help monitoring hatching and damaging. Then tailor baiting to knowledge gained.
GRDC recognises the significant impact slugs have in cropping areas of the high rainfall zone of the Southern region. GRDC has previously invested in research of slug ecology and development of management strategies (DAS1607-022BLX) and also research into potential new products including biological controls for slugs (UOM1706 – 001RTX). The Southern NGN engagement with growers has highlighted the need for further extension and communication of the most recent research development in slug management and will invest in the delivery of communication and extension activities for slug management in the Southern region during 2022 and 2023.SouthSouth West Vic31/08/21
14
Mechanical Weed Control
NGN0043Growers are concerned about ryegrass management. They are unable to utilize seed terminators / destructors due to ryegrass having shed seed by harvest time. Growers are seeking other non-chemical management options OR training in how mechanical seed destructors can benefits the HRZ – need a case on why we should bother / what is its role in the HRZ and how should we use this.
Ryegrass is one of the major weeds impacting growers in the HRZ. Mechanical weed control options are not proving to be the option many hoped, with ryegrass setting seed before harvest so weed seeds are already on the ground. Growers are keen to learn how GM crops could assist in their ryegrass management
GRDC published a guide in 2019 about harvest weed seed control in the High Rainfall Zone https://grdc.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0029/387803/GRDC_HWSC_SFS_Sth19_04-002.pdf?utm_source=website&utm_medium=download_link&utm_campaign=pdf_download&utm_term=South&utm_content=Harvest%20Weed%20Seed%20Control%20for%20the%20Southern%20High%20Rainfall%20Zone which included economic analysis of the ROI on HWSC even in scenarios where a significant portion of the crop has shed. Further information from this project can be found here https://sfs.org.au/article/harvest-weed-seed-control. There is also a new guide available around Managing Annual Ryegrass in the High-Rainfall Zones of Vic, SA & Tas https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2021/managing-annual-ryegrass-in-the-high-rainfall-zones-of-victoria,-south-australia-and-tasmania that collates findings from a range of projects over the last few years and includes case studies.

GRDC also has a range of investments in novel methods of weed control to manage resistance which include non-chemical weed control technology, new active ingredient identification (Herbicide innovation partnership), and other integrated weed management investments.
Investments in non-chemical weed control include:
NDF1806-001AWX (Stealth Plow)
UOS1806-002AWX (Intelligent Robotic Non-Chemical Weeding)
UOA1707-005RTX (Crop competition for weed management and maintenance of crop yield)
US00084 (Innovative Crop Weed Control (cover crop suppression, HWSC, physical weeding & competition)
UCS00022 (Mechanisms of Weed Suppression by early vigour and other novel wheat genotypes)
PLN00013-B (Assessment of some harvest weed seed management options)
SFS00032 (Harvest weed seed control for the southern region)
RnD4Profit 115-02-005 (New biocontrol solutions for sustainable management of weed impacts to agricultural productivity)
UCS00020 (Weed management in the southern region mixed farming systems strategies to combat herbicide resistance -Non-chemical tactics including rotations, hay and ensiling.)

**TIP: If you google these contract numbers or search the GRDC website -you will find relevant papers of research findings.
Please feel free to contact us if you would like to know more about a particular investment listed.
SouthSouth East SA28/10/21
15
Russian wheat aphid preparing for resistance, applicability of guidelines
NGN0038There are concerns that RWA resistance is developing in treated seed/insecticides. What is the plan when we start losing products from resistance? Late season (late stem elongation to early head emerg) flights have caused significant crop damage. Researchers said it wouldnt be a problem late in season, however, even in dry seasons with no green bridge we are seeing numbers build during late winter and early spring rapidly. Crops grown from untreated seed are obviously the most prone, but with this being the case we are going to definitely see that pressure move onto those crops that have been protected at a time when those seed dressing insecticides are running out of legs. It is envisaged that this will speed up the rate of RWA resistance to insecticide use.
Note that it is also a concern in SW NSW in dry years, where heat stress also contributed. Suggest that this will be an issue with insecticides running out by the time the additional stress of RWA hits.
Haven't seen resistance in NE Vic - but need ot look at earlier not later - trying to manage problem before it becomes resitant - potential extension needed. No issue reported in the Wimmera.
More prevalent in Mid north and yp than thought. More understanding of flight times, growth stages and crop damageneeded. Also common throughout other parts of MRZ but not necessarily getting worse.
Since 2016 when Russian Wheat Aphid was first detected and subsequently established in Australia GRDC has invested in understanding the impact and management strategies for RWA. The outcomes of investment UOA1805-018RTX Russian Wheat Aphid Risk Assessment and Regional Thresholds led by SARDI in partnership with CESAR Australia have developed an economic threshold calculator. https://cesaraustralia.com/resources/russian-wheat-aphid-action-threshold-calculator/ The calculator indicates if the economic injury level is likely to be exceeded between GS30 (start of stem elongation) and GS50 (start of head emergence) and, therefore, if control of Russian wheat aphid should be actioned. This action threshold can be applied to winter and spring cereal varieties. The latest management recommendations in relation to insecticide resistance and RWA are detailed in GRDC Update Paper https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/managing-what-might-bug-you-this-seasonSouthLower and Mid North SA31/08/21
16
Slugs
NGN0047Slugs continue to be a major problem in the HRZ, with growers stating that recommended rates and approaches do not always work. Some growers report that they have baited up to 6 times with no result, and are seeking information on how many times should they keep going to achieve a result. Information is sought on the types of baits / rates / best performing methods.Slug control is a priority area for investment under GRDC’s Key Investment Targets and recognises the significant impact slugs have in cropping areas of the high rainfall zone of the Southern region.

GRDC recently went to market seeking expressions of interest around innovative ideas for more effective control of pest molluscs (snails and slugs in Australian grain crops. The objective of the EOI is to provide approaches to better monitor, detect and manage molluscs and reduce contaminants to maximise returns.

GRDC has previously invested in research of slug ecology and development of management strategies (DAS1607-022BLX) and also research into potential new products including biological controls for slugs (UOM1706 – 001RTX).
A paper from Michael Nash in 2016 on ‘New insights into slug control’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2016/07/new-insights-into-slug-control provides some data about bait degradation and slug activity among other key factors of influence for successful control.

The Southern NGN engagement with growers has highlighted the need for further extension and communication of the most recent research development in slug management and is committed to investing in the delivery of communication and extension activities for slug management in the Southern region during 2022 and 2023.
SouthSouth East SA28/10/21
17
Radish control
NGN0049Review on best practice control of Radish on the YP. Note that this is hardest to control in legumes. Overall, growers have been concerned with the control of imis and group B’s. Weed management is particularly hard when next door to vineyards. Growers discussed that they are living in fear of turning into WA and will have hardly any options left. Do not want resistance.GRDC has previously invested in researching the biology and ecology of wild radish and the development of management strategies. In 2021 a GRDC factsheet on wild radish was published detailing management strategies to control this weed and prevent further herbicide resistance development. https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/factsheets/2021/wild-radish-fact-sheetSouthYorke Peninsula22/09/21
18
Broadleaf control in lentils
NGN0052There are a lack of herbicide options to control broadleaf weeds in lentils. Growers are seeking new options.GRDC currently has a number of related investments in this space ranging from the development of new herbicides through the Herbicide Innovation Partnership https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/national/2020/december/major-herbicide-research-effort-enters-new-phase to Herbicide Behaviour workshops and associated resources. https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/herbicide-behaviour?utm_source=website&utm_medium=hero_search_buttons&utm_campaign=resource_landing_page&utm_content=Herbicide%20behaviour
Understanding herbicide behaviours with regard to solubility and mobility in soil provides a great context for why some herbicides are risky for use with disc systems and will not result in new permits for use under these systems. The ‘Soil Behaviour of Pre-emergent Herbicides in Australian Farming Systems’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2018/soil-behaviour-of-pre-emergent-herbicides publication addresses how herbicides behave if applied to dry soils and experience continued dry conditions. ‘Rotational Crop Constraints for Herbicides used in Australian Farming Systems’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2019/rotational-crop-constraints-for-herbicides-used-in-australian-farming-systems is another resource for growers and advisers to increase their understanding of herbicide persistence and the influencing factors.
In response to this forum, a GRDC Herbicide Behaviour workshop has now been planned for the Yorke Peninsula in 2022 to provide an opportunity for growers to understand herbicide chemistry and soil and plant interactions. This workshop will focus on herbicide behaviour of pre-emergent herbicides.
Broadleaf control in lentils is a focus for GRDC’s investment in ‘Development and extension to close the economic yield gap and maximise farming systems benefits from grain legume production in South Australia’. This project began in 2021 and is being conducted by SARDI with local trial work and extension sub-contracted to Trengove Consulting.
SouthYorke Peninsula22/09/21
19
Pre emergent chemical control options in the LRZ
NGN0054Growers in the Upper North are seeking access to good dry sowing pre emergent chemicals as many available do not do a good job in the dry conditions.
PERMIT REVIEW: Growers are seeking a review of preemergent chemicals by seeding system as many are not registered for disc systems and new permits are needed to utilise preemergent chemistry outside of knife point.
TRIALS: There is a research / trials gap to review the difference between TOS and TOE when sowing dry - how do herbicides react when sitting in dry soils for weeks i.e. Time of sowing vs time of emergence. Need to also explore new chemistry at different sowing times i.e. dry, wet and then assess impact on weeds and crop growth.
GRDC currently has a number of related investments in this space ranging from the development of new herbicides through the Herbicide Innovation Partnership https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/national/2020/december/major-herbicide-research-effort-enters-new-phase to Herbicide Behaviour workshops and associated resources https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/herbicide-behaviour?utm_source=website&utm_medium=hero_search_buttons&utm_campaign=resource_landing_page&utm_content=Herbicide%20behaviour.
Understanding herbicide behaviours with regard to solubility and mobility in soil provides a great context for why some herbicides are risky for use with disc systems and will not result in new permits for use under these systems. The ‘Soil Behaviour of Pre-emergent Herbicides in Australian Farming Systems’ https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2018/soil-behaviour-of-pre-emergent-herbicides publication addresses how herbicides behave if applied to dry soils and experience continued dry conditions.
A workshop has now been planned for the Upper North in 2022 as a result of this grower forum to provide an opportunity for growers to develop their knowledge. This workshop will focus on herbicide behaviour of pre-emergent herbicides.
SouthUpper North SA23/09/21
20
Regionally specific management guidelines and best practice approaches, plus new resistance varieties, for Disease resistance for Scald, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, and powdery mildew in Tasmania.
NGN0062Tasmanian growers are seeking disease resistant vareities to help manage priority diseases such as scald, Barley Yellow Dward Virus and Powdery Mildew. These diseases impact crop yields and productivity, and are costly to manage. They are keen to see new genes identified in wheatgrass that confer BYDV reistance.GRDC currently invests in a range of ways to provide tools for growers to manage disease and stave off fungicide resistance.
Pre-breeding to provide tools for breeders is a key component of this work. There is a limit to the genetic traits that can be selected for, so it is crucially important that breeders can prioritise these objectives. Breeders generally select their objectives based on direct engagement and market research with growers, but are also in regular communication with GRDC about the targets and the breeding tools required to meet these objectives.

In addition, there is a large degree of investment around disease epidemiology in different environments to provide advice for growers about where and when to spray and manage /prevent resistance. Examples of this include a previous investment led by the University of Tasmania UT00030-001RTX Effective control of barley yellow dwarf virus in wheat.

GRDC is currently developing a proposal for investment around the validation and extension of management strategies for wheat powdery mildew.

Following grower feedback, trials on best practice management of Septoria Tritici Blotch were included this year in the Hyper Yielding Crops investment at Hagley. https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/south/2021/august/new-research-to-focus-on-major-wheat-disease

GRDC also invests in other activities such as surveillance and monitoring of pathogens and providing consistent extension and communication on an industry wide collaborative level through the Australian Fungicide Resistance Extension Network AFREN (CUR1905-001SAX).https://afren.com.au/
SouthTasmania09/11/21
21
Maximising the benefit of early maturity barley and wheat cultivars in low rainfall & high temperature environments
1Barley can often have higher yields compared to wheat is some low to medium rainfall environments, and as such can be a more profitable* crop than wheat in many parts of the central east and west NSW (*commodity price influenced). The proportion of barley grown annually is LRZ has increased and is often viewed as a risk business risk management decision. Similarly, in recent years there has been the release of early maturing wheat varieties that finish fast post flowering (Vixen, Nighthawk etc). The diversity of new fast finishing wheat and barley cultivars offers growers new prospects to take advantage of early sowing rain opportunities as opposed to growing traditional winter growth types, that have a disadvantage of late maturityNorthCentral East NSW
Central West NSW
15/03/22
22
Management of Rosin weed and Star of Bethlehem in the VIc Mallee
NGN0069These two weeds are on the rise and growers are having difficulty in controlling these weeds utilising registered chemical and mechanical means. Previous work provided some chemical control options but led to significant issues with soil residues. Mechanical means of control were not found to be effective.GRDC has invested in a 2-year preliminary research project; BWD2112-001RTX Management of Rosinweed and Star of Bethlehem in Victoria's Mallee and Wimmera led by the Birchup Cropping Group with support from the University of Adelaide. This project will deliver to industry preliminary evidence which tests hypotheses to control rosinweed and star of Bethlehem and determine the initial level of seed dormancy and emergence pattern in rosinweed in areas where it is a significant cropping weed. The aim will be to provide growers and advisers in the Victorian Mallee and Wimmera with improved knowledge of rosinweed and star of Bethlehem and preliminary evidence of effective control options for further validation and extension.SouthVic Mallee
Wimmera
03/09/21
23
Mungbean fusarium management
NGN0071Fusarium wilt is a disease that has been growing in incidence and severity in mungbean crops over the past decade (as evidenced by plant pest diagnostics and disease surveys). It has been reported in crops in Central Queensland, the Burnett, widely across the central and eastern Darling Downs and as far south as Forbes in NSW. In a survey of accredited mungbean agronomists following the 2020-21 growing season, it was determined that approximately 20,000 ha of the total plant of 125,000 ha was impacted in some way by the disease. Incidence can be as low as 5% causing negligible yield losses. In extreme cases, entire paddocks have been lost to the disease. At an average yield loss of 20%, Fusarium has cost the mungbean industry an estimated $4.8m in the 2020-21 season.

F. oxysporum and F. solani have been identified as causal organisms but detailed understanding of the pathogens and management options to minimise their impacts have not been researched in mungbean. Like other fusarium species, they are pathogens that survive for multiple years in the soil, but experience from the cotton industry has shown that utilising tolerant varieties, practising good hygiene on farm and good agronomy are important management strategies.
GRDC investments related to this issue (Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information):

In response to this issue GRDC has varied DAQ1806-003RTX Optimising mungbean yield in the northern region - Mungbean agronomy to establish 3 x field sites to demonstrate the varying susceptibility of commercial varieties to Fusarium, conduct field walks and prepare a Fact Sheet on Mungbean Fusarium.

The National Mungbean Improvement Program National Mungbean Improvement Program DAQ2201-004RTX is also providing ratings on varietal performance under Fusarium infection which will help guide planting recommendations.

Useful Resources:
GRDC Research Update Papers and Webinars ICN1906-003SAX:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2016/06/management-of-the-major-mungbean-diseases-in-australia
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/december/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-mungbean-diseases
NorthCentral QLD
North East NSW
North West NSW
South East QLD
South West QLD
17/09/21
24
Weed control strategies to address and overcome poor efficacy resulting from glyphosate and 2,4-D antagonism
NGN0073Sowthistle is a problematic weed due to its easy dispersal by wind, potential to germinate all year round and increasing resistance to herbicides. In addition, antagonism when mixing Glyphosate and 2,4-D is known to result in poor efficacy on sowthistle. However, the removal of 2,4-D from spray mixtures has resulted in poorer control of a range of hard to control weed species including Parthenium, vine species and Fleabane. Growers are seeking alternative strategies to control these weeds but are mindful that uncertainty about the sequencing (rotation) of crops complicates management decisions. Areas that could be explored include, the impact of 2,4-D glyphosate antagonism, alternate herbicide mixtures, double knock and residual herbicides.In response to this issue GRDC has partnered with CRDC to develop an extension project focusing on a farming systems approach to weed management.

GRDC investments related to this issue (Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information):
NGA2009-002RTX - Agronomic management of weeds, crop nutrition and farming practices in Northern NSW & Southern QLD to maximise crop profitability.
UWA2007-002RTX - Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative - Phase 6
CSP1911-005RMX - Area Wide Management for cropping systems weeds: investigating the weed management, social and economic opportunity
UCS2008-001RTX - Determining the incidence of herbicide resistance in Australian grain cropping
UOA2007-007RTX - Developing strategies to mitigate and manage resistance to key herbicides

Useful resources:
NGA2009-002RTX Trial data available on GRDC Online Farm Trial - https://www.farmtrials.com.au/
ICN1906-003SAX GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentations:
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/june/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-strategies-for-managing-glyphosate-resistant-broadleaves-sowthistle-and-fleabane
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2016/02/sowthistle-update-including-glyphosate-resistance-survey-and-testing-and-mgmt-options
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2018/12/sowthistle-biology-management-and-resistance-status
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/03/common-sowthistle-knockdown-and-double-knock-control-in-fallow
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/03/residual-herbicides-and-sowthistle-length-of-residual-and-efficacy.-trials-in-cq-and-darling-downs
GRDC Publications:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2021/ecology-of-major-emerging-weeds
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/common-weeds-of-grain-cropping-the-ute-guide
https://www.weedsmart.org.au/big-6/

GRDC Websites:
https://www.weedsmart.org.au/
NorthCentral QLD02/12/21
25
Weed Sensor and Spray technology
NGN0074Growers are seeking to better understand the range of weed sensor technologies available (eg. Optical spot sprayer (Weedit, Weed Seekers), camera sprayers (See & Spray JD, Bilberry), drones and sectional control booms, green on brown and green and green) and how they work, functionality, setup equipment (nozzles, water volumes, spray conditions etc), retro fitting capability, strengths and weaknesses. They are also keen to understand the role and value robotic spraying units can play in managing farm labour time and their farming systems fit. Coupled with greater clarity of what products can be used through these technologies, how and within the current label conditions and regulatory risks of non-compliance.GRDC have recently contracted ICAN to deliver a series of field days to address this issue:
ICN2203-002SAX Industry Spray Day Initiative - Northern Region. Three events will be conducted each year for two years involving technical presentations and practical demonstrations.

Useful resources:
GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentation ICN1906-003SAX:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2021/05/regulatory-changes-for-buffer-zones-whats-changing-and-why
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2017/07/boom-spray-technology-improving-coverage-and-managing-drift
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2021/11/optical-sprayers-management-optimisation-and-field-experience-with-their-use-on-robotic-platforms
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/august/grdc-grains-research-update-millmerran

GRDC Publications:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grownotes/technical-manuals/spray-application-manual
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/spray-drift
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2019/grdc-nozzle-selection-guide
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2019/spraying-efficiency
NorthCentral QLD01/12/21
26
Improving powdery mildew management in mungbean
NGN0075Powdery mildew is a disease of mungbean that occurs annually somewhere in the mungbean production zone. Recommendations for management generally revert to a ‘safe’ two spray program which has implications for economic returns and increases the risk of the development of resistance to fungicides (although there is no evidence of this to date). GRDC investment in DAW1810-007RTX has created PowderyMildewMBM, a decision support tool based on historical disease management data sets, to assist with decision making around the economic management of powdery mildew in mungbean. Disappointingly, there is low awareness and limited adoption of this tool. The management of powdery mildew in mungbean would be improved if growers and agronomists had improved understanding of the disease and confidence in using the Decision support tool.In response to this issue, GRDC has recently contracted the University of Southern Queensland (USQ2202-001RTX Improving powdery mildew management in Mungbean) to actively engage agronomists and growers in an education program that increases their knowledge of the powdery mildew pathosystem and their confidence in utilising the outputs of the decision support tool to guide management decisions. Project activities will include workshops, demonstrations, validation trials and the development of case studies and other communication pieces.

GRDC Investments:
ADA1607-002OPX - Agvet #045 Grant Agreement-Mungbeans-powdery mildew-Priority Use-Adama

Useful resources:
GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentation ICN1906-003SAX :
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/december/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-mungbean-diseases
NorthCentral QLD
South East QLD
South West QLD
01/12/21
27
Management options for Milk Thistle
NGN0079Growers in Central Queensland are seeking the best management options to lower the incidence and impact of milk thistle (sow thistle).Given the widespread significance of sow thistle, it is likely to be prioritised and addressed as part of the joint CRDC/GRDC Weeds Extension project developed in response to this local feedback.

GRDC investments related to this issue (Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information):
NGA2009-002RTX - Agronomic management of weeds, crop nutrition and farming practices in Northern NSW & Southern QLD to maximise crop profitability.
UWA2007-002RTX - Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative - Phase 6
CSP1911-005RMX - Area Wide Management for cropping systems weeds: investigating the weed management, social and economic opportunity
UCS2008-001RTX - Determining the incidence of herbicide resistance in Australian grain cropping
UOA2007-007RTX - Developing strategies to mitigate and manage resistance to key herbicides

Useful resources:
NGA2009-002RTX Trial data available on GRDC Online Farm Trial - https://www.farmtrials.com.au/
ICN1906-003SAX GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentations:
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/june/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-strategies-for-managing-glyphosate-resistant-broadleaves-sowthistle-and-fleabane
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2016/02/sowthistle-update-including-glyphosate-resistance-survey-and-testing-and-mgmt-options
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2018/12/sowthistle-biology-management-and-resistance-status
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/03/common-sowthistle-knockdown-and-double-knock-control-in-fallow
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2019/03/residual-herbicides-and-sowthistle-length-of-residual-and-efficacy.-trials-in-cq-and-darling-downs

GRDC Publications:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/publications/2021/ecology-of-major-emerging-weeds
https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/national/2020/may/new-and-improved-grdc-weed-ute-guide-now-available
https://www.weedsmart.org.au/big-6/

GRDC Websites:
https://www.weedsmart.org.au/
NorthCentral QLD02/12/21
28
Alternative desiccation methods
NGN0081Growers across the northern region are investigating alternative desiccation methods (sorghum, mungbeans, canola), including windrowing options for all crops.GRDC investments related to this issue (Search the contract number on the GRDC website for more information):
In response to increased trade scrutiny on chemical residues in mungbean, the role of swathing is being investigated in a variation to DAQ1806-003RTX Optimising mungbean yield in the northern region - Mungbean Agronomy. 20 paddock scale comparisons of swathing versus desiccation will be conducted.

Useful resources:
GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentations ICN1906-003SAX:
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2021/november/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-mungbean-agronomy
NorthCentral QLD
North East NSW
North West NSW
South East NSW
South East QLD
South West QLD
01/12/21
29
Ascochyta Blight management in Chickpeas
NGN0092Growers in SQLD and NNSW are concerned that reviews APVMA on key fungicide Mancozeb and Chlorothalonil may lead to greater restriction on the use of these chemicals for the management of Ascochyta Blight. Current spray management can see 2 applications applied in low disease pressure seasons and upwards of 6 sprays in wet high disease pressure seasons. While single site fungicides containing group 3 - DMI, group 7 - SDHI and Group 11 - QOI are available, and often sold in mixtures with 2 modes of action, these chemical groups are at high risk for resistance development and application is restricted to 2 per season. Their use is also limited due to their relatively high cost. Growers are keen to understand the fit of these chemistries into season long management plans under a range of legislative restrictions that may be implemented that restrict or even ban the use of Mancozeb and Chlorothalonil.GRDC Investments:
DPI2003-020BLX - GAPP BLG307 Do some chickpeas produce metabolites for and against Ascochyta blight?
DPI1807-010BLX - GAPP BLG206: IDM for Broadleaf Crops in southern and central NSW
DPI1805-018BLX - GAPP BLG209: Pulse Integrated Disease Management – Northern NSW/QLD
USQ1903-003RTX - Post-doctoral Fellowship: A Model for Predicting Chickpea Ascochyta Blight Risk
GRI2007-001RTX - Program 1: Towards effective genetic and sustainable management of Ascochyta blight of chickpea - Ascochyta blight pathogen biology, population dynamics and epidemiology.
ICA2007-001RTX - Program 2 - Towards effective genetic and sustainable management of Ascochyta blight of Chickpea
UOA2005-011RTX - Program 3: Towards effective genetic and sustainable management of Ascochyta blight of Chickpea - Identification and characterisation of novel sources of AB resistance in elite cultivars and wild relatives of chickpea
DJP2007-001RTX - Program 4: Towards effective genetic and sustainable management of Ascochyta blight of Chickpea - Accurate, effective, cheaper and rapid high-throughput method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation for AB genetic resistance.
CSP2007-001RTX - Program 5: IDM package for Ascochyta Blight in chickpeas

Useful resources:
GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentations ICN1906-003SAX:
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/impact-and-timely-control-of-ascochyta-blight-of-chickpea
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/the-impact-of-ascochyta-on-chickpea-yield-and-economics-when-infection-occurs-at-three-different-growth-stages
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/mapping-ascochyta-rabiei-aggressiveness-and-understanding-the-pathogen-adaptation-to-disease-management-strategies
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2021/02/the-economics-of-managing-ascochyta-in-chickpea-when-disease-occurs-at-different-growth-stages-and-implications-for-spray-timing
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/1220271/Managing-ascochyta-blight-in-chickpeas-in-2021.pdf
NorthCentral West NSW
North East NSW
North West NSW
South East QLD
South West QLD
25/01/22
30
Improving growers understanding of the seasonal influence on the risk of stripe rust, length of crop susceptibility, resistance mechanisms, pathotype change and their impact on fungicide management strategies.
NGN0093Growers throughout NSW and SQLD were severely impacted by stripe rust in 2020 and 2021. Mild and wet seasonal conditions favoured multiple cycles of stripe rust which also coincided with slowed crop development and delayed onset of adult plant resistance. As a result the standard 2 spray GS31 & 37 fungicide program typically used by growers to control this disease resulted in poor management of rusts across the region. The major shift in the distribution of stripe rust pathotypes saw the 198 and 239 pathotypes impacting right across the Northern Region and growers and agronomists witnessed unexpected disease reactions. Subsequently, growers are seeking to better understand stripe rust development, impact of elongated growing seasons. Greater surveillance and communications have been identified as issues that need to be addressed to better manage the heightened risk of rust this season.GRDC Investments:
CSP1801-013RTX - Australian Cereal Rust Control Program (ACRCP) - CSIRO: Delivering genetic tools and knowledge required to breed wheat and barley with resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust
UOS1801-004RTX - Australian Cereal Rust Control Program (ACRCP) - University of Sydney: Delivering genetic tools and knowledge required to breed wheat and barley with resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust
UOA1801-010RTX - Australian Cereal Rust Control Program - Novel sources of stem rust resistance from uncultivated wild relative

Useful resources:
GRDC Northern Region Research Update Papers and Presentations ICN1906-003SAX:
https://grdc.com.au/events/past-events/2022/march/grdc-grains-research-update,-online-disease-nnsw-and-qld
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/02/cereal-disease-management-using-learnings-from-2021-to-improve-management-in-2022
https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/grdc-update-papers/tab-content/grdc-update-papers/2022/03/northern-region-wheat-stripe-rust-epidemic-in-2021-learnings-for-2022


GRDC Publications:
https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/news-and-media-releases/national/2022/updated-disease-ratings-prepare-growers-for-high-stripe-rust-risk
https://groundcover.grdc.com.au/weeds-pests-diseases/diseases/stripe-rust-incursions-create-huge-challenges
https://grdc.com.au/news-and-media/audio/podcast/stripe-rust-outlook-for-2022
GRDC Websites:
https://nvt.grdc.com.au/nvt-disease-ratings
NorthCentral East NSW
Central West NSW
North East NSW
North West NSW
South East NSW
South East QLD
South West NSW
South West QLD
08/02/22