2020 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Suggestions
Page #ChapterSectionFact NameSupporting Reference(s)Main CommentSubmission typeDate Comment Submitted
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123Section IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesSection IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesSection IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesDental decks NBDEThis book is self written and has charts for rapid reviewHigh-yield addition to next year04/02/20 12:43 PM
234BiochemistryMolecularChromatin structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215088/HDDD: Histone deacetylation deactivates DNAMnemonic04/28/20 3:27 PM
335BiochemistryMolecularAmino acidsnot needed.Cytosine is deaminated to Uracil, which is then methylated to Thymine. Mnemonic CUT de(deamination) memes (methylation) follows the same order as CUT. Cut the pye, cut the memes.Mnemonic07/23/20 7:49 AM
435BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesmnemonicpronounce p-U-RINES like "TWU RINGS"Mnemonic02/21/20 9:56 AM
535BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesnot neededafter the mnemonic for purine synthesis (Cats PURr until they GAG), add the following mnemonic for pyrimidine synthesis (continued from the CUT the PY mnemonic): "CUT the PY so you dont ASPirate those CARBs - to help recall that pyrimidine synthesis is via ASPartate & CARBamoyl phosphate.Mnemonic05/10/20 12:11 PM
635BiochemistryMolecularNucleotideshttps://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/phosphate-backbone-273/To remember the molecular orientation of nucleotide bonding, the 5' (Five) end has the PHosphate group. Five = PhosMnemonic05/25/20 2:39 PM
735BiochemistryMolecularNucleotidesMolecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.Top of page 35 in the 2020 edition says "Triphosphate bond is target of 3'hydroxyl attack" it should say that "A phosphodiester bond is formed via a dehydration reaction between the 3'hydroxyl and the triphosphate". The phosphodiester bond does not occur via a nucleophilic attach, but rather a dehydration reaction.Major erratum06/12/20 8:58 PM
836BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesishttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-17900-1_109Folinic Acid (also known as 5-formyl tetrahydrofolic acid or leucovorin) is the 5-formyl derivative of tetrahydrofolic acid, which does not required reduction by dihydrofolate reductase before it can function as a cofactor for thymidylate synthase. As Leucovorin drug effects on Methotrexate and 5FU is little bit confusing what if we add an arrow toward N5N10 methylene THF, so it can help in how Leucovorin rescue MTX toxicity bypassing Dihydrofolate reductase step that why can rescue normal cells from MTX toxicity, and at the same time enhanced 5FU to form complexes with thymidylate synthase.High-yield addition to next year04/08/20 5:36 AM
936BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesismnemonicDihydrofolate reductase inhibitor: "T"trimethoprim : bac"T"eria "M"methotrexate : "M"an P"pyrimethamine : "P"rotozoaMnemonic04/21/20 12:56 AM
1036BiochemistryMolecularDe novo pyrimidine and purine synthesishttps://reference.medscape.com/drugs/pyrimidine-synthesis-inhibitorsFlu can lead to cough. Flu= 5-fluorouracil, Ca=capecitabine, Le=leflunomide, C=capecitabine.Mnemonic04/28/20 4:55 PM
1136BiochemistryMolecularHydroxyureanot neededHydroxyurea inh. Ribonucleotide Reductase. H is paired with R. H(uman) R(esources). 5-fluorouracil, Capecitabine inh. thymidilate synthase. "5 F(or) U(r) Cape Thyme"Mnemonic07/15/20 11:41 PM
1236BiochemistryMolecularTrimethoprimits mnemonicTmp, Mtx, , Pyrimethamine = inhibit TMP synthesis by inhibition of Dihydrofolate reductaseMnemonic01/22/20 6:45 AM
1337BiochemistryMolecularGenetic code featuresNot neededRemove tryptophan being encoded by only one codon as this is unlikely to ever be tested in any form and has no clinical implications. Maybe rephrase "Exception: methionine only encoded by AUG"High-yield addition to next year02/29/20 2:35 PM
1437BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficiencieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/skin-picking-excoriation-disorder-and-related-disorders?s#H102174782HGPRT Deficiency is X-linked recessive not autosomal recessive.Major erratum01/27/20 11:07 AM
1537BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficienciesHarper's Illustrated Biochemistry 26th edition Chapter 34 pg.300Adenosine deaminase deficiencyClarification to current text05/09/20 12:48 PM
1638BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicReplace the letter "S" with the number 5 and letter "E" with the number 3 to remember that DNA is 5YNTHESIZ3D in the 5' to 3' direction and that DNA replication machinery R3AD5 the template strand from 3' to 5'.Mnemonic01/12/20 12:42 AM
1738BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationMnemonicHelicase opens the DNA helix like a BLOOMing flower (Bloom Syndrome)Mnemonic02/08/20 12:49 AM
1839BiochemistryMolecularStart and stop codonsMnemonicFor stop codons: U Are Annoying (UAA), U Go Away (UGA), U Are Gone (UAG)Mnemonic07/12/20 2:00 PM
1939BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822122/#!po=8.92857The example of silent mutation shows "GAA" in coding DNA and "GAA" in mRNA codon. The mRNA codon should say "GAG" which would be a silent mutation coding for the same aminoacid "Glu". "The genetic code is degenerate, which means that there are multiple codes for the same amino acid. Silent mutations occur when the change of the DNA sequence within a protein-coding portion of a gene does not affect the sequence of amino acids that make up the protein"Minor erratum07/02/20 2:19 PM
2040BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/188613-overview#a5mismatch repair occurs in S phase of cell cycle and to remember this fact, we could highlight "S" in the word "mismatch", like this: "miSmatch"Mnemonic02/18/20 8:42 AM
2140BiochemistryMolecularDNA repairhttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.kcumb.edu/contents/lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?sectionName=GENETICS&search=mismatch%20repair&topicRef=2485&anchor=H345552210&source=see_link#H345552210MiSSiLE LauncheD UP: MISmatch repair: MutS & MutL -> Endonuclease -> Dna Polymerase. Defective in Lynch syndrome.Mnemonic06/23/20 12:12 PM
2241BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic genehttps://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/tata-box-313/The TATA Box consequence sequence at -25 is TATAAA, and is specific to eukaryotes (and archaea). This is similar to but should not be confused with the Pribnow Box, which is TATAAT and is specific to prokaryotes, located at -10. In your diagram of the coding strand, you have the TATA Box Sequence labelled as TATAAT - this is actually the consequence sequence for the Pribnow Box, and this can be confusing. I think you should change the sequence in the box to TATAAA and you should specify that prokaryotes have slight changes (-10 Pribnow Box + -35 Box).Minor erratum02/08/20 2:29 AM
2341BiochemistryMolecularFunctional organization of a eukaryotic geneFirst Aid 2020, page 44In the diagram on page 41 it says "ATG start codon" next to the start of transcription site. This should be "AUG" as AUG is the start codon for eukaryotes, as it says on page 44.Minor erratum03/23/20 4:18 PM
2442BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesNone neededFor prokaryotes, it may be better to use rifamycins as example of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, because this includes rifabutin as well (which is likely more often rx'd in the US for MAC)Clarification to current text02/29/20 2:27 PM
2542BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesSelf?microRNA: think "micro"managing. It's still regulating even after transcription.Mnemonic03/08/20 2:20 PM
2642BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesNot necessary"1,2,3 RMT". RNA polymerase 1 (rNA), RNA polymerase 2 (mRNA), RNA polymerase 3 (tRNA)Mnemonic07/15/20 11:35 PM
2742BiochemistryMolecularNEW FACTMy own made mnemonicTypes of Eukaryotic Polymerases can be remembered by the mnemonic. " ReMoTe " RNA Polymerase 1. rRNA, 2. mRNA. 3. tRNA ..Mnemonic07/12/20 10:19 PM
2843BiochemistryMolecularRNA polymerasesSelf?microRNA: think "micro"managing. It's still regulating even after transcription.Mnemonic03/08/20 2:18 PM
2944BiochemistryMolecularStart and stop codonsnoneThe stop codons are all U(G/A) combinations UAA, UAG, UGA. Except for UGG - You Tryp(ophan) on your UGG's - which is 1 of the 2 amino acids with only 1 codonMnemonic07/29/20 1:00 AM
3046BiochemistryCellularRough endoplasmic reticulummnemonicrough e-N-doplasmic reticulum is site for N-linked glycosylation.Mnemonic03/25/20 6:49 AM
3146BiochemistryCellularSmooth endoplasmic reticulumhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucose-6-phosphatase-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-i-von-gierke-disease?search=glucose%206%20phosphatase&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1; FA2020It says that the SER is the "location of glucose-6-phosphatase (last step of glycogenolysis)", but glucose-6-phosphatase is the last step in gluconeogenesis not glycogenolysis.Clarification to current text03/06/20 10:25 AM
3246BiochemistryCellularTumor suppressor genesnot neededRb - Rests cell cycle. Rb-Phosphorylated - Plays cell cycleMnemonic02/13/20 11:50 AM
3347BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingN/ACan you guys get cis-Golgi-> ER onto one line by moving "cis-Golgi" to the next line? Makes it so much smoother. COP II is fine. Maybe a small table would work with COPs start point, end point etc.Spelling/formatting03/08/20 5:06 PM
3447BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingmnemonicO-linked glycosylation occurs in g-O-lgi complex while N-linked glycosylation occurs in e-N-doplasmic reticulumMnemonic03/25/20 6:51 AM
3547BiochemistryCellularCell traffickinghttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=17&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjE4-n71PLoAhUrQUEAHUAUDxQQFjAQegQIBRAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Ftopics%2Fbiochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology%2Fi-cell-disease&usg=AOvVaw0ZxZWu1AjC_vPLxdRolC0PLysosomal enzems (insted of proteins) are secreted extracellularly rather than delivered to lysosomes.Clarification to current text04/18/20 3:06 PM
3647BiochemistryCellularCell traffickinghttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/human-trafficking-identification-and-evaluation-in-the-health-care-setting?search=Cell%20trafficking&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Golgi is adding 6-phosphate to mannose on proteins for lysosomal trafficking.Minor erratum04/22/20 8:07 AM
3747BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingUworld , Question Id :11930In I cell disease , It is more clear to write "lysosome bound proteins" instead of "Proteins" in the sentence "proteins are secreted extracellularly rather than delivered to lysosomes"Clarification to current text05/24/20 5:38 PM
3847BiochemistryCellularCell traffickingUWorld : Question Id 11930I cell disease : accumulation of cellular debris in lysosomes , forming the characteristic inclusion bodiesHigh-yield addition to next year05/24/20 5:58 PM
3947BiochemistryCellularPeroxisomenot neededfunction of peroxisomes can be remember by SCAB.Mnemonic02/13/20 12:13 PM
4048BiochemistryCellularMicrotubulehttps://books.google.jo/books?id=uDt84fG_DbMC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=Clostridium+tetani+dynein&source=bl&ots=NaoY58TwQo&sig=ACfU3U165lQUmwO0lewxgSwpjnS13esRHw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiz6LSi2_PoAhVktIsKHettA8sQ6AEwDnoECAwQLQ#v=onepage&q=Clostridium%20tetani%20dynein&f=falseClostridium tetani toxin(insted of Clostridium tetani), herpes simplex virus,poliovirus, and rabies virus use dynein retrograde transport to the neuronal cell body.Clarification to current text04/19/20 1:09 AM
4148BiochemistryCellularMicrotubuleNot neededDynein- Retrograde transport "When we DYEnein, our life flashes Retrograde in front of our eyes"Mnemonic08/04/20 6:38 AM
4248BiochemistryCellularProteasomehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016748890400254XProteasome play role in production antigenic peptides for presentation by class 1 MHCHigh-yield addition to next year06/16/20 6:06 PM
4349BiochemistryCellularCilia structureUWorld Question ID : 807decrease nitric oxide level is a diagnostic test rather than screening testMinor erratum04/22/20 7:53 AM
4449BiochemistryCellularSodium-potassium pumphttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/154336-overview#a3Na-K ATPase pumps 2 potassium into the cell and 3 Na out of cell. We could highlight the letter "T" in the word "poTassium" for Two. As for Sodium, we could say "S-ree" which sounds like three for S-odium.Mnemonic02/18/20 8:51 AM
4549BiochemistryCellularSodium-potassium pumphttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-with-digoxin-initial-dosing-monitoring-and-dose-modification#H1Remove digitoxin as an example of a cardiac glycoside Na+/K+ pump inhibitor, it is hardly used clinically and not very testable.High-yield addition to next year02/29/20 3:31 PM
4649BiochemistryCellularNEW FACTNot neededKartagener screening test: No NO in the NOse (i.e decreased nasal nitric oxide)Mnemonic05/13/20 6:31 AM
4750BiochemistryCellularCollagenhttps://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/hp.aspType one collagen- TendONE, Type two collagen- viTWOus body.Mnemonic03/22/20 7:59 AM
4850BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507709/glycosylation of pro-α-chain hydroxylysine residuesMinor erratum04/20/20 8:57 PM
4950BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structurehttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/236172776_The_effect_of_collagen_ageing_on_its_structure_and_cellular_behaviorCross linking of collagen increases with agingHigh-yield addition to next year04/24/20 2:34 PM
5050BiochemistryCellularCollagen synthesis and structureNot needed6. Cross-linking: reinforcement of many staggered tropocollagen molecules by covalent lysine-hydroxylysine cross-linkage to make collagen FIBERS (not fibrils)Minor erratum05/14/20 7:22 PM
5151BiochemistryCellularEhlers-Danlos syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-ehlers-danlos-syndromes?csi=8fc02928-5516-4a5d-8636-e907f799d812#H33642650There is a question on vEDS, that described about the positive family history, which is also proposed major criteria. Hence the information seems to be high yield to be addedHigh-yield addition to next year04/25/20 6:59 AM
5251BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseMnemonicMnemonic to remember the nearly identical gene mutations between Menkes disease and Wilson disease: The ATP7"A" gene mutation in Menke disease causes copper "A"bsence. The ATP7"B" gene mutation in Wilson disease causes copper "B"uildup.Mnemonic01/11/20 10:23 PM
5351BiochemistryCellularMenkes diseaseUSMLE First Aid 2020Menkes BuGs the HeLL out of me. B - Brittle, "kinky" Hair, G - Growth Retardation, H - Hypotonia, L - impaired Lysyl OxidaseMnemonic06/04/20 12:20 PM
5451BiochemistryCellularOsteogenesis imperfectaFirst Aid 2020, page 51The picture with the A subscript under osteogenesis imperfecta is not mentioned in the text next to the picture. I think it should be in the first bullet that states "Multiple fractures and bone deformities after minimal trauma"Spelling/formatting02/19/20 3:16 PM
5552BiochemistryMetabolismElastinnot neededIf you replace the description of lens subluxation for Marfan's from "upwards and temporally" to "up and fans out" - as you have it written on page 84 regarding its comparison to Homocystinuria - then you can add the mnemonic that for MarFANS lens subluxation the eye moves "up and FANS out" and moves "down and IN" with HomocystINuria.Mnemonic05/21/20 4:02 PM
5656BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesGene expression modificationsmnemonicM-icroRNA mutes M-any RNAs (ie, it is nonspecific) while S-iRNA mutes S-pecific RNAsMnemonic07/20/20 6:01 AM
5756BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inheritance-patterns-of-monogenic-disorders-mendelian-and-non-mendelian?search=incomplete%20penetrance&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~84&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1957209762Incomplete Penetrance definition expansion to not enough of the mutation is"present" to cause full expression of disease or phenotypeHigh-yield addition to next year04/27/20 3:06 PM
5857BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termsmnemonicMcCune-A-lbright S-yndrome is due to G-S protein A-activating mutation (emphasize "A" and "S" in the name of the disease)Mnemonic03/30/20 8:03 AM
5957BiochemistryGeneticsGenetic termsnaTo help remember the clinical presentation and cause of McCune-Albright Syndrome: M'g'C'u'nE-alBright: - Mosaicism, Gs activating mutation (Cause), Cafe-au-lait spots, Unilateral (the spots), Nothing ;D, Endocrinopathy (e.g. precocious puberty), Bone (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia). alBright is alright!! (the letters in 'alright' are not used)Mnemonic05/14/20 10:12 AM
6058BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintinghttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy2.umc.edu/contents/epidemiology-and-genetics-of-prader-willi-syndrome?search=prader%20willi&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~61&usage_type=default&display_rank=2A useful mnomonic for remembering that Prader-Willi syndrome is a paternal deletion, is the following: "Prader no Fader" if both a's are pronounced the same as they are in "father"Mnemonic01/24/20 7:36 PM
6158BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingN/A"Prad[at]er"-Willi and Angel-Man : Predator Willi = bad guy (paternal is mutated copy). Silences the maternal copy. Angel-man = The Man/Paternal is the angel aka good guy. (Paternal copy is good, but is silenced. Maternal copy is bad/mutated).Mnemonic03/22/20 4:12 PM
6258BiochemistryGeneticsDisorders of imprintingnot neededfor "happy puppet" in Angelman's syndrome, to recall the puppet like features, add the mnemonic: (Think of a Marionette) and highlight the "M" to go with the "M" mnemonic of AngelMan and Maternal allele.Mnemonic05/15/20 2:22 PM
6359BiochemistryGeneticsX-linked recessive disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inheritance-patterns-of-monogenic-disorders-mendelian-and-non-mendelian?search=x%20linked%20dominant&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H11 Mendelian Genetics: Patterns of Gene Transmission. In: Schaefer G, Thompson, Jr. JN. eds. Medical Genetics: An Integrated Approach. McGraw-Hill; Accessed June 26, 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2247&sectionid=173744374In X-dominant disorders, I would add a note to emphasize that in affected men, the disease is usually very severe or life-threatening. PD: I couldn't find the correct fact name (it only appears x- linked recessive disorders).Clarification to current text06/26/20 6:22 PM
6460BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal dominant diseasesNot neededHe HaS Fixed All Problems For Autosomal Dominant diseases: MEN with MARFAN Have Long Features ACHOmpanied with Valve Troubles and Medial Necrosis (Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, Hereditary Spherocytosis, FAP, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Autosomal Dominant PKD, MEN, MARFAN syndrome, Huntington, Li Fraumeni, ACHOndroplasia, von Hippel Lindau, Tuberous sclerosis, Myotonic muscular dystrophy, Neurofibromatosis 1&2)Mnemonic05/13/20 7:47 PM
6560BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal recessive diseasesNot neededOh Please! Can Students Tell Me Features of Autosomal Recessive Kidney disease Without Scoring High Grades? ( Oculocutaneous albinism, Phenylketonuria, Cystic fibrosis, Sickle cell disease, Thalassemia, Mucopolysaccharidoses, Freidrich ataxia, Autosomal recessive PKD, Kartagener syndrome, Wilson disease, Sphingolipidoses, Hemochromatosis, Glycogen storage diseases)Mnemonic05/13/20 11:25 PM
6660BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cystic-fibrosis-treatment-with-cftr-modulators#H1336420855The most effective treatment at this time triple therapy with Trikafta (elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor) for heterozygous and homozygous Phe508 deletion patients who are 12 years old or older. Dual therapy (i.e. lumacaftor-ivacaftor) is still currently accepted as the standard treatment for Phe508 deletion patients who are younger than 12 years old, although clinical trials for Trikafta with this age group are currently in process.High-yield addition to next year01/04/20 1:48 AM
6760BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1001602-overview#a3In current text, it is written: "CFTR encodes an ATP-gated Cl channel..". In Question banks I have met certain questions about CF where they ask what CFTR is gated to. However, there is no "ATP" in options but there is "cAMP" in options which is a correct answer. It would be better to explain in the first aid that CFTR DIRECTLY binds to ATP but cAMP can also regulate CFTR channel by activating its regulatory domain (via protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation).Clarification to current text02/18/20 9:04 AM
6860BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1001602-medication#6lumacaftor works in RER to correct misfolded CFTR channel so we could highlight the letters "LUM" in the word "LUMacaftor" and say that LUMacaftor works in the LUMen of RER to correct misfolded protein. On the other hand, Ivacaftor improves Chloride transport so we could highlight letter "I" in I-vacaftor and say that I-vacaftor I-mproves chloride transport.Mnemonic02/18/20 9:14 AM
6960BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1001602-overview#showallChronic damage to pancreas causes DM in ~10% of CF patients above the age of 25High-yield addition to next year04/23/20 12:26 PM
7060BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20810293Infection with Burkholderia cepacia may predict poor outcome of lung transplantHigh-yield addition to next year04/23/20 3:48 PM
7160BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosisno needwe have to clarify that in addition to dornase alfa (DNase) the hypertonic saline is used is aerosolized formClarification to current text04/24/20 4:51 AM
7260BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1001602-treatment#showallTreatment : hypertonic saline inhalation ( it necessary to mention that hypertonic saline used as inhalation)Clarification to current text06/16/20 5:48 PM
7360BiochemistryGeneticsNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC460118/Diagnosis of CF can be based on elevated sweat chloride levels. If it's ambiguous measurement of nasal transepithelial potential difference and genetic testing of CFTR mutations should be performed to confirm the diagnosisClarification to current text06/05/20 2:48 PM
7461BiochemistryGeneticsMuscular dystrophiesNot requiredAdding to the CTG mnemonic of Myotonic dystrophy, you can highlight "Cardiac" arrhythmia along with "Cataracts" so students can remember it as well.Clarification to current text06/10/20 12:03 PM
7562BiochemistryGeneticsFragile X syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687867/Premutation carriers (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to developing pathologies such as tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) syndrome.High-yield addition to next year02/12/20 1:13 PM
7662BiochemistryGeneticsFragile X syndromehttps://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9781455726134000050?scrollTo=%23hl0001970H*** MATE, I have Fragile X! (Australian accent is optional): Hyperextensibility, Mandibular enlargement, ADHD/Autism, Testicular Enlargement, Ears low-setMnemonic02/17/20 5:32 PM
7762BiochemistryGeneticsRett syndromeUSMLE First Aid 2020Let's Retturn (Rett syndrome) those God AWful VIDS (Videos) G - Growth failure, A - Ataxia, W - Wringing, V - Verbal Regression, ID - Intellectual Disability, S - SeizuresMnemonic06/04/20 12:28 PM
7862BiochemistryGeneticsTrinucleotide repeat expansion diseasesN/ACan you guys put page numbers of where these disorders are talked about so we can reference the diseases easier. A lot of diseases are mentioned without details until later on, but it helps to know p531 goes over fredreich's ataxia without having to check the index. Just a suggestion.Spelling/formatting03/10/20 11:43 AM
7963BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/nondisjunctionThe image describing the nondisjunctions is slightly incorrect. The last row of cells are actually zygotes that have already been fertilized and should be labeled as either zygotes post-fertilization or the graphic should be changed to show empty cells and diploid cells as part of nondisjunction in meiosis I, etcMajor erratum02/27/20 11:46 AM
8063BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesMnemonicExtend mnemonic for trisomy 18 clinical manifestations: "PRINCE EDWARDS (Actual mnemonic) May (Micrognatia) be the Most (Myelomeningocele) Handsome (congenital Heart disease) Of (Omphalocele) all" --> "PRINCE EDWARDS May be the Most Handsome Of all"Mnemonic03/04/20 1:55 PM
8163BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomiesmnemonicIf your are odd (ie, marker is decreased) at your puberty age (ie, trisomy 13), you will get normal when you grow up (ie, all markers normalize in 2nd trimester). However, if you are odd (ie markers are decreased) at your election age (ie, trisomy 18), you will stay odd when you grow up (ie, markers stay decreased in 2nd trimester).Mnemonic04/06/20 5:14 AM
8263BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/first-trimester-combined-test-and-integrated-tests-for-screening-for-down-syndrome-and-trisomy-18?search=edwards%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~77&usage_type=default&display_rank=2In EDwards's Every marker DecreasesMnemonic05/11/20 5:19 AM
8363BiochemistryGeneticsAutosomal trisomieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3520824/ OR https://www.medicinenet.com/trisomy_18_edwards_syndrome/article.htmDeath usually occurs before 1 year age ( not Death usually occurs by age 1 year ) in Edwards syndrome since the mean survival is 14 daysMinor erratum07/27/20 12:52 AM
8466BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Ano needno need to type that VItamin A is used to treat PML and measles two times!Clarification to current text02/21/20 9:02 AM
8566BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Ahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-a#H192219394Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/14/20 5:36 PM
8666BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B1It was very helpful for me to memorize this triad! :) I hope you like it as wellThis mnemonic would be very useful to remember Wernicke encephalopaty classic triad: when you're drunk, you look like CAOs: C (confusion) A (ataxia) O (ophtalmoplegia).Mnemonic05/08/20 4:49 PM
8767BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3This was just using my imagination to link those facts! It helped me a lot remembering this :)It would be very useful to add this mnemonic to associate lack of Tryptophan, to pellagra-like symptoms, just as happens in Hartnup disease. The way to add it and remember it goes like this: ↓THREEptophan = pellagra like symptoms (↓B THREE deficiency)Mnemonic05/08/20 4:41 PM
8867BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B3https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/pellagra#:~:text=Pellagra%20(Ital.,maize)%20as%20a%20staple%20food.mnemonic for B3 deficiencies - "Corn CHIPs" - CORN based diet, malignant Carcinoid syndrome, Hartnup disease, Isoniazid use, Pellagra.Mnemonic07/18/20 4:44 PM
8967BiochemistryMetabolismVitamin B5UpToDateComplications of B5 deficiency - IDEA - Insufficiency of adrenal, Dermatitis, Enteritis, AlopeciaMnemonic02/09/20 2:27 PM
9067BiochemistryNutritionvitamin B3MnemonicRemember that vitamins B6 and B2 are required to synthesize B3 because the numbers 6 divided by 2 "synthesize" the number 3Mnemonic01/11/20 11:39 PM
9168BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B7mnemonicHere is a clever way to remember Vitamin B7=Biotin and how raw eggs cause biotin deficiency.. Think of 7 as an inverted boot. So b7="bootin". Also, if you put raw eggs in your boot, you cannot wear them anymore. So raw eggs cause boot (B7) deficiency.Mnemonic05/22/20 12:49 AM
9269BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B12https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1152670-overviewSubacute Combined Degeneration (SCD) = affects Spinocerebellar tracts, lateral Corticospinal tracts, and Dorsal columnsMnemonic03/01/20 2:58 PM
9369BiochemistryNutritionVitamin CUWorld, Medscape: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/125350-overview#a5Vitamin C deficiency may be precipitated by the "tea and toast" diet.High-yield addition to next year01/12/20 1:26 AM
9469BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Chttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/125350-overview#a4Vitamin C deficiency (ie, scurvy) causes increase in bleeding time (BT) because when the endothelium gets damaged, subendothelial collagen is very weak to bind to vwF. All the other coagulation parameters will be normal.High-yield addition to next year02/18/20 9:25 AM
9569BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Cnot neededhighlight the "C" from "Corkscrew hair" and add it to the growing list of "C" mnemonics in Vitamin C.Mnemonic05/21/20 4:07 PM
9670BiochemistryNutritionVitamin DMnemonicHighlight the letter "D" to remember that newborns Drink vitamin D - ie vitamin D is given *orally* to breastfed newborns (vs vitamin K, which is *injected*)Mnemonic01/12/20 1:40 AM
9770BiochemistryNutritionVitamin DFirst Aid 2020D3 (threE) = cholE-calciferol D2 (twO) = ergO-calciferolMnemonic02/13/20 12:54 PM
9870BiochemistryNutritionVitamin Dhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-d?search=vitamin%20d%20metabolism&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=4we could add the diagram of vitamin D metabolismHigh-yield addition to next year02/18/20 9:51 AM
9971BiochemistryNutritionVitamin KMnemonicHighlight the letter "K" to remember that newborns receive an *injeKtion* of vitamin K (vs vitamin D, which is given *orally*). See attached image.Mnemonic01/12/20 1:44 AM
10072BiochemistryMetabolismEthanol metabolismhttps://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa46.htmWomen are more susceptible to the effect of alcohol because they have fewer alcohol dehydrogenaseHigh-yield addition to next year03/07/20 1:34 PM
10172BiochemistryMetabolismMetabolism sitesn/aMiTochondria (Processes with a "T" in its name): ETC, TCA Cycle, FaTTy Acid Oxidation, AceTyl CoA Production, KeTogenesis. CytoSol (Processes with a "S" in its name): GlycolySis, HMP Shunt, Synthesis of Cholesterol (SER), Synthesis of Proteins (RER), FAs and Nucleotides.Mnemonic04/02/20 10:17 AM
10273BiochemistryMetabolismGluconeogenesis, irreversible enzymesFirst Aid 2020, page 76 under Regulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate sectionPage 73, Gluconeogeneosis under Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic process chart has Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase as rate limiting enzyme. Should it not be Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 to distinguish it from Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-2 of Regulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate on page 76?Clarification to current text06/05/20 9:15 AM
10374BiochemistryMetabolismGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencynone needed.#6 (Transketolase) should have a 2-way arrow. It is part of the non-oxidative (reversible) pathway of the pentose phosphate pathway. In Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, the enzymes phosphopentose isomerase and transketolase are needed in order to make ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis.Clarification to current text07/22/20 6:23 PM
10474BiochemistryMetabolismSummary of pathwaysnot needednumber 8 has the enzyme Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This should be corrected to Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 to be consistent with Number 7 "phosphofructokinase-1", in accordance with the FBPase-1 on page 76Minor erratum05/11/20 3:31 PM
10575BiochemistryMetabolismUniversal electron acceptorsNot neededNAD is used in catabolic processes -> NADestroys. NADH is used in anabolic processes -> NADHeals.Mnemonic04/29/20 2:13 PM
10677BiochemistryMetabolismPyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/125014-overview#a9in pyruvate dehyydrogenase complex (ie, PDHC) deficiency, there is no fasting hypoglycemia because pyruvate carboxylase can still function due to acetyl-CoA derived from beta-oxidation. In pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, there is, indeed, a fasting hypoglycemia because pyruvate carboxylase is one of irreversible enzymes of gluconeogenesis.High-yield addition to next year02/18/20 10:03 AM
10777BiochemistryMetabolismTCA cycleNot neededthis is a mnemonic to memorize which steps in the TCA cycle produce which energy-containing products: "Naturaly, KIM has a Great Smile. she's Funny and Sweet". Naturally = NADH. KIM = a-Ketoglutarate, Isocitrate, Malate. Great = GTP. Smile = Succinyl-CoA. Funny = FADH2. Sweet = SuccinateMnemonic03/19/20 2:39 PM
10877BiochemistryMetabolismTCA cycleUSMLErx video on TCA cycle metabolismUSMLErx video says 12 ATP produced per Acetyl CoA. First Aid says 10 ATP produced per Acetyl CoA. 12 is correct because there are 3 NADH (1 NADH = 2.5 ATP), 1 FADH2 (FADH2 = 1.5 ATP), 2 CO2, & 1 GTP. This yields 12 ATP per acetyl-CoA. 1 glucose produces 2 acetyl coA molecules. Thus 1 glucose produces 24 (12 x 2) ATP molecules per TCA cycle.Major erratum06/23/20 6:21 PM
10978BiochemistryCellularElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationUSMLE-RXPg 78 2020 complex IV is inhibited by CO..The book has CO2Minor erratum02/16/20 2:42 AM
11078BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.930306.xThe negative effact on complex IV should be CO not CO2Major erratum01/07/20 11:22 AM
11178BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain#Complex_IVIn ETC inhibit complex 4 Carbon monooxide, not CO2Minor erratum01/08/20 5:42 AM
11278BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoning?search=carbon%20monoxide%20electron%20transport&topicRef=299&source=see_linkThe chart on oxidative phosphorylation poisons lists carbon monoxide as an electron transport inhibitor for Complex IV, but the above diagram lists CO2 as a Complex IV inhibitor.Minor erratum01/11/20 2:13 PM
11378BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12969439The diagram displays "CO2" inhibiting Complex IV. However, the text below the diagram states "carbon monoxide". The change to be made is in the diagram from CO2 to CO.Minor erratum01/12/20 11:39 AM
11478BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy2.umc.edu/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoningIn the figure for the Electron Transport Chain, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been incorrectly labeled as an inhibitor of Complex IV (aka Cytochrome Oxidase) when it should be labeled Carbon Monoxide instead. Under "Electron transport inhibitors" Carbon Monoxide is labeled correctly as inhibiting Complex IV; however, it is incorrect in the figure as mentioned.Minor erratum01/16/20 10:24 PM
11578BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationFirst Aid 2020 - states in written notes below the photo; https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biological-sciences-practice/biological-sciences-practice-tut/e/krebs-cycle-and-oxidative-phosphorylation---passage-1In the image, Inhibitors of Complex IV - lists CO2, but should be COMinor erratum03/21/20 6:45 PM
11678BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoningIn the diagram replace "CO2" to "CO". Carbon monoxide (CO) not Carbon dioxide (CO2) inhibits complex IVMinor erratum04/08/20 3:49 PM
11778BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationnot neededSubstances that affect electron transport chain, in order: RACOON R = rotenone (complex I) A = antimycin A (complex III) CO = carbon monoxide (plus CN, azide; complex IV) O = oligomycin (ATP synthase) N = 2,4 DiNitrophenol (uncoupler, affects entire ETC H+ gradient)Mnemonic04/18/20 8:09 PM
11878BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationN/AIn the picture for ETC under complex IV, it says CO2 (carbon dioxide) but should say CO (carbon monoxide)Minor erratum04/27/20 1:10 PM
11978BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1009092-overview#a2In the diagram for electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, in the inhibitors of complex 4, you have written "CO2" instead of "CO"Minor erratum04/30/20 5:21 AM
12078BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationIt is mentioned in the text below the pictureCO (not CO2) block complex IV {in the picture}Major erratum05/01/20 5:08 PM
12178BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationUWORLD Q ID 18952Metformin inhibit complex 1High-yield addition to next year05/08/20 9:40 PM
12278BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoning?search=carbon%20monoxide&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3At the figure in this page, there is a typo. It should apper CO (carbon monoxide) as a Complex IV inhibitor. At the drawing, it appears CO2 (Carbon dioxide)Minor erratum05/12/20 2:50 PM
12378BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12969439The graphical picture at the top of this page does not follow what is said section concerning Electron transport inhibitors below it. The specific issue is with the inhibition of complex IV by Azide, Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide. In the pictorial representation, the inhibitor of Carbon Monoxide is showing as CO2 instead of CO making it seem as if CO2 inhibits complex IV of the ETC.Minor erratum05/14/20 2:34 PM
12478BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carbon-monoxide-poisoningThere is a minor mistake on the image provided for the electron transport chain. It says that the complex IV is inhibited by Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The inhibitor should be Carbon Monoxide (CO).Minor erratum06/23/20 11:57 AM
12578BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1009092-overviewcomplex 4 is inhibited by carbon monooxide and carbon dioxide as mention in the diagramMajor erratum07/08/20 2:59 AM
12678BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationnone neededlabelling error - intermembrane membrane must be in between the mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membraneMinor erratum07/20/20 10:25 AM
12778BiochemistryMolecularElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationFirst Aid 2020, page 78. Self contradiction.In the section of electron transport chain inhibitors, carbon monoxide is listed as a complex IV inhibitor. However, the above image shows CO2 (not CO) inhibiting complex IV.Minor erratum03/08/20 10:07 AM
12878BiochemistryMetabolismGluconeogenesis, irreversible enzymesFirst Aid 2020 page 78“It’s odd for fatty acids to make glucose.” Explanation: only odd chain fatty acids can be used as a glucose source, even chain fatty acids cannot.Mnemonic03/08/20 10:25 AM
12979BiochemistryMetabolismPentose phosphate pathwayhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TransketolaseЕhe reaction of transketolase and ribose-5-Pi should be two-way reactionMinor erratum01/22/20 1:51 AM
13081BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsFirst Aid 2020Glucogenic/Ketogenic Amino Acids mnemonicMnemonic04/21/20 10:11 AM
13181BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsBackground/Source: I created the Mnemonic. It was adopted from the sentence/phrase/statement: "Martin Luther King WITH Freedom Voice." Please see "File Attachments" for more details.The Mnemonics for Essential Amino acids (PVT TIM HALL) sounds great but the "P" for phenylalanine, "T" for Tryptophan and "L" for Lysine can be misleading for some readers because these aren`t the scientific designated one-letter codes. For instance, the reader can mistaken "P" for Proline and not Phenylalanine.Mnemonic05/13/20 8:32 AM
13281BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acidsN/A (Mnemonic)I made a mnemonic that helped me and my friends not confuse Tryptophan, Threonine, and Tyrosine when thinking about essential amino acids. "Mike, Try This V.I.P. HaLL": Methionine, Tryptophan, Threonine, Valine, Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Histidine, Leucine, Lysine. (Please see document for more details and an alternate version of the mnemonic)Mnemonic07/18/20 12:05 AM
13382BiochemistryMetabolismHyperammonemiahttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12602504/it states there will be a decrease in GABA, however, there is actually an increase in the inhibitory neurotransmitter, due to ammonia decreasing GABA uptake by astrocytes causing an increase in synaptic availability of GABA.Minor erratum06/25/20 12:16 PM
13482BiochemistryMetabolismHyperammonemiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/urea-cycle-disorders-managementHyperammonemia (hyperuremia) can lead to platelet dysfunctionHigh-yield addition to next year07/29/20 6:31 PM
13582BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cycleUworld ID 1370both diagrams for the Urea Cycle has CO2 + NH3 as substrates for carbamoyl phosphate. CO2 is incorrect - it should say HCO3. Understandable CO2 was chosen to show the source of the Carbon molecule in Urea, however this is misleading, and should at least be corrected to CO2 --> HCO3. (See pages 82 and 74)Minor erratum05/18/20 4:23 PM
13682BiochemistryMetabolismUrea cyclehttps://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/nitrogen-metabolism-and-the-urea-cycle/N-Acetylglutamate is listed as an Allosteric Activator but It should be An Obligate Activator of Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I enzyme.Clarification to current text07/28/20 8:24 AM
13783BiochemistryMetabolismAmino acid derivativesFirst Aid 2020, page 67; Biochemistry (nutrition) in B6.Add B6 into the reaction of Glutamate producing Glutathione, in amino acid derivativesMinor erratum06/03/20 11:11 PM
13883BiochemistryMetabolismCatecholamine synthesis/tyrosine catabolismhttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/Schematic-representation-of-the-dopamine-degradation-pathway_fig2_324497464The degradation of dopamine directly to homovanillic acid is not fully shown, and will help the reader understand Parkinson drugs if it is added. The intermediates DOPAC and 3-MT can be added to the figure, and the drugs entacapone and tolcapone can be added (COMT inhibitors used in Parkinson's therapy).High-yield addition to next year03/10/20 3:46 PM
13984BiochemistryMetabolismHomocystinuriahttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/homocystinuriaThe conversion of homocysteine to methionine is not only B12 dependent but also folate dependent. There should be both B9 and B12 under the arrow leading to methionine formation from homocysteine. Therefore folate deficiency can lead to some symptoms of homocystinuria.Clarification to current text03/10/20 4:21 PM
14084BiochemistryMetabolismHomocystinurianot neededadd mnemonic: Homo6tinuria to help recall Vitamin B6 dependencyMnemonic05/21/20 3:55 PM
14184BiochemistryMetabolismPhenylketonurianot neededthe current mnemonic for PKU: "Disorder of aromatic amino acid metabolism--> musty body odor," can be reinforced with highlighting the P and U from PKU. (as in, PU = odor)Mnemonic06/14/20 11:18 AM
14284BiochemistryMetabolismNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12003346/phenylketonuria due to dec in tetrahydrobiopterin --> phenylalanine accumulation and low levels of serotonin and other neurotransmittersHigh-yield addition to next year07/14/20 8:12 AM
14385BiochemistryMetabolismCystinuriahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/435678-workupI have met questions where they mention mechanism of how sodium-cyanide nitroprusside test detects cystine. It would be great to explain it briefly so student knows what he is reading in the question stem.High-yield addition to next year02/18/20 10:23 AM
14485BiochemistryMetabolismOrganic acidemiasHarper Biochemistry 26th Edition chapter 19- Gluconeogenesis & Control of the Blood Glucose, Lippincott Biochemistry 7th Edition fatty acid metabolismI made a pathway for Organic acidemiasHigh-yield addition to next year05/09/20 1:01 PM
14587BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/119690-overviewAndersen disease (type IV glycogen storage disease) is missing from the text. It is a deficiency of branding enzyme. I use "ABCD" to remember that Anderson disease is Branching enzyme and Cori disease is Debranching enzyme.High-yield addition to next year05/04/20 6:51 PM
14687BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseasesnot neededHighlight CORI disease and indicate that the CORI cycle is intact, to help recall that lactate levels are normal (Cori Cycle converts lactate back to pyruvate and then to glucose via gluconeogenesis). This is in contrast to Von Gierke disease in which lactate levels are high, since the Cori cycle is impaired due to impaired gluconeogenesis.Mnemonic05/13/20 10:35 AM
14788BiochemistryCellularLysosomal storage diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/945460-overview, https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1182830-overview#showallp 47 mentions I cell disease as an inherited lysosomal storage disorder but then on lysosomal storage diseases (p88), it isn't mentioned. If not high yield according to others, maybe remove the detail or mention it as something separate again on 88 if high yield (maybe that it's a disorder and not a disease- I personally don't know what the significance leads to). emedicine has the term listed as disease for muco.Clarification to current text03/08/20 4:08 PM
14888BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesselfD/Ds of Lysosomal storage disorders made EASYMnemonic01/30/20 4:00 AM
14988BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesnot applicableto differentiate between Neimann Pick and Tay Sachs diseases: hepatosplenomegaly Neimann big (big liver and spleen)Mnemonic03/05/20 9:56 AM
15088BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesFirst Aid 2020 -- currently used to make chart.Remembering the basics of lysosomal storage diseases and their associated enzymes. (see attached image). Mnemonic for diseases is as follows from diagram left-to-right, top-to-bottom: "I MET TAYlor FABRY she was kind of KRABBE so she GAUCHed me with a PICK.” The enzymes for each disease follow the same pattern on the image (i.e., read as left-to-right, top-to-bottom). Top row pattern is A-A, Hex-A, alpha-A, notice all end in A and correspond with MET, TAYlor, and FABRY, respectively. The bottom row is simply in alphabetical order from left-to-right: galactocerebrosidase, glucocerebrosidase, sphingomyelinase. The substrates fall into place with studying this mnemonic over time.Mnemonic03/12/20 12:04 PM
15188BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesmnemonicIn hurLer disease you have aLpha-L-iduronidase deficiency while in hunTer disease you have iduronaTe-Two-sulfaTase deficiency.Mnemonic03/30/20 5:26 AM
15288BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesnot neededNiemann Pick disease has hepatoplenomegaly , what if we highlight P letter in Niemann Pick disease and write down Puffy Liver., so that make it easily to memorized compare with Tay Sachs disease which doesn't has Hepatosplenomegaly!Mnemonic04/15/20 11:00 AM
15388BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesnot neededTo help remember the deficiency in Hunter vs Hurler syndrome: HurLer has an L for a-L-iduronidaseMnemonic04/26/20 2:39 PM
15488BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesmnemonic"CRAB" (ie, Krabbe) disease has cells as globoid as crab's body. Crab has more than one foot so "Crab" disease has more than one accumulated substance (galactocerebroside and psychosine). Imagine PSYCHIC CRAB running around (PSYCHosine accumulates in lysosomes).Mnemonic06/01/20 4:11 AM
15588BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesUSMLE First Aid 2020Niemann Pick Disease acronym: Nervous Hips get Foamy and Red (N in nervous - progressive Neurodegeneration, Hips - Hepatosplenomegaly, Foamy - Foam cells, Red - "cherry red" spot on macula)Mnemonic06/04/20 12:33 PM
15688BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesUSMLE First Aid 2020To remember that Fabry Disease is X-linked recessive (as opposed to Autosomal Recessive for the other Glycogen storage disorders), use the mnemonic. FABulous (Fabry disease) people have the X factor (X-linked Recessive)Mnemonic06/04/20 12:36 PM
15788BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesselfFABRy. Feelings (peripheral neuropathy), Alpha-galactosidase a, Benign skin lesion (angiokeratoma), Renal disfunctionMnemonic07/08/20 2:52 PM
15888BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesselfReference to Spongebob. Krabby PADDies (instead of patties) are Good. Krabbe's findings - Peripheral neuropathy, Atrophy of optic nerve, Destruction of oligodendrocytes, Developmental delay, Globoid cells.Mnemonic07/08/20 3:01 PM
15988BiochemistryPathologyLysosomal storage diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mucopolysaccharidoses-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=hurler%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~16&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3I <3 FLASHCARDS: Increased risk of Infection Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate (heart) Facial coarseness L-iduronadase Abnormal ribs/spine Short Hepatosplenomegaly Corneal clouding Airway Obstruction Retardation Dysostosis multiplex Sleep ApneaMnemonic01/27/20 5:53 PM
16088BiochemistryMetabolismNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27491215/Type A NPD - hepatosplenomegaly (infant) + profound CNS involvement, usually do not survive beyond 2 years of age; Type B NPD - hepatosplenomegaly + progressive alteration of lungs, no CNS signs (adult onset)High-yield addition to next year05/25/20 3:21 PM
16189BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geneIn the Pathway for Fatty Acid Synthesis, the step which synthesizes Acetyl-CoA using ATP-Citrate Lyase doesn't show that you utilize one ATP molecule in the conversion of Citrate to Acetyl-CoA.High-yield addition to next year01/23/20 1:26 PM
16289BiochemistryMetabolismFatty acid metabolismhttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1174503-159863/which-fatty-acid-oxidation-defects-are-associated-with-hyperammonemiaIt is not worth it to mention "hyperammonemia" in Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency since it not a major symptom fo the disease and happen in some cases as sequence of liver dysfunctionClarification to current text05/24/20 7:05 AM
16391BiochemistryMetabolismMetabolic fuel useNot needed1g carb/protein= 4 CALORIES (not kcal). 1g alcohol= 7 CALORIES. 1g fatty acid= 9 CALORIESMinor erratum05/13/20 11:34 PM
16492BiochemistryMetabolismLipid transportFA 2020in the chart of major apolipoproteins (pg 93), you list that IDK has APO CII (this fact is correct). However, you show that the IDL doesn't have APO CII in the figure on the page adjacent.Minor erratum03/22/20 3:17 PM
16592BiochemistryMetabolismLipid transportp93 FA2020In the diagram, it looks like Apo B-48 isn't added until the chylomicron has already added into the systemic circulation, but on page 93, it states that it's added earlier when it's secreted into the lymphatics. The order is wrong. Perhaps add to (1) on p92 that "ApoB48 is added and chylomicron enters lymphatics"Clarification to current text07/22/20 10:35 AM
16693BiochemistryMetabolismKey enzymes in lipid transportper figure in page 92Hepatic lipase; degrades TGs remaining in IDL and "Chylomicron remnants"High-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:05 PM
16793BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/apolipoproteinThere is a mistake in the table. IDL only have Apo-E and Apo-B100.You should omit Apo- C2 tick mark for IDL.Major erratum03/05/20 10:01 AM
16893BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinsLippincotts page 229APO C-II is not part of IDL. Only in Chylomicron, VLDL, and HDL.Major erratum05/12/20 1:47 AM
16994BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasnot neededType III Dysbetalipoproteinemia is due to a Defective ApoE. a good hint is Type ThrEE ... ApoE...Mnemonic01/24/20 2:25 AM
17097ImmunologyAnatomyLymph nodehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23985641/The lateral foot drains to the "Pop-lateral" lymph nodesMnemonic06/06/20 9:31 AM
17197ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresLymphatic drainage associationsno needunder associated pathology column, put "hilar lymphadenopathy" after bilateral as you merged hilar and mediastinal together. Also, you can make it "granulomatous disease, e.g. sarcoidosis (bilateral hilar nodes), Lung TB (usually unilateral hilar node)"Clarification to current text01/21/20 11:17 AM
17298ImmunologyLymphoid StructuresSpleenhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-splenomegaly-and-other-splenic-disorders-in-adultsPossible causes of Splenomegaly. These include neoplasia, work hypertrophy eg with hereditary spherocytosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis (Myelofibrosis, B-thalassemia major), portal hypertension & liver disease (Cirrhosis, Budd Chiari, Schistosomiasis), Autoimmunity (AIHA, SLE), Infection (EBV, Brucella)High-yield addition to next year04/17/20 1:20 PM
173100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesUSMLE First Aid 2020Remembering HLAs for Addison Disease (DR3, DR4, B8). Doctors (DR) can't ADD (ADDison disease): DR3 + DR4 can't B8 (3 + 4 cannot be 8)Mnemonic06/04/20 1:02 PM
174100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesselfHLA C - Psoriasis. Pronounce as (see)C-riasis.Mnemonic07/09/20 8:39 PM
175100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesselfChange mnemonic to include SLE. DRive 2 Multiple Hay Pasteurs SafeLEMnemonic07/09/20 8:42 PM
176100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesselfDR3amers SLEep sweetly (DM1) when ADDing HASH to their GRAVy.Mnemonic07/09/20 8:51 PM
177100ImmunologyCellularHLA subtypes associated with diseasesselfDR4: Instead say "DeR are 4 walls in 1 "rheum"Mnemonic07/09/20 9:02 PM
178100ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIn/aFor HLA subtypes/ Psoriasis: "You see (C) psoriasis"Mnemonic02/15/20 3:23 PM
179100ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIn/aMHC FUNCTION: I (oNe)= INside (INtracellular antigens) II (Two)= ouTside (exTracellular antigens)Mnemonic04/04/20 12:44 PM
180100ImmunologyCellularNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/460027-overview#showallBuerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is associated with Human Leukocyte Antigens HLA-A9 and HLA-B5High-yield addition to next year05/03/20 7:49 PM
181102ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellsmnemonicp-O-sitive selection occurs in thymic c-O-rtex while n-E-gative selection occurs in thymic m-E-dulla.Mnemonic03/31/20 9:08 AM
182102ImmunologyCellularDifferentiation of T cellshttps://www-clinicalkey-com.arktos.nyit.edu/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323479783000107?scrollTo=%23hl0000374 Cellular and Molecular Immunology 8th edition AbbasAdd in positive feedback and negative feedback arrows to emphasize such connections. Ex: IFN-g (Th1 section) causes a positive feedback loop onto IFN-g (Th1 stimulus). IFN-g (Th1 secretion) exerts negative feedback on Th2 cells. IL-4, IL-10 (Th2 secretion) exerts negative feedback on Th1 cells. TGF-B (Treg secretion) causes a positive feedback loop on TGF-B (Treg stimulus).Clarification to current text04/22/20 9:50 AM
183104ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAntibody structure and functionhttps://www.labome.com/method/Antibody-Structure-and-Antibody-Fragments.htmlThe current text does not match was portrayed on the figure. The text reads: "Fab (containing the variable/hypervariable regions) consisting of light (L) and heavy (H) chains recognizes antigens." The figure signals that the Fab region is composed of (VH, VL, CH1, CL), so the text should read: Fab (containing the variable/hypervariable and constant regions) consisting of light (L) and heavy (H) chains recognizes antigens. To even be more precise, Fab contains the Fv region (VL and VH) and constant fragments from the light and heavy chains. The Fv region contains the heavy and light variable domains that make-up the specific antigen-binding site.Clarification to current text06/03/20 5:56 PM
184105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesNo needTo memorize that IgM is produced in the 1° (immediate) response - I*g*M* is *g*enerated i*M*mediatelyMnemonic05/31/20 12:08 AM
185105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesNo needIgE activates EosinophilsMnemonic06/10/20 8:50 PM
186105ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesNo needIg*G* is *G* reatest in serumMnemonic06/10/20 8:50 PM
187106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesComplementSelf-madeC3b causes opsonization. An easy way to remember it is to pronounce "O'b'sonization" with a B instead of a PMnemonic03/11/20 6:07 AM
188108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokinesSelf-madeIL-3 induces differentiation of bone marrow stem cells - Remember it by pronouncing BONE as "3ONE" (the 3 looks like a B)Mnemonic03/11/20 7:02 AM
189108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokineshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15745860I would like to add to the "Hot T-bone stEAK" mnemonic to include a function of IL-7. I propose to change the mnemonic to "Hot T-bone stEAK mmm", the "mmm" would stand for memory T cells because IL-7 helps to keep memory T-cells alive. I think this fits in with the original mnemonic.Mnemonic04/02/20 7:55 PM
190108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokinesUSMLE First Aid 2020Acronym for remembering that IL-8 is a chemotactic factor: IL-8 Baits (B8s, B-eights) neutrophilsMnemonic06/04/20 1:29 PM
191109ImmunologyImmune ResponsesInterferonshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9799713/; https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1189/jlb.0603252It is a little bit misleading (and actually incorrect) to include IFNg in the description of interferons, as its structure and function (interaction w macrophages and NKs) is completely different from IFNa and INFb (auto/paracrine viral defense). It is enough to include it under Th1 cell cytokines.Minor erratum06/02/20 5:01 PM
192110ImmunologyImmune ResponsesPassive vs active immunity'While I have no references, I am proposing this modification to the current mnemonic, as it has a better anchor to vaccines and what exactly you are doing. You are injecting "deliberately" preformed antibodies against the "badbois" which have a "rapid" onsetTricky Badbois Rapidly Healed by Deliberate VaccineMnemonic05/13/20 2:04 PM
193110ImmunologyImmune ResponsesPassive vs active immunityNo references needed for Mnemonic changeThe current mnemonic reads "To Be Healed Very Rapidly before Dying", I propose changing it to "To Heal Very Rapidly Before Dying" - this still uses all the same letters, and eliminates the superfluous 2nd "B" in "before", making the mnemonic much more straightforwardMnemonic06/29/20 12:36 PM
194110ImmunologyImmune ResponsesPassive vs active immunitynot neededThe mnemonic "To Be Healed Very Rapidly before Dying" is confusing as the word "before" does not respond to anything. Instead, delete the word "Be" (and change Healed to Heal) and replace its B-correspondence with the word "Before". The corrected version should read: "To Heal Very Rapidly Before Dying"Clarification to current text07/26/20 7:38 PM
195111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationMnemonic made up does not need referenceFor Live Attenuated Vaccine - LIVE TV: MR. SABIn Pee YELLOW ... LIVE (meaning live vaccine) Typhoid Varicella MMR Rotavirus Smallpox Adenovirus BCG Influenza Polio (mnemonic has SABIN in it - so you know it is sabin) Yellow feverMnemonic02/13/20 8:10 AM
196111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationnot neededA mnemonic to remember the live-attenuated vaccines: Adorable Toddler, Please Vaccinate Your Self Before Infecting My Residents (Adeno, Typhoid, Polio (sabin), Varicella, Yellow fever, Smallpox, BCG, Influenza (Intranasal), MMR, Rotavirus)Mnemonic03/12/20 1:20 PM
197111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationSushant Sahastrabuddhe, Tarun Saluja, Overview of the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Pipeline: Current Status and Future Plans, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 68, Issue Supplement_1, 15 February 2019, Pages S22–S26The Typhoid (Vi polysaccharide) vaccine is listed as a killed/inactivated, but it should be under the subunit header.Minor erratum03/30/20 9:40 AM
198111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationmnemonicYEs! Ring BAPTISM; for A TRIP live: YEllow fever, Rotavirus , BCG, Adenovirus, Polio(sabin), Typhoid(oral), Influenza, Smallpox, MMR; killed: A TRIPMnemonic04/21/20 1:09 AM
199111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationmnemonicSubunit Vaccination: Be APPle PrIME Big letters represent for : hBv, Acellular Pertussis, hPv, s.Pneumoniae, h.Influenzae type b, n.MEningitidisMnemonic05/09/20 1:06 PM
200111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesVaccinationKaplan lectures notesKilled or inactivated vaccine: heat will often denature immunogenic epitopes. Just inactivate with chemicalsMinor erratum06/05/20 5:07 PM
201112ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typesn/aType II: It's Good (goodpasture) to be hot (rheumatic fever) and reject (hyperacute transplant reaction) people, until you realize you don't have 2 graves (Myasthenia gravis and Graves disease) because you were vulgar (Pemphigus vulgaris).Mnemonic02/27/20 5:07 PM
202112ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/immunologic-transfusion-reactions#H1591342727In the section type 2 Hypersensitivity reactions under the examples for cell destruction, Not all transfusion reactions are type 2 hypersensitivities, Anaphylactic transfusion reaction is a type 1 hypersensitivity, would be best to clarify this and maybe add that transfusion reaction into the type 1 hypersensitivity example section.Clarification to current text04/03/20 11:08 AM
203112ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typesmnemonicType 2 Hypersensitivity: AHA! IT is a NEWBORN. don’t FUSION GOOD Rh Host with VaMpire at GRAVEMnemonic05/09/20 1:29 PM
204113ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity typesUworld Question ID: 741in addition to "complement activation" (regarding Serum Sickness), please add that it leads to hypocomplementemia with low serum C3 & C4Clarification to current text01/24/20 2:17 AM
205114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesBlood transfusion reactionsNone neededI think this section should be moved to the Hematology and Oncology chapter. Yes, these are immune reactions and I see the logic behind including them in the Immunology chapter, but I think they would fit better in Heme/Onc.Clarification to current text02/10/20 9:20 AM
206115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutoantibodieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC303073/Anticardiolipin can be postive in patients with Syphilis too. Even though Syphilis is not an autoantibody related disorder, mentioning it as a differential when a patient is Anticardiolipin positive is useful in some question stemsClarification to current text03/11/20 9:50 AM
207115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesNEW FACTfrom mein the uploapded fileMnemonic05/11/20 2:22 PM
208116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesAutosomal dominant diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1547969-overviewThe cause Job Syndrome (AD Hyper-IgE syndrome) can be remembered with "You have to be 17 to get a Job in your State (STAT3). Job syndrome, STAT3 mutation, deficiency of TH17 cells.Mnemonic01/14/20 1:47 PM
209116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesmnemonicselective IgA deficiency increases risk for giardi-A lambli-A infection (highlight :"A"s in Giardia Lamblia)Mnemonic04/08/20 2:02 AM
210116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesNAI got a question wrong because I confused hyper IgE and hyper IgM syndromes, this is why I think including IgE in the mnemonic is important: Getting a Job is as (E)asy as ABCDEFsMnemonic04/14/20 4:55 AM
211116ImmunologyImmune ResponsesT cellshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/autosomal-dominant-hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome?search=job%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~53&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Job Syndrome (Updated mnemonic): FAT JEEPS - Facies (coarse) Abscess (cold staph) Th17 (deficiency) Job Eczema (Dermatologic Changes) (Hyper Ig)E Primary (Teeth Retained) STAT3 (mutation)Mnemonic03/12/20 1:42 PM
212117ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesFirst Aid 2020Chediak-Higashi syndrome and it's microtubule dysfunction can be remembered by the mnemonic: Chedi-"track"-Higashi syndrome. Whereby "track" alludes to the microtubules (and their function as the cell's "track" system for phagosome-lysosome fusion and giant granules).Mnemonic05/16/20 7:11 PM
213119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionPersonal mnemonic.Features of Chronic Transplant Rejection - B CAVITY; B- Bronchiolitis oblitrerans; C- Chronic graft nephropathy (Kidney); A-Accelerated atherosclerosis; V -Vanishing bile duct syndrome; I-Interstitial fibrosis; T- Tcell; Y- cYtokine secretion;Mnemonic05/06/20 6:09 PM
214119ImmunologyImmune ResponsesTransplant rejectionUSMLE First Aid 2020Mnemonic for remembering symptoms of Graft-Versus-Host Disease: MJ (Michael Jackson) Did [musical] Hits (M - Maculopapular rash, J - Jaundice, D - Diarrhea, H - Hepatosplenomegaly)Mnemonic06/04/20 1:37 PM
215119ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsTransplant rejectionUworld (Can't find the question)A way to remember the cell types of transplant rejection: Back To Back Ls (BTB Ls). B cell type 2 response for hyperacute, T cell type 4 response for acute, B cell type 2 (and some T cell although Uworld has it mainly as a B cell response) for chronic., and Ls for lymphocytes. This also makes sense as the patient took an L (loss) with the first organ failure, and then another (back to back) with the transplanted organ.Mnemonic05/24/20 10:07 PM
216120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantsNAAlignment in column 3 (Indications) may be incorrect. Suggestion: List indications for each immunosuppressant separately. No specific indications are listed for tacrolimus. It looks like indication for basilixumab is same as that for Sirolimus, it could be made clearer if indications were listed separately for each.Clarification to current text02/06/20 1:46 PM
217120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19#H2430150683Treatment guidelines from China's National Health Commission include the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab for patients with severe COVID-19 and elevated IL-6 levelsHigh-yield addition to next year03/20/20 1:56 PM
218120ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressantshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prognosis-of-interstitial-lung-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis-scleroderma?search=sclerodermia%20lung&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~57&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2656629032Mycophenolate Mofetil is also first-line treatment for scleroderma lungClarification to current text03/23/20 11:18 AM
219121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical useshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/g-csf-neupogen-filgrastim-342164#10 https://reference.medscape.com/drug/leukine-sargramostim-342166#10fil-GRA-STIM is GRAnulocyte STIMulator while sar-GRA-MO-STIM is GRAnulocyte & MOnocyte STIMulatorMnemonic02/19/20 9:07 AM
220121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical usesnot neededeltrombopag: elthrombopag to remember it's TPO effectMnemonic04/24/20 11:30 AM
221121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRecombinant cytokines and clinical usesFA 2020 page 121el-trombop-ag ===> ThromboPoietin Agonist \; similar idea to what you have for Romi-pl-o-stim = Platelet simulatorMnemonic05/19/20 3:07 PM
222121ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsThrombogenesisnot neededFor thrombopoietin, it says to use eltrombopag. A good hint is to pronounce it as elTHROMBOpagMnemonic01/24/20 2:03 AM
223122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsBevacizumabhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/age-related-macular-degeneration-treatment-and-prevention?search=Bevacizumab%20off-label&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3Under the notes section it states, "Also used for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema." I believe it is important to recognize that Bevacizumab is used off-label for this indication. Bevacizumab/Avastin has never been FDA approved for ocular indications or intravitreal administration. While bevacizumab and ranibizumab are created from the same parent mouse antibody, they are two distinct antibodies and approved for two different indications. While bevacizumab is widely used for the indications listed in the notes, I think it would be appropriate to clarify that those are "off-label" clinical uses of bevacizumab. This has generated a great deal of controversy in ophthalmology and students should be aware that this particular antibody, while used for ocular indications, is not actually approved for such indications. This is similar to how misoprostol is currently listed in the text as being used "off-label" for induction of the cervix. Text should be clarified to read, "Also used off-label for neovascular age- related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema."Clarification to current text01/14/20 9:02 AM
224122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsBevacizumabFirst Aid 2020Bevacizumab target VEGF----->"VEGvacizumab"Mnemonic02/21/20 10:42 AM
225122ImmunologyImmunosuppressantsRituximabn/aMr. Rituximab and MS BRIC 20th anniversaryMnemonic07/10/20 7:01 PM
226124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structuresSlime layer : loosely attached network of polysaccharides124Clarification to current text02/23/20 10:54 AM
227124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial structureshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771553/In the section discussing the Periplasm, the section reads " Space between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane in gram - (negative) bacterial (peptidoglycan in middle)". The word 'bacterial' should be changed to bacteria. Ending it with "bacterial" makes it seem as if there is more to come after but has been left out.Spelling/formatting05/14/20 2:40 PM
228124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpore-forming bacteriaFirst Aid bookGram *p* bacteria form s *p* oresMnemonic06/05/20 1:17 AM
229125MicrobiologyMiscellaneousGlycogenJust a suggestion for an existing mnemonic, thank you.The existing mnemonic for Periodic acid-Schiff stain reads: “PaS the SUGAR”. I suggest to add ”Mr. Whipple" at the end to help us remember that is used to diagnose Whipple disease. ”PaSs the SUGAR Mr. Whipple"Mnemonic06/10/20 8:51 AM
230125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyStainsFirst Aid 2020Silver stain--->Fungi "Mushrooms are gray"Mnemonic02/21/20 1:29 PM
231125MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyStainsNo needFor the PAS stain, use the following mnemonic: PaSs the WHIPPed sugar. This way we can remember the whipple disease diagnosis using this stainMnemonic05/13/20 3:35 AM
232125MicrobiologyAbbreviations and SymbolsNEW FACTMnemonic correctionRicky got Chlamydia as he Tried to Please the Bored Hot "Giemsa" not Geisha - atleast that was confusing for meMnemonic07/28/20 10:02 AM
233126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyAerobesno needimmunosuppression not immunocompromise as it is only used as adjective "immunocompromised", so it is better to use immunosuppressionClarification to current text03/03/20 3:46 PM
234126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyAerobesmnemonicMY P(air) is for NoBODYMnemonic05/09/20 1:26 PM
235126MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLegionella pneumophilahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-legionella-infection#H2882433715 , https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220163-workupKey symptoms of Legionnaire’s disease can be remembered with the mnemonic: Hi Five CHaD: Hi Fever, Confusion, Hyponatremia & Headache, and DiarrheaMnemonic04/18/20 7:50 PM
236126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsFirst Aid 2020Lactose-fermenting enterics--->MacConkey agar------------think "MacCOWkey"Mnemonic02/21/20 1:42 PM
237126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsmnemonicORIGINAL: C diphtheria : Tellurite agar, Löffler medium /Method 1: C diphtheria : Tellurite agar, Löffler medium = C diphTELLria / Method 2: C diphtheria : Tellurite agar, Löffler medium = C diphTELLÖriaMnemonic05/09/20 1:18 PM
238127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyIntracellular bacteriaIt's just an update to an old mnemonic, the bacteria are exactly the sameThe current mnemonic is "Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY" - the mnemonic "LISTen SALly YER FRiend BRUCE Must LEave NOw - LISTeria Monocytogenes SALmonella typhi YERsinia FRancisella tularensis BRUCElla LEgionella NOcardia" is much better because it includes the first parts of some of the bacteria in it as well, plus the old "FacultativeLY" just trips me up.Mnemonic01/25/20 10:07 PM
239127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyIntracellular bacteriahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/microbiology-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-nocardiosis?search=Nocardia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~16&usage_type=default&display_rank=2Nocardia is Facultative intracellular bacteriaMajor erratum02/03/20 5:01 PM
240127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyIntracellular bacteriahttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/intracellular-bacteriumYersinia species are Intracellular Bacteria ( not only Yersinia pestis)Minor erratum03/02/20 3:26 AM
241127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyIntracellular bacteriaMy mindMY (MYcoplasma) Niece(Nees-eria) Your (Yer) Legion (Legionella) Lists (Listeria) Frank (Francisella) Bruce ( Brucella) and Sam (Salmonella)Mnemonic03/17/20 9:59 PM
242127MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyUrease-positive organismsNot neededUrease Positive Killers Harmfully pile Co2, NH3 and Struvite Stones (Ureaplasma, Proteus, Klebsiella, Helicobacter pylori, Cryptococcus, Nocardia, Staph epi, Staph saprophyticus)Mnemonic05/13/20 7:00 AM
243128MicrobiologyAbbreviations and SymbolsCatalase-positive organismsPersonal Mnemonic That I Would like to shareNADPH LESS B N-Nocardia; A-Aspergillus; D-canDida; P-Pseudomonas, H-H.Pylori; L-Listeria, E- E.Coli; S-Serratia; S-Staphyloccocus; B-Bulgholderia.Mnemonic05/01/20 11:16 AM
244128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC380547/KATs Need PLACESS to Belch their Hairballs. KATs here stands both for Klebsiella and Catalase. The rest is just like in the bookMnemonic02/29/20 4:54 AM
245128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493171/A mnemonic for catalase+ organisms that CGD patients are susceptible to: No Staph (staff) or Servant Can List EveryBudy who Plans A HaPpy Birthday Party. In order, this represents NOcardia, Staphylococcus, SERratia, CANdida, LISTeria, E coli, BUrkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, Helicobacter Pylori, Bordetella PertussisMnemonic05/13/20 11:33 AM
246128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyCatalase-positive organismsNot neededHELICOpter STAff CAN Ensure NO Passenger Leaves Seat Belt when Airframe is Broken (HELICObacter pylori, STAphylococci, CANdida, E coli, NOcardia, Pseudomonas, Listeria, SErratia, Burkholderia cepacia, Aspergillus, Bordetella pertussis)Mnemonic05/13/20 11:42 PM
247132MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacteria with exotoxinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356903/Heat-stable toxin in Enterotoxigenic E. Coli not only inhibits NaCl reabsorbtion but also enchances Cl- secretion ("Heat-stable enterotoxin STa binds to the guanylate cyclase C receptor and activates its intracellular catalytic domain, causing the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and accumulation of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. These increased cGMP levels activate cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (PKGII) [15,50,51]. In addition, cGMP was shown to inhibit phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3), leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) [52]. Activated PKGII and PKA phosphorylate and open the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel, inducing Cl− and HCO3− release into the intestinal lumen [50,51,52,53]. Protein kinase A also phosphorylates the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) that inhibits Na+ reabsorption (Figure 2) [54].")Major erratum02/29/20 4:59 AM
248134MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStaphylococcus saprophyticushttps://aac.asm.org/content/aac/51/12/4484.full.pdf (I was unable to find any source on UpToDate)I would like to implement the mnemonic to help remember S. Saprophyticus is Novobiocin resistant and S. Epidermidis is Novobiocin susceptible by this phrase: “Sapro is a No go on Novo” saying that S. Saprophyticus is Novobiocin resistant and epidermidis is susceptibleMnemonic01/26/20 1:33 PM
249134MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStaphylococcus saprophyticusnot needed"SAPRO is a NO GO on NOVO" "The man's "Staph" touched his Sensitive Skin" This helps a student remember that S. saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant and s. epidermidis is sensitiveMnemonic01/31/20 2:39 PM
250134MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNEW FACTnot needed.G+ BaCCiLi: Baccilus Anthracis, Clostridia, Corynebacterium, ListeriaMnemonic06/14/20 12:47 PM
251135MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStaphylococcus aureushttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/169177-overviewdiarrhea is imp. symptom of Toxic Shock SyndromeHigh-yield addition to next year01/19/20 1:45 PM
252135MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyStaphylococcus aureushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3256719/Test-takers may be asked about virulence factor of S.aureus - PVT (Pantone-Valentine Leukocidin).High-yield addition to next year07/08/20 10:52 PM
253136MicrobiologyImmune ResponsesAntibody structure and functionUW724Antibodies against Group A Strep (GAS), M protein and N-acetyl Beta-D-glucosamine attack myosin (a cardiac protein) and jysoganglioside (a neuronal cell surface protein).High-yield addition to next year05/04/20 5:46 PM
254136MicrobiologyImmune ResponsesStreptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/impetigo?search=impetigo%20complications&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~121&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H8Complication of Group A Strep pharyngitis/THROAT = BOTH Rheumatic fever and PSGN ."THROAT Causes BOTH!" verses Complication of Group A Strep SKIN infection e.g impetigo= PSGN Only!Mnemonic08/01/20 6:19 PM
255137MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus anthracishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/212127-overview#a4It is stated that Bacilus anthracis has a polypeptide capsule when they actually have a protein capsule composed of poly-D-glutamic acid which is a unique feature among encapsulated bacteria which generally have polyacrylamide capsules.Minor erratum03/13/20 3:01 AM
256137MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyEnterococciUWorld QID: 11812Instead of variable hemolysis, change to gamma hemolysisClarification to current text01/14/20 8:45 AM
257138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus cereusmnemonicc-E-r-E-ulide causes E-m-E-tic type of gastroenteritis, not diarrheal type (highlight "E"s in cereulide and emetic)Mnemonic04/09/20 11:53 AM
258138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBacillus cereusNo needBacillus CEREUs - CEREUlide toxinMnemonic06/11/20 2:13 PM
259138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiamnemonicRIS-us SAR-donicus= RIS-e your eyebrows and smile SAR-casticallyMnemonic02/24/20 2:44 AM
260138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/botulismb Ach ulinum inhibits Ach releaseMnemonic03/30/20 2:42 PM
261138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/764304_2Fidaxomicin inhibits the sigma subunit of RNA polymeraseClarification to current text05/20/20 4:44 PM
262138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394026/ https://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/marilyn-bulloch-pharmd-bcps/2018/02/new-treatment-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile. Amboss Q bank- GI bloc 2 Q 23new guidelines indicate that oral fidaxomicin and vancomycin are now first line treatment for nonsevere clostridium difficult infection ( WBC count < 15,000 cells/ml) and metronidazole is a second line therapy and is suggested only in settings where access to vancomycin and fidaxomycin is limitedClarification to current text05/26/20 3:31 PM
263138MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyClostridiahttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7570310/Test-takers may recieve questions regarding risks and malignancies associated with C. septicum.High-yield addition to next year07/08/20 10:59 PM
264139MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyCorynebacterium diphtheriaemnemonicmultiple chances-file attachments- Corynebacterium diphtheriae: ADP-ribosylation / β-prophage / Corynebacterium / Diphtheriae / Elongation Factor 2 / Granules Hazy membrane Inhaling droplet blackJack Kardiac arrhythmias Lymphadenopathy Myocarditis NeuropathiesMnemonic05/09/20 1:23 PM
265139MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNocardia vs Actinomyceshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211587-overview#showallActinomyces is NOT part of the normal reproductive flora. It's actually associated with IUD related infection. "Pelvic actinomycosis most commonly ascends from the uterus in association with intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs)". (from eMedicine)Minor erratum03/23/20 12:11 PM
266140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriaIn the first sentence, delete “Gram (+)” so it reads “Acid-fast rods.”Clarification to current text12/21/19 6:21 PM
267140MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyMycobacteriahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC423014/Sulfatides (surface glycolipids) and cord factor inhibit phagolysosomal fusionClarification to current text03/18/20 3:39 AM
268141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyGram-negative lab algorithmhttps://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-vibrio#tab1Vibrio Vulnificus is a lactose fermenter and should be categorized under +ve lactose fermentationHigh-yield addition to next year03/10/20 5:39 AM
269141MicrobiologyMiscellaneousLeprosyPersonal mnemonic that I would like to share. Hope it helps.LepromaTWOus - Th2 humoral response; Tuberculo1d - Th1 immune response.Mnemonic05/04/20 6:58 PM
270142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/963773-overview#a6even though Hib vaccine dramatically decreases risk of acute epiglottitis in children, it does not prevent acute epiglottitis by 100%. Hence, even properly vaccinated children can get acute epiglottitis.High-yield addition to next year02/19/20 9:21 AM
271142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyHaemophilus influenzaehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/763612-clinicalEpiglottitis presents with sore throat, dysphagia, muffled voice, and inspiratory stridor.High-yield addition to next year04/17/20 10:18 AM
272142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyNeisseriahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infection-in-adults-and-adolescentsGonocooci diagnosed with NAAT instead of NATSpelling/formatting02/01/20 3:16 PM
273144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLactose-fermenting enteric bacteriaPersonal mnemonic that I would like to share. Hope it helps!LA CTO SE EE LA-klebsielLA; CTO- CiTrObacter; SE-Serratia, E- Enterobacter, E-E.coli.Mnemonic05/17/20 12:15 PM
274144MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySalmonella vs ShigellaUworld question 1137Shigella has both endotoxin and exotoxin.Clarification to current text07/10/20 5:07 PM
275145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyCampylobacter jejunimnemonicCAMPILOBACTER Comma/ Ate poultry,meat/ Milk unpast/ Polar flagella /Infected animals contact / Oral-fecal/BArre/Children/ Too hot /E(rEactif arthritis) /R(Reactif arthritis)Mnemonic05/09/20 1:10 PM
276145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyCampylobacter jejunimnemonicCAMPYLOBACTER Comma /Ate poultry,meat/ Milk unpast/ Polar flagella/ Youngster /Oral-fecal/ BArre /Children/ Too hot/ E(rEactif arthritis)/ R(Reactif arthritis)Mnemonic05/09/20 1:12 PM
277145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyEscherichia coliMy mindEnteropathogenic E. coli Presentation section: “EPEC: Pediatrics & PEC at microvilli”Mnemonic04/05/20 7:04 PM
278145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyKlebsiellamnemonicABCDEF’s of Klebsiella: Aspiration pneumonia/ aBscess in lungs and liver /“Currant jelly” sputum /Diabetes / EtOH abuse / Additionally: Flora of intestineMnemonic05/09/20 1:14 PM
279147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/neurosyphilis#H13Clarify that the Argyll-Robertson pupil is secondary to the tabes dorsalis spinal cord lesion and not a distinct phenomenonClarification to current text02/29/20 2:20 PM
280147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilishttps://bmcinthealthhumrights.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12914-019-0193-7Saying that Argyll-Robertson pupils are like prostitutes because they "accomodate but do not react" is demeaning to sex workers, unnecessary and unhelpfulMnemonic06/19/20 3:34 PM
281147MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilishttps://www-uptodate-com.medjournal.hmc.psu.edu:2200/contents/neurosyphilis?sectionName=Late%20neurosyphilis&search=syphilis&topicRef=7584&anchor=H11&source=see_link#H1Tertiary Syphilis categorization reserved for cardiovascular or gummatous disease only. Such progression is usually time dependent in patients whom have been infected with syphilis over 1 year. Nuerosyphilis and its subcategory, ocular syphilis, can occur anytime after the initial infection and is therefore categorized seperately. Also move Argyll Robertson Pupil, broad based ataxia, + Romberg, Charcot Joint, and CSF testing into Nuerosyphilis Category.Minor erratum07/06/20 5:32 PM
282148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyJarisch-Herxheimer reactionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5239707/#s3titleThe mechanism of this rxn is not well elucidated, it may be incorrect to state it is due to killed spirochete toxin release.Minor erratum02/29/20 2:23 PM
283150MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyRickettsial diseases and vector-borne illnessesFirst Aid 2020ePidemic typhus----r. Prowazekii (use "P"'s for mnemonic)Mnemonic02/25/20 1:14 PM
284153MicrobiologyMycologyOpportunistic fungal infectionsFirst Aid 2020, page 128The page of opportunistic fungal infections (153) would be a good place to include a reminder that both candida and aspergillus are catalase positive organisms. You could also potentially mention patients with chronic granulomatous disease are at an increased risk for infections from these catalase positive organisms.High-yield addition to next year03/11/20 2:14 PM
285154MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyPneumocystis jiroveciihttp://reference.medscape.com/article/225976-a12Initial step in diagnosis of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is immunofluorescence of induced sputum sample. If the sputum sample is inconclusive, BAL is the preferred invasive step.Minor erratum01/29/20 10:49 AM
286155MicrobiologyParasitologyNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678475/Entamoeba histolytica colonoscopy 'flash shaped colonic ulcers'High-yield addition to next year06/10/20 11:21 AM
287156MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—CNS infectionshttp://www.antimicrobe.org/b54.aspAfrican Trypanosomiasis can be further subdivided into Trypanosomas Brucei gambiense and Trypanosomas Brucei Rhodience. Gambian trypanosomiasis is more prevalent in the West African Coast; whereas Rhodesian Trypanosomiases is more prevalent in the East coast. Mneumonic: Trypanosomas Brucei Rhodience is most prevalent in the East African Coast. Much like Rhode Island is in the East coast of the United StatesHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 5:40 PM
288157MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—hematologic infectionsUptodate and one of the new NBMEP malariae cause hypogylcemiaHigh-yield addition to next year01/22/20 2:32 PM
289158MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—othershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/visceral-leishmaniasis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisVisceral leishmaniasis (VL) is primarily caused by L. donovani and L. infantum. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is often caused by L. braziliensis and L. mexicana. I specifically had questions on donovani and braziliensisHigh-yield addition to next year03/11/20 2:49 PM
290159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)1. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/toxocariasis-visceral-and-ocular-larva-migrans 2. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30331-6/fulltextMost pts w/ Visceral larva migrans (T. canis) are asymptomatic.Clarification to current text12/21/19 6:24 PM
291159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)Uworld question ID 15549lumbricoides causes Loeffler's syndrome (eosinophilic pneumonitis). also, a good hint is: Lumbricoides = Loeffler'sHigh-yield addition to next year01/24/20 2:58 AM
292159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hookworm-related-cutaneous-larva-migrans?search=Cutaneous%20larva%20migransCutaneous larva migrans should be moved to another column cause it is totally different from human hookworms(Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) infection. Cutaneous larva migrans is caused by nonhuman hookworm infection (the dog or cat hookworm), eosinophilia is rare, and the drugs of choice are oral ivermectin or albendazole. pyrantel pamoate is not the choice.Major erratum02/29/20 3:48 AM
293159MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/ascariasis/biology.htmlIn ascaris lumbricoides..I think that we should mention that it is transmitted by indirect feco-oral transsmission not just saying that it is transmitted by feco-oral route As ascaris egg needs about 3 weeks to be infective and this occurs in the soil but ingesting the egg directly is not infectious as it doesn’t cause autoinfectionClarification to current text03/11/20 6:16 PM
294160MicrobiologyParasitologyTrematodes (flukes)Uworld Question Id 18489Schistosoma mansoni and japonicum can cause iron deficiency anemia.High-yield addition to next year02/19/20 9:40 AM
295161MicrobiologyParasitologyAnti-mite/louse therapynot neededScabies is caused by mites burrowing into the stratum corneum. A good hint is Stratum Corneum = SCabiesMnemonic01/24/20 2:27 AM
296161MicrobiologyParasitologyEctoparasitesMnemonicRemember scabies burrows into the Stratum Corneum by highlighting the "SC" in SCabies.Mnemonic01/11/20 10:03 PM
297161MicrobiologyParasitologyEctoparasitesmnemonicBRB body lice: Borrelia recurrent, Baronella Quintana, Rickettsia prowazekiiMnemonic02/08/20 10:05 PM
298162MicrobiologyVirologyViral geneticsMnemonic for Viral genetics.I want to describe a mnemonic for viral genetics( Recombination, Complementation , Reassortment & Phenotypic mixing ) in a easy manner.Mnemonic05/31/20 9:54 AM
299162MicrobiologyVirologyViral structure—general featuresMnemonicEmphasize the "S" in reaSSortment, define as a Sudden Shift of Segmental genomes between Separate Species.Mnemonic01/11/20 7:20 PM
300162MicrobiologyVirologyViral structure—general featuresMnemonicIn the Viral Structure--General Features section, visually demonstrate that the typical positive-sense RNA has an icosahedral capsid and the typical negative-sense RNA has a helical capsid by showing a (+) sign with a hexagon drawn around it, and (-) sign with a helix wrapping around it. See attached example image.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 11:03 PM
301163MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virus characteristicsn/aDNA Virus Characteristics: Pox virus has a "comPLOX" shape.Mnemonic02/15/20 3:29 PM
302163MicrobiologyVirologyNaked viral genome infectivitytable page 167There are no naked (-ve )ssRNA viruses, they all are enveloped according to table page 167Major erratum12/31/19 4:08 PM
303163MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesNoneNaked RNA Viruses: Khaleesi (Calicivirus) was Naked in Rio (Reo) with Pico and Hepe (HepE)Mnemonic02/21/20 5:14 PM
304164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA viruseshttps://www.medscape.com/answers/961063-77641/what-is-the-pathophysiology-of-parvovirus-b19-b19v-infectionParvovirus B19 Infection leads to suppression of erythrogenesis not RBC destructionMinor erratum01/14/20 12:17 PM
305164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesnot neededJust an algorithm similar to that for bacteria but for viruses; may be edited as you see fitMnemonic03/31/20 4:36 PM
306164MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesSketchy microBK virus affects Bone marrow and Kidney transplant patients (BK = Bone marrow, Kidney)Mnemonic06/13/20 4:38 PM
307165MicrobiologyVirologyHerpesvirusesno needin EBV, change aka to "also called" as we are following in the rest of the book formattingSpelling/formatting01/23/20 1:49 PM
308166MicrobiologyVirologyReceptors used by virusesnot neededto reinforce the "P" mnemonic for Parvovirus/P antigen on RBC, consider adding: "P" antigen on "Precursor" RBC (see page 164)Mnemonic06/19/20 12:11 PM
309167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/summary.html; medscape.com/viewarticle/924020Please add Wuhan along side SARS and MERSHigh-yield addition to next year01/22/20 2:32 PM
310167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesFASingle (SS) depressed people feel enclosed (enveloped) and drink Corona beer in the summers ( SARS-MARS) when the have a common cold. This makes them dizzy(helix)Mnemonic02/20/20 3:56 PM
311167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19#H3103904400The virus that causes COVID-19 is designated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); previously, it was referred to as 2019-nCoV. It causes: ●Mild (no or mild pneumonia) was reported in 81 percent. ●Severe disease (eg, with dyspnea, hypoxia, or >50 percent lung involvement on imaging within 24 to 48 hours) was reported in 14 percent. ●Critical disease (eg, with respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction) was reported in 5 percent.High-yield addition to next year03/20/20 1:43 PM
312167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesthe NEWS!Add Covid 19 to coronavirus in the tableMinor erratum03/20/20 4:29 PM
313167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusescovid-19 pandemic 2020 (WHO)add "covid-19" to coronaviruses next to "common cold", SARS, MERS. under RNA virusesHigh-yield addition to next year03/26/20 7:20 PM
314167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesNone neededCurrently says norovirus - viral gastroenteritis. Encountered a UWORLD question that asks us to choose a likely organism to present with food-related illness BUT >24 hours after exposure. Answer was norovirus - a high yield addition would be to put "think N/V/D after picnic BUT presents >24 hours". Super high yield to know the difference and we are so used to seeing "food" and putting S.aureus or B.cereusClarification to current text03/30/20 9:16 AM
315167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://viralzone.expasy.org/8916?outline=all_by_species https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713929/table/T1/Rubella is no longer a toga virus, its classified as MatonaviridaeMajor erratum05/07/20 8:03 AM
316167MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesN/AThe RNA viruses with helical capsid can be remembered by the mnemonic "BAd PR FOr Corona in 2020" (Bunyaviruses, Arenaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Filoviruses, OR-thomyxoviruses, and Coronaviruses".Mnemonic06/03/20 10:26 AM
317168MicrobiologyVirologyPicornavirusno needwe can put the 2 sentences in one as: all are enteroviruses and can cause aseptic (viral) meningitis (except rhinovirus and HAV).Clarification to current text01/23/20 4:31 PM
318168MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyRhinovirushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441521/The human rhinoviruses currently is assigned to the Enterovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. Previously it was assigned to their own genus (Human Rhinoviruses or HRV), but this is not the case any more.Major erratum04/29/20 6:43 PM
319169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesmnemonichemagglutin-IN lets the virus IN the cell (ie, binds sialic acid and promotes viral entry).Mnemonic02/23/20 5:57 AM
320169MicrobiologyVirologyInfluenza virusesmnemonichemagglutin-IN lets the virus IN (ie, promotes viral entry).Mnemonic04/29/20 10:06 AM
321169MicrobiologyVirologyParamyxoviruseshttps://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/miscellaneous-viral-infections-in-infants-and-children/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-and-human-metapneumovirus-infectionsWhen human metapneumovirus was added to the 2020 addition, it was added to the end of the sentence so it now reads: "paramyxoviruses include...RSV, human metapneumovirus, which causes respiratory tract infection (bronchiolitis, pneumonia) in infants." It may be worth it to clarify that both RSV and human metapneumovirus cause this broncholiotis and pneumonia. Most students know about RSV causing it which makes it confusing as if there might be an error about the human metapneumovirus, since the older text describes RSV alone with that exact definition.Clarification to current text04/08/20 11:45 PM
322171MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/chikungunya-fever-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis#!Chikungunya virus – An alphavirus member of the togavirus family transmitted by the aedes mosquito. The virus primarily infects synovial joint and muscle tissue, causing debilitating inflammatory polyarthritis which can progress to chronic arthritis. Other symptoms include high fever, maculopapular rash, headache, and lymphadenopathy. Hemorrhagic manifestations are uncommon (vs dengue fever). Diagnosed with RT-PCR or ELISA.High-yield addition to next year03/11/20 5:11 PM
323171MicrobiologyVirologyZika virushttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/905510 https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/898962congenital zika syndrome, transmitted trasnplacentally, causes microcephaly, ocular defects, seizures, spasticity, hydrocephalusHigh-yield addition to next year02/19/20 9:54 AM
324172MicrobiologyImmune ResponsesHepatitis serologic markershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-adults-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisAnti-HAV (IGM) and Anti-HAV (IgG) - igM antibody is used to detect ACUTE hepatitis, and igG antibody is used to detect PRIOR HAV infections. A simple mnemonic that I use is that M looks similar to N so the infection will be NEW (Acute). G stands for GONE (Prior Infection). Simply put: M-> N (new) -> Acute infection. G (gone)-> Prior infection.Mnemonic01/20/20 6:33 PM
325172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis virusesMnemonicEmphasize the "A" and "E" in the word "nAkEd" to remember HepA and HepE are the two unencapsulated hepatitis viruses.Mnemonic01/11/20 7:28 PM
326173MicrobiologyVirologyExtrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B and Chttps://www.medpagetoday.com/resource-centers/focus-follicular-lymphoma/hepatitis-b-virus-linked-non-hodgkin-lymphoma/2398Increase risk B-cell NHLMajor erratum05/25/20 1:27 PM
327173MicrobiologyVirologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www.medpagetoday.com/resource-centers/focus-follicular-lymphoma/hepatitis-b-virus-linked-non-hodgkin-lymphoma/2398Increase  risk B-cell NHL associated with Hep CMajor erratum05/25/20 1:00 PM
328178MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBugs causing food-borne illnesshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vibrio-vulnificus-infectionsHealthy patients with v. vulnificus wound contamination usually develop a mild cellulitis, but those with an iron overload or liver disease are at high risk for rapidly progressive necrotizing fascitis with hemorrhagic, bullous lesions and septic shock.High-yield addition to next year03/10/20 5:49 AM
329178MicrobiologySystemsBugs causing food-borne illnessmnemonicVibrio VUlnificus can also cause "VUnd" (wound) infections from contact with contaminated water or shellfishMnemonic03/27/20 1:41 AM
330178MicrobiologySystemsPrionsmnemonicK-uru is seen with human K-annibalismMnemonic02/25/20 12:49 AM
331179MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of pneumoniahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3437812/Addition to "Special Groups": COPD - H influenzae, S pneumoniae, M catarrhalis, P aeruginosaHigh-yield addition to next year04/21/20 5:28 PM
332180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-adults?search=causes%20of%20meningitis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2S pneumonia is the most common cause of adult meningitis according to Up to date, see the link belowMajor erratum01/25/20 6:40 AM
333180MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1005384S pneumoniae is the most common cause of meningitis in age 6-60 yearsMajor erratum02/10/20 1:45 PM
334180MicrobiologySystemsOsteomyelitis1- https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/hematogenous-osteomyelitis 2- UworldHematogenous osteomyelitis is the most frequent type and primarily affects the metaphysis because the bacteria travel through vascular tunnels and adhere to the bone matrix (its a key concept to solve a uworld question)High-yield addition to next year06/19/20 6:49 AM
335181MicrobiologySystemsUrinary tract infectionsmnemonicN-itrite test is positive in gram N-egative UTIs.Mnemonic04/30/20 10:33 AM
336182MicrobiologyEmbryologyTORCH infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-torch-infections?search=torch%20infections&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The current mnemonic is "ToRCHeS" where it stands for toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, Herpes, HIV, syphillis. I have a similar mnemonic that is "Very Bright ToRCHeS" to include VZV, (parvovirus) B19, Toxo, Rubella, CMV, HIV, Herpes, Syphillis. This is a slight edit but has helped me to add high yield VZV and B19 to my TORCH infection list!Mnemonic02/17/20 12:01 PM
337185MicrobiologySystemsPelvic inflammatory diseasehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545286/Add "Chandelier's sign" to cervical motion tenderness on pelvic inflammatory diseaseClarification to current text03/01/20 7:39 PM
338187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsNEW FACThttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/suprax-cefixime-342503fidaxomicin is used to treat C difficile infections. It exerts its effect by inhibiting MRNA synthesis through binding to RNA Polymerase. Add fidaxomicin to antimicrobial therapy diagram on pg 187High-yield addition to next year05/03/20 5:25 PM
339189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219907-overview#showallIn 1st generation it is stated that gram + are Proteus, E.coli, and Klebsiella but they are not. They are actually gram - RodsMajor erratum02/02/20 11:31 AM
340189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cephalosporins#H9The third-generation cephalosporins of cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime may be remembered by the following: "The verdict from the judge's PODium is to TRI em', TAX em', and TAZe em'."Mnemonic02/25/20 9:25 AM
341189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC326456/pdf/thij00053-0013.pdf ///// https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents?search=acute%20PID&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H1025616 ////// Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Katzung, 14th ed, page 804 ////// File attached is from Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple 6th ed.2nd generation cephalosporins differ from other generations due to anaerobic bugs coverage (esp. cefoxitin and cefotetan). This is important. Take, for example, the treatment for acute PID: only cefoxitin and cefotetan are used as 2nd generation cephalosporins, since the empiric therapy must cover anaerobes.High-yield addition to next year03/07/20 12:02 PM
342189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinsQuick association between page 181 and 189Can't go #1 (catheters) give #1 (1st generation cephalosporin) for PEcK (proteus, e. coli, kleb)Mnemonic03/24/20 12:00 PM
343189MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCephalosporinshttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/suprax-cefixime-342503Cefixime (Suprax) is a 3rd generation cephalosporin. Treats gram negative infectionsHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 5:20 PM
344190MicrobiologyPharmacologyMonobactamsMnemonicRemember that aztreonam binds PBP-3 by calling it azTHREEonamMnemonic01/11/20 9:55 PM
345190MicrobiologyPharmacologyVancomycinhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/firvanq-vancocin-vancomycin-342573#4Vanco is not a red man dress (for side effects of vancomycin)Mnemonic02/08/20 4:33 AM
346190MicrobiologyPharmacologyVancomycinhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/firvanq-vancocin-vancomycin-342573#4Vanco is not a red man dress (for side effects of vancomycin)Mnemonic02/08/20 4:34 AM
347191MicrobiologyToxicities and Side EffectsSeizureshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases?search=carbapenems&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~136&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H17Carbapenems are known to cause a decreased seizure threshold, leading to increased seizure occurence at high serum levels, however, Meropenem has been shown to have a more favorable seizure profile, with decreased seizure occurrence (as well as being safer in pregnant women). A great way I was able to remember this was the following: "MELLOWpenem - Meropenems keep you mellow, and thus, decreased seizure occurrences."High-yield addition to next year04/29/20 11:50 AM
348194BiochemistryPharmacologySulfonamidesnot needed(In the Image), Dihydropteroate Synthase is inhibited by Sulfonamides & Dapsone. Both the "D" and "S" from Dihydropteroate/Dapsone and Synthase/Sulfonamides should be in Red font. This helps distinguish these two from the Dihydro Reductase...Mnemonic01/24/20 1:55 AM
349194MicrobiologyPharmacologyDapsonehttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/aczone-dapsone-342559#4Dapsone HAM (hemolysis, agranulocytosis,methomoglobinemia)Mnemonic02/08/20 5:21 AM
350194MicrobiologyPharmacologySulfonamidesBoards and BeyondDrugs that cause photosensitive reaction: Sulfonamides, Amiadrone, Tetracycline (SAT) Mnemonic: He got a photosensitivity reaction when he SAT under the sunMnemonic05/05/20 2:17 PM
351194MicrobiologyPharmacologyTrimethoprimUW 1104Pyrimethamine in protozoa, Methotrexate in humans and Thrimetoprim in bacteria. They all inhibit the same enzyme Dihydrofolate reductase.High-yield addition to next year06/07/20 2:21 PM
352195MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDaptomycinmnemonicdapto-MYO-cin causes MYO-pathyMnemonic04/28/20 10:30 AM
353195MicrobiologyPharmacologyProtein synthesis inhibitorsmneumonicMETronidazole gives you METallic tasteMnemonic07/06/20 12:37 PM
354196MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsRifamycins-RifaBUTin - BETter for HIVMnemonic06/03/20 6:25 AM
355197MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsIsoniazid-Comparison cyt-450 effects of rifampin vs isoniazid: Rifampin - Rise cyt-540; IsoNiazid - INhibit cyt-450Mnemonic06/03/20 6:33 AM
356198MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsProphylaxis in HIV/AIDS patientshttps://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/AdultOITablesOnly.pdfFor MAC, we recommend azithromycin if the patient is not on ARTClarification to current text01/04/20 12:25 AM
357198MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsProphylaxis in HIV/AIDS patientsmneumonicMACrolides for MAC infectionMnemonic06/10/20 8:31 AM
358199MicrobiologyPharmacologyAmphotericin Bn/aUnder clinical use for amphotericin B, it states "amphotericin B with +/- without flucytosine". The words with and without are redundant and may cause some confusion.Spelling/formatting05/11/20 4:52 PM
359199MicrobiologyPharmacologyAntifungal therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3023421Ketoconazole can be used to mitigate the progression to centripetal obesity and Cushingoid appearance, by inhibiting 11-β-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyaseHigh-yield addition to next year05/17/20 2:09 AM
360200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAnti-mite/louse therapymnemonicPERMethrin makes Na PERMeable through membrane.Mnemonic03/22/20 10:52 AM
361200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAnti-mite/louse therapyhttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/MalathionMalathion = MAL-AcTH-ION (This refers to the fact that Malathion is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor)Mnemonic04/14/20 4:18 PM
362200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsChloroquinehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19#H2430150683Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitroHigh-yield addition to next year03/20/20 1:34 PM
363200MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsEchinocandinshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pharmacology-of-echinocandinsEchinocandins inhibit cell wall synthesis by interfering key catalytic subunits (Fks1p and Fks2p) in the beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex, echinocandins deplete cell wall glucan crosslinking, resulting in a markedly weakened cell wall structure. **recommend adding they interfere with beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase**Clarification to current text06/12/20 4:17 PM
364202MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsCidofovirNot neededAdminister probeneCIDofovir to decrease nephrotoxicityMnemonic05/14/20 7:43 PM
365202MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsGanciclovirnot neededGuanosine analog. phosphorylated to ganciclovir 5′-monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kinaseClarification to current text01/18/20 3:49 AM
366203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyUworldI created a table for myself based off of your information on hiv therapy as well as uworld's explanations on hiv therapy. The table is more simplified and I added high yield informationHigh-yield addition to next year03/06/20 8:23 AM
367203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapymnemonicINTEGR-ase inhibitors disrupt INTEGR-ity of your muscles (ie, they increase CK).Mnemonic04/19/20 10:11 AM
368203MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyhttps://aidsinfo.nih.gov/drugs/513/cabotegravir/0/patientCabotegravir can be added as an integrase inhibitor, it is an injectable in this class that shows promise as PrEP. A long-term trial was recently concluded early because cabotegravir shows significant benefit at preventing HIV infection over daily oral PrEP (Truvada).High-yield addition to next year05/19/20 6:32 PM
369203MicrobiologyVirologyHIV therapyUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-antiretroviral-agents-used-to-treat-hiv?search=nnrti&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~96&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1322357618There is a sentance in the explanation for HIV Therapy that "All ARTs are active against HIV-1 and HIV-2 with the exception of NNRTIs and enfuvirtide" but does not specify which of the two HIV subtypes those therapies are or are not effective against. Recommend adding "Not active against HIV-2." to the NNRTIs and Enfuvirtide sections to clarify.Clarification to current text01/11/20 8:23 PM
370203MicrobiologyVirologyHIV therapyUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-antiretroviral-agents-used-to-treat-hiv?search=nnrti&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~96&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H1589706088Mention that the major side effect of Tenofovir is possible Fanconi syndrome or acute kidney injuryHigh-yield addition to next year01/11/20 8:28 PM
371203MicrobiologyVirologyHIV therapyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076638/#S7title & uw1673"navir tease a protease" ---> "navir tease a fat 450lb protease", fat = causes buffalo hump/central fat redistribution like in cushing's. 450lb = 450 *p*ounds = *P*450 inhibitorMnemonic07/05/20 3:49 PM
372204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDisinfection and sterilizationUWorldIt should be noted that chlorhexidine "coagulates intracellular constituents" instead of "denatures proteins". If "denatures proteins" is kept, then remove the extra "s"Minor erratum02/28/20 12:26 PM
373204MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsDisinfection and sterilizationNot neededChlorine and HEAt are sporicidal ( Chlorine, Hydrogen peroxide, Ethylene oxide, Autoclave)Mnemonic05/14/20 7:39 PM
374206PathologyCellularBenign prostatic hyperplasiaPATHOMA - DR.SATTAR M.DPathologic hyperplasia like endometrial hyperplasia may progress to dysplasia and cancer.There is an exception to this rule,Benign prostatic hyperplasia doesn't progress to cancer.In addition to example i would also like to add EXCEPTION in the case of BPH.Clarification to current text06/03/20 11:43 PM
375208PathologyCellularApoptosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23283967BAX and BAK stab the cell in the BAcK (pro-apoptotic). Bcl-2: Be Clever, Live (anti-apoptotic)Mnemonic02/18/20 6:37 PM
376211PathologyCellularLipofuscinnot neededTo remember the parts of the body where Lipofuscin deposits, use the acronym LipOfusCCKEn. L - Liver, O - Other organs, C - Colon, C - Cardiac, K - Kidney, E - EyeMnemonic06/04/20 4:10 PM
377212PathologyCellularAmyloidosisN/ALink to genetics: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is encoded on chromosome 21 that is why Down Syndrome patients are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer diseaseClarification to current text05/12/20 7:47 PM
378212PathologyPathologyAmyloidosisN/AAmylin is also known as C-peptide which is a natural byproduct of insulin synthesisClarification to current text05/12/20 7:43 PM
379213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantsUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-phase-reactants?search=acute%20phase%20reactants&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H55783889Add "Haptoglobin" to the list of Acute Phase Reactants and explain that low haptoglobin is used as one of the key lab markers to identify intravascular hemolysis.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 7:40 PM
380213PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543591/Procalcitonin is an acute phase reactant that is unique in that it can elevated during a bacterial infection, but decrease/normal in amounts when there is a viral infectionHigh-yield addition to next year03/15/20 4:20 AM
381213PathologyInflammationInflammationThe cytokines are already listed on p. 213.For the cytokines that trigger a fever. IL-1 and TNF alpa. "I'd Like 1 Totally New Fever (please!)"Mnemonic02/06/20 8:14 PM
382214PathologyPathologyAcute inflammationGoljan, Edward F.Goljan, Edward F. (2019) Rapid review pathology /Philadelphia, PA : Mosby/Elsevier. 5th edition, pag 45The first vascular event in acute inflammation is vasoconstriction of arterioles due to neurogenic reflex lasting only a few seconds.High-yield addition to next year02/16/20 4:12 PM
383215PathologyInflammationImportant cytokinesParker WoolleyChemotactic Factors: LTB4, C5a, IL-8, Platelet Activating Factor, Kallikrein: (Light Touch B4 I C5AM. I Leave at 8 on a PanAm Flight to Cali-crying).Mnemonic03/01/20 7:22 PM
384216PathologyInflammationWound healingnot neededMnemonic to remember cells involved in proliferative phase of wound healing (Fibroblasts, Myofibroblasts, Endothelial cells, Keratinocytes, Macrophages): During proliferative phase, I can Feel My Elements Kreating and Making (Feel - Fibroblasts, My - Myofibroblasts, Elements - Endothelial cells, Kreating - Keratinocytes, Making - Macrophages)Mnemonic06/04/20 4:15 PM
385217PathologyClinical BacteriologyNEW FACTthis is something I thought of myselfhow to remember the bacteria causes of granuloma formation: MLB on TV: Mycobacteria Listeria monocytogenes Bartonella henselae Treponema pallidumMnemonic07/04/20 11:38 AM
386221PathologyNeoplasiaHallmarks of cancerhttps://www.cell.com/cell/homeAdding a diagram to improve the visualization of cancer hallmarks. Integration of two emerging features and enabling characteristics to complement the theme.High-yield addition to next year05/31/20 12:17 PM
387221PathologyNeoplasiaHallmarks of cancerall the information is already in FA2020 Tissue Invasion sectionCancer spread mnemonic: California. 1. decreased E CAdherin 2. Laminin attachment 3. & 4. BM collagen type FOuR degradation & then FibroNectin binding = Invaded. 5. Away via lymph or blood. The I & A arent essential, but the I does tell you what the mnemonic is for.Mnemonic06/10/20 3:19 PM
388222PathologyNeoplasiaCancer epidemiologyFA page 222"Children Like Cool Nikes" Children get Leukemia, CNS, and Neuroblastoma.Mnemonic05/27/20 3:25 PM
389222PathologyNeoplasiaImmune checkpoint interactionsFirst Aid (mnemonic based solely on information already there; did not add anything not already in FA))PANDA: Pembrolizumab, Atezolizumab, Nivolumab, Durvalumab, AvelumabMnemonic05/08/20 7:45 PM
390222PathologyNeoplasiaImmune checkpoint interactionshttps://www.keytrudahcp.com/mechanism-of-action/In the illustration MHC I should have a different shape than MHC II whereby it should include 2 different shapes, one being beta-microglobulin. MHC II on the APC is drawn correctlyMinor erratum05/19/20 4:54 PM
391223PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesmnemonicNon-small cell lung cancers cause osteoLYTIC bone metastasis because metastatic cells are large, therefore, they lyse the bone to take up enough space. In contrast, small cell lung cancer causes osteoBLASTIC metastasis because metastatic cells are small and they do not need to lyse the bone to free up the space.Mnemonic04/20/20 3:42 AM
392223PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastaseshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/embryonal-carcinomaThe page currently lists 4 hematogenous metastases; however, embryonal carcinoma also metastasizes hematogenouslyMinor erratum05/21/20 10:01 PM
393223PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesLiterally the first line of the article: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases"Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in adults, accounting for significantly more than one-half of brain tumors." Thus, NOT 50%.Major erratum06/06/20 9:18 AM
394224PathologyNeoplasiaCommon metastasesI came up with itLung>breast>melanoma, colon, kidney (Lots of Brain Metastases Can Kill)Mnemonic04/04/20 3:09 PM
395224PathologyNeoplasiaOncogenesFirst Aid 2020, pg 343RET oncogene - associated with medullary thyroid cancerClarification to current text01/20/20 11:01 AM
396224PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/papillary-thyroid-cancer?search=ret%2Fptc&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~98&usage_type=default&display_rank=3add RET oncogene association with MEDULLARY thyroid cancer, additional clarification is necessary for the association with papillary thyroid cancer (RET/PTC translocation). This information is correct in thyroid cancers section but needs clarification in pathology chart.Minor erratum03/13/20 2:29 PM
397224PathologyNeoplasiaOncogeneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5873940/BRAF mutations are also associated with colorectal carcinoma through the sessile serrated polyp pathway; this is updated in the colon cancer section but not under OncogenesHigh-yield addition to next year03/15/20 10:17 AM
398224PathologyNeoplasiaOncogenesI just knew that information from pathomaRET gene associated neoplasm, the book says it's papillary thyroid carcinoma. but in fact with RET mutation, medullary thyroid carcinoma is more common than papillary thyroid carcinomaMajor erratum03/17/20 4:20 AM
399224PathologyNeoplasiaTumor suppressor genesMnemonicTSC2 - tu(two)berin; TSC1 - 1 looks like part of H = HamartinMnemonic04/05/20 2:29 AM
400224PathologyPathologyTumor suppressor geneshttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/li-fraumeni-syndrome & https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/987356-overviewMost human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (multiple malignancies at a early age, Breast, Brain, Adrenals, Leukemia, Sarcomas "Li and Fraumeni like to play with BBALS")Mnemonic05/01/20 3:17 PM
401227PathologyNeoplasiaP-glycoproteinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC124917/The P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent efflux pump. It was a question asked on UWorld that asked what type pf pumpHigh-yield addition to next year03/11/20 6:18 AM
402227PathologyNeoplasiaP-glycoproteinUworld ID#18419Please add that P-glycoproteins are especially found on 1) the apical surfaces of enterocytes in the GI tract 2) endothelial surfaces of the BBB in the CNSHigh-yield addition to next year06/10/20 2:57 PM
403227PathologyNeoplasiaPsammoma bodiesFirst Aid, 2020, page 648Serous endometrial carcinomas also contain psammoma bodies (as stated on page 648), but are not in the list of conditions which have psammoma bodies on page 227.Clarification to current text03/14/20 1:35 PM
404227PathologyPathologyPsammoma bodieshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2019/5026860/ and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998038/Psammoma bodies can be seen in the adrenals (I could not remember the specific context though), and on googling it to confirm, it seems that they are seen in the context of "calcifying fibrous pseudotumors." A decent few of the papers I saw describing this were recent (published in 2019), so maybe it isn't all that high yield. I just wanted to mention it anyway, since I took note of a lecturer mentioning it last year when talking about adrenal insufficiency.High-yield addition to next year03/11/20 5:22 PM
405228PathologyNeoplasiaImportant immunohistochemical stainshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9777989/It would be appropriate to add "neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)" to the list as an important stain (that may or may not be detected; if detected it is often a pathogenic form) for neuroendocrine cells. There was a question in UWorld which I got wrong about this.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 5:56 PM
406228PathologyNeoplasiaParaneoplastic syndromeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nonislet-cell-tumor-hypoglycemiaNonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH): cause hypoglycemia with normal levels of insulin and C-peptide. The pathophysiology is due to tumoral overproduction of incompletely processed insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), which results in stimulation of the insulin receptors and increased glucose utilization. Other potential but less common causes include the production of autoantibodies against insulin or the insulin receptor and extensive tumor burden resulting in destruction of the liver or adrenal glands. NICTH occurs more commonly in patients with mesenchymal tumors, fibromas, carcinoid, myelomas, lymphomas, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinomasHigh-yield addition to next year01/04/20 8:21 PM
407228PathologyNeoplasiaParaneoplastic syndromesmnemonic"TRI"moma (ie, Thymoma) has three paraneoplastic syndromes: Good syndrome, pure red cell aplasia and myasthenia gravis.Mnemonic05/27/20 8:02 AM
408228PathologyPathologyParaneoplastic syndromesI just used the information from First Aid 2020I just made a mnemonic that my classmates have found helpful for PTHrp related tumors. Mnemonic" PTHrp R.O.B.B.s your bones and makes them S.quishy" R is Renal, O is ovarian, B Bladder, other B is Breast. The S in squishy is for Squamous Cell Carcinoma. This also helps me think about it because PTHrp acts to increase resorption.Mnemonic04/10/20 12:56 PM
409230PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticsnot neededunder the Lineweaver section I recommend modifying the text to " The closer to zero on Y axis, the higher the Vmax, the closer to zero on X axis the higher Km" and high Km means low affinity. More convenient to rememberClarification to current text12/31/19 4:10 PM
410230PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticsMy own understanding from the majority of sources I use to study.On the second graph corresponding to Michaelis Menten kinetics - Effects of Enzyme Inhibition; Since the competitive inhibitors always have the same Vmax but not necesarrly the same Km, I think the starting point of the green line on the X axis should be different than the Km of nonompetitive inhibitors and saturation lines.Clarification to current text06/05/20 8:12 PM
411230PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEnzyme kineticsnot neededSince there is the same starting point on the X axis of the Competitive inhibitors, I think more appropriate would be to change the paranthesis to IRREVERSIBLE competitive inhibition instread of REVERSIBLE competitive inhibitionClarification to current text06/05/20 8:29 PM
412231PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsPharmacokineticsN/aHALF LIFE: " In first order kinetics, a drug INFUSED at a constant rate...". I assume the text is talking about IV perfusion. In the context of PO, I find the word ADMINISTERED more appropriate instead of INFUSED. With regular and fixed dose administration, we will be able to obtain a "saw tooth" appearance on the graph while a constant INFUSION will more likely display a slope. Plese consider adding a graph representing both overlaping scenarios.Clarification to current text06/05/20 9:32 PM
413231PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsPharmacokineticshttps://www.ackdjournal.org/article/S1548-5595(07)00048-1/pdf and Kaplan Pharmacology Lecture Notes 2020.Hemodialysis is most effective for drugs with a low Vd, since it clears drugs from the intravascular space.High-yield addition to next year06/06/20 12:40 PM
414232PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsDrug metabolismhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/intropin-dopamine-342435#10 https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-alcohol-associated-liver-disease?search=ethanol%20metabolism&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2The chart does not illustrate cytochrome P450 independant metabolism which is also phase I (eg of amines (metabolism by monoamine oxidase),alcohol (metabolsim by alcohol dehydrogenase) - can be kept separately in the classification as they are not lipophilic).High-yield addition to next year05/07/20 10:17 AM
415236PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAcetylcholine receptorsUWorld Question ID 1360Nicotinic ACh receptors are ligand gated NA/K and "Ca" too. there was a question on that on UWorldHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:12 PM
416236PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAutonomic receptorshttps://web.archive.org/web/20060907231522/http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/cns/histo/systems/cranialnerves/main.htmon Diagram it is marked as Parasympathetic cell body located/ leave from "Medulla". Instead some paraSym nuclei originate from Midbrain (Edinger–Westphal nucleus) or in Pons (Super, inferior salivatory Nuclei). Suggest changing "Medulla" on Diagram to "Brainstem" to prevent confusionMinor erratum12/31/19 4:14 PM
417236PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsEfficacy vs potencyhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1081120610619047Potency cannot be defined as: the amount of a drug needed for given effect. If we noticed the example at the attached file , we would find out that drug A is 10x more potent than drug B. But if we applied the definition of potency shown in FA (as the amount of drug needed for given effect) , we would say that drug B is the more potent because its amount needed to produce the effect is more than that of drug A (drug B 50mg > drug A 5mg). So the right definition should explain that potency refers to the activity of a drug in terms of the amount or concentration that produces a given effect .Major erratum06/22/20 4:00 AM
418239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsCholinomimetic agentsUW 1997On the Cholinergic illustration, an additional arrow pointing to the choline uptake cand show the drug HEMICHOLINIUM inhibiting this step. In the same way, an arrow pointing to the next step can show inhibition of ChAT by the drug BROMOACETYLCHOLINE. A third arrow can point to the VAT(vesicular monoamine transporter) illustrating the inhibition done by the drug VESAMICOL.High-yield addition to next year06/06/20 10:06 PM
419240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAnticholinesterase poisoningnot neededsubstitute dumbbelss for MAcho men lift DUMBBELLS or MAcho DUMBBELLS. MAch tells you it's caused by excessive muscarinic Ach.Mnemonic07/11/20 10:08 PM
420240PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsCholinomimetic agentshttps://www-uptodate-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/contents/organophosphate-and-carbamate-poisoning?search=organophosphate%20poisoning&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~28&usage_type=default&display_rank=1; https://www-uptodate-com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/contents/donepezil-drug-information?search=acetylcholinesterase%20inhibitors&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~80&usage_type=default&display_rank=2"Indirect agonists (acetylcholinesterases)" -- Should say acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - hence yielding an indirect agonism of ACh activity; In addition "Acetylcholinesterase poisoning" would be better described as "Cholinergic toxicity" - since these chemicals are potent INHIBITORS of acetylcholinesterase, there would be an overabundance of ACh activity, rather than AChE leading to the toxic effects seen. This explains why atropine (an ACh receptor antagonist is an effective component of treatment for ingestion of chemicals such as organophosphates) an effective treatment for theMajor erratum07/11/20 4:45 PM
421241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsAtropinehttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/mydriacyl-tropicacyl-tropicamide-343616I (eye) live AT (atropine) HOMe (homatropine) in the TROPICs (tropicamide)Mnemonic03/23/20 11:27 PM
422241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsMuscarinic antagonistsmnemonicmake "Bladder SOFT" : Solifenacin, Oxybutynin, Flavoxate, ToltreodineMnemonic04/21/20 1:14 AM
423241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsMuscarinic antagonistsMnemonicNon-autonomic drugs with antimuscarinic activity: hakuna MAQATA “M”eperidine “A”mantadine “Q”uinidine “A”ntipsychotics “T”ricyclic antidepresants “A”ntihistamins (1st generation)Mnemonic05/11/20 1:35 PM
424242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsNorepinephrine vs isoproterenolFirst Aid 2020On page 242 it shows norepinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure. One the following page, it says norepinephrine increases blood pressure, causing reflex bradycardia. These two statements are in contradiction, as one says NE increases heart rate, and the other says it decreases heart rate.Clarification to current text03/15/20 11:34 AM
425242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/use-of-vasopressors-and-inotropes/abstract/67in the book HR marked increased :[Norepinephrine α1 > α2 > β1  BP,  HR, / CO Hypotension, septic shock. ] but should mark as decreasing because of reflex bradycardia.Minor erratum01/23/20 3:38 PM
426242PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/use-of-vasopressors-and-inotropes?search=norepinephrine%20effect&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Norepinephrine, heart rate remains unchanged or even decreases slightlyMajor erratum02/05/20 10:16 PM
427242PharmacologyPharmacologySympathomimeticsPage 243, First Aid® for the USMLE® 2020.In the table, under norepinephrine, HEART RATE IS SHOWN TO INCREASE (↑HR). But understand that increase in heart rate is only shortlived but followed by reflex bradycardia almost immediately. The explanation to this is given on page 243 which is completely correct. So two pages suggesting opposite concepts. Kindly look into itMinor erratum06/16/20 9:16 AM
428242PharmacologyPharmacologySympathomimeticsQuestion number 52 pharmacology block of cardiology questions, 2017 usmle-rx. This block is formed of 61 question.Norepinephine decrease heart rate, this is the answer of the question to clarify everything, "Adrenergic receptors are a class of G-protein- coupled receptors that are targets of catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: o- and 13-receptors, which are located on smooth muscles throughout the body. Smooth muscle behavior depends on Its anatomic location. 01-Receptors are responsible for vasoconstriction of arteries, causing Increased blood pressure. 13-Receptors, in particular 131-receptors, are responsible for Increasing contractile force and heart rate. Norepinephrine admmistration will result in increased venous return to the heart through vasoconstriction and increased heart contractility, producing an increase In stroke volume (SV). Since the heart no longer needs to beat as fast to maintain suffident cardiac output (CO) (as co = sv x Heart rate), there Is a reflex decrease in heart rate. This is known as the reflex bradycardia effect of norepinephrine. Since norephinephrine acts with greater affinity for a-receptors than 13-receptors, this reflex bradycardia in response to a 1-medlated vasoconstriction outweights any 131-mediated increase in heart rate, resulting In a net decrease in heart rate."Clarification to current text06/27/20 3:12 PM
429243PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/horner-syndrome?csi=54696a51-8330-479f-9f95-4e291f618aa7&source=contentShareA clinically relevant use for cocaine is that topical cocaine is used for pharmacological confirmation of a Horner syndrome. Cocaine causes pupillary dilation in eyes with intact sympathetic innervation, and will thus not dilate in patients with Horner Syndrome. This is a good way to test multiple topics and how they interrelate.High-yield addition to next year03/10/20 10:03 AM
430244PharmacologyPharmacologySympathomimeticshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209056/Phenylephrine do not increase Pulse pressure as shown in the graph. Increase in SBP is only due to increased cardiac preload. So the SBP line in "Before α blockade" should not be higher reflecting increased PP. The graph if is true, then reflects changes due to Norepinephrine rather than Phenylephrine.Clarification to current text07/13/20 10:18 AM
431246PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsPhosphodiesterase inhibitorsmnemonicOnly S-ildenafil causes S-yanopia by inhibiting PDE-S-ix in the retina.Mnemonic03/13/20 4:09 AM
432246PharmacologyPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorsnot neededRegarding PDE-5 inhibitors - In the 4th column under "adverse effects" where it says: "Sildenafil only:"... Add the mnemonic: "Sildenafil = Sight and highlight the "S". Also highlight the C from Cyanopia (sounds like an S) and the "6" from "PDE-6 in retina" (also sounds like an S), to help correlate Sildenafil with Cyanopia, and PDE-6.Mnemonic07/02/20 10:29 AM
433247PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsBeers criteriaKatzung Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 14th ed., chapter 60.I found a really good table summary on age-related changes in pharmacokinetics, from the Toronto Notes 2020 (with their information checked by the chapter on Geriatric Pharmacology from Katzung's 14th ed.). I think this is a really good place to put this information, as it makes sense to pair the pharmacokinetic changes with aging to the Beers List.High-yield addition to next year05/22/20 1:55 PM
434247PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsBeers criteriahttps://www.uth.tmc.edu/HGEC/GemsAndPearls/medications_BeersCriteria.htmlAll (alpha blockers) Crazy (anti-Cholinergic) Dogs (anti-Depressants) Howl (anti-Histamines) and Bark (Benzos) at Old (Opioids) People (PPIs)Mnemonic07/04/20 2:33 PM
435247PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsIngested seafood toxinsSince this is seafood toxins, and Bass is a fish. Also the T goes with Tetrodotoxin and it Blocks sodium channels. And the C in "customer" is for Ciguatoxin which will Open sodium channels. I came up with this mnemonic so no supporting references other than the facts on page 247."Toxic Bass? Customer Out!" with emphasis on the letters T, B, C, and O. or you can put it as "Toxic Bass? Count me Out!"Mnemonic05/20/20 11:17 PM
436247PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsSpecific toxicity treatmentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/patiromer-drug-information?search=patiromer&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~9&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Patiromer is a treatment for hyperkalemia (it is a resin that promotes K+ excretion in feces of patients with hyperkalemia). I came across it doing UWorld questions, and think it should be added to the table of toxicity treatments in first aid.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 10:13 PM
437248PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—cardiovascularhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/vasospastic-angina?search=kounis%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~3&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2793241211Add to coronary vasospasms in "Drug reactions-cardiovascular"--->Kounis syndrome: vancomycin-induced coronary artery spasmHigh-yield addition to next year02/12/20 1:09 PM
438248PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsSpecific toxicity treatmentshttps://www.achm.org/amsimis/ACHM/Home/ACHM/default.aspx?hkey=54518de2-f0cf-4455-8484-efe9f82b072a“Hyperbaric O2 (HBOT)” Clarification in these Pharmacology & Respiratory sections by including “HBOT” as a commonly used term for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.Clarification to current text04/05/20 8:33 PM
439248PharmacologyPharmacologyTorsades de pointesUW, FA 2020.Antidepressants: MINANSERIN, CITALOPRAM; Antihistaminics: Dyphenhydramine, Loratadine, Terfenadine; OTHERS: Cloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Quinine, Ranolazine, Methadone, Fluoroquinolones.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:18 AM
440249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductiveFirst Aid 2020“Drugs that may present with Gynecomastia: Mnemonic: Can Someone Find A Knight? Cimetidine, Spironolactone, Finasteride, Antipsychotics, Ketoconazole”Mnemonic04/21/20 6:23 PM
441249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—endocrine/reproductivenot neededthe current hint for Hyperglycemia is: "The People Need Hard Candies" - which is misleading since it sounds like they cause HYPOglycemia. An alternative mnemonic is: "Taking Pills Needlessly Causes Hyperglycemia"Mnemonic05/31/20 9:31 PM
442249PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—gastrointestinalFA 2020.Diarrhea can also be caused by: Clyndamycin, Protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, muscarinic antagonists, acamprosate, digoxin.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:27 AM
443249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—gastrointestinalFirst Aid 2020, page 353GLP-1 analogs also cause pancreatitis, which seems to be a high yield way to differentiate them from other diabetes medications. This should be added to the list of pancreatitis causing drugs on page 249. You could simply add the word "Good" to the beginning of the mnemonic to make it fit.High-yield addition to next year03/15/20 12:47 PM
444249PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—gastrointestinalNot neededDrugs causing diarrhoea: 'I' 'C'ure 'S'erious 'DIA'rrhOEA and 'CHOL'era ('I'rinotecan---'C'olchicine---'S'SRI---DIAbetes---'O'rlistat, 'E'zetemibe, 'E'rythromycin, 'A'camprosate---CHOLinesterase inhibitorsMnemonic05/14/20 8:12 PM
445249PharmacologyPharmacologyProlactinFA 2020, p 318.Verapamil also causes hyperprolactinemia.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:23 AM
446250PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—hematologicFA 2020Agranulocytosis: can also be seen with TICLOPIDINE and SULFA DRUGSHigh-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:32 AM
447250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologicNew mnemonicPositive Direct Coombs (instead of P Diddy Coombs)Mnemonic01/08/20 4:52 AM
448250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—hematologichttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/drug-induced-neutropenia-and-agranulocytosis This is also found in First Aid 2020 page 437 as "neutropenia"The drug ticlopidine also causes agranulocytosis. This can be added to the existing mnemonic by making it “Drugs Can Cause Pretty Major Collapse To Granulocytes” instead of “of Granulocytes.”High-yield addition to next year03/15/20 1:18 PM
449250PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissueFA 2020Amongst the drugs that induce gout, LOW DOSE NSAIDS could be added.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:50 AM
450250PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissueUW 1647Myopathy and Rhabdomyolysis can also be caused by Proteaze inhibitors.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 10:50 PM
451250PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/drug-induced-lupusThe drugs Quinidine and interferon alpha also cause of drug-induced lupus. I have had a question on interferon alpha specifically. The mnemonic can be changed to “Lupus Makes My Extremely Painful HIIPS Quake.”High-yield addition to next year03/15/20 1:34 PM
452251PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—multiorganN/ADisulfiram like reaction drugs: Mc GPS- where M is Methotrexate, c-some cephalosporins (for that reason is a small "c") N/AMnemonic06/08/20 10:13 AM
453251PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—musculoskeletal/skin/connective tissuepersonal mnemonic that I would like to share, I hope it helps.Drug induced lupus medication: SHIP ME PMMnemonic06/08/20 12:46 AM
454251PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—neurologicFA 2020Other drugs causing peripheral neuropathy: LINEZOLID, BORTEZOMIB, CARFILZOMIB, NRTI.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 12:56 AM
455251PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsDrug reactions—neurologic-With Seizures, I BITE my tonCue: Isoniazid, Bupropion, Imipenem/cilastatin, Tramadol, Enflurane, ClozapineMnemonic05/13/20 12:24 PM
456252PharmacologyPharmacologyCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)Clopidogrel - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086847/ ; Cyclosporins - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/019096229070358O, ;Can be added to the Substrates: Clopidogrel, Cyclosporins.High-yield addition to next year06/08/20 10:45 PM
457252PharmacologyPharmacologyCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)Quinidine - https://www.jbc.org/content/280/46/38617.full,CYP450 Inducers: BCG-MNOPQRS where BCG remins me of the live attenuated vaccine, and stands for B-barbiturates, C-Carbamazepine, G-Griseofulvin and GiNSENG, M-Modafinil, N-Nevirapine, O-alcOhol chronic, P-Phenytoin, Q- QUINIDINE, R- Rifampin, S- St. John;s wart.Mnemonic06/09/20 9:47 AM
458252PharmacologyPharmacologyCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)UW 276Substrates to add: Cyclosporin, Tacrolimus, Oral hypoglycemics, Digoxin.High-yield addition to next year06/09/20 11:47 AM
459252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 14th ed, Katzung + Goodman and Gilman 13th ed + Kaplan Pharmacology Lecture Notes 2020.I've made this diagram to better illustrate the concepts involving drug metabolism and CYP-450 interaction with drugs. This is a very confusing topic for several students, and I think this visual approach (with their respective definitions), alongside the table, has a better teaching potential than the table alone.High-yield addition to next year03/07/20 12:09 PM
460252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)No need itReally i AM in SICKFACES.COM GRoup// Ritonavir, Amiodarone, Sodium Valproate, Isonoazid, Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Fluconazole, Acute alcohol use, Chrolanphenicol, Erytromycin, Sulfonamides, Ciprofloxacine, Omeprazole, Metronidazol, Amiodarone, Ritonavir, Grapefruit juiceMnemonic03/10/20 1:20 PM
461252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)https://www.dynamed.com/drug-review/cytochrome-p450-drug-metabolism#CONSIDERATIONS_WHEN_USING_DRUGS_WITH_POTENTIAL_CYP_INTERACTIONSTwo high-yield, frequently tested additions to the substrates of CYP450 are statins and cyclosporine. Proposed mnemonic: SWAT-CO (statins, warfarin, antiepileptics, theophylline, cyclosporine, OCPs)High-yield addition to next year04/24/20 2:47 PM
462252PharmacologyToxicities and Side EffectsCytochrome P-450 interactions (selected)not needed- A PEDiatric Think OCPs Are Wild Sins: Anti-Psychotics/Epileptics/Depressants Theophylline OCPs Anaesthetics Warfarin StatinsMnemonic08/01/20 4:55 AM
463256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969913'Crossover study' is listed under 'Observational studies'. However, in the differentiation of studies into observational and interventional, a Crossover study (that you described as investigating effects of 'treatment') is an interventional study. The confusion might have arisen because there exists an observational study called case-crossover study. This, however cannot be meant in the FA chapter, because you explicitly mention comparison of treatments. I cite the respective part of the below mentioned paper: 'A case-crossover study relies upon an individual to act as their own control for comparison issues, thereby minimizing some potential confounders (1,5,12). This study design should not be confused with a crossover study design which is an interventional study type and is described below.' Thank you all for creating such an amazing resource and Best Regards!Major erratum01/15/20 11:17 AM
464256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesNAIn the description of Crossover study, last sentence, "between each treatment." should be either "between treatments" or "after each treatment."Spelling/formatting01/29/20 3:09 PM
465256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesNo reference; it's a mnemonic.cOhOrt study  O and O  two of the same letters RR  two of the same letters cAse cOntrol study  A and O  two different letters OR  two different lettersMnemonic02/17/20 11:10 AM
466256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesnothingOR (Odd ratio) for Case-control study , to memorize this we can say case OR controlMnemonic03/13/20 1:49 PM
467256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studiesnot neededTo help recall the connection between Case-Control Study and Odds ratio, highlight the OR (where it says "odds ratio (OR)" and highlight the word "disease" (where it says "compares a group of people with disease to a group without disease") and then write: "Patients with a DISEASE goes to the OR"Mnemonic06/21/20 9:41 PM
468256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studieswww.usmle-rx.comcross-sectionAL study measures prevALenceMnemonic07/13/20 10:19 PM
469256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsNEW FACTMnemonicMnemonic for the Case-control study and its relation to Odds Ratio. The mnemonic is "Control the case in the OR"Mnemonic04/29/20 3:38 PM
470257Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsEvaluation of diagnostic testsNAIn the table on p. 257, at the bottom of the middle column, "Specificity" is misspelled. A y with an umlaul appears after "Speci" where "fi" should be.Spelling/formatting01/29/20 2:16 PM
471257Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsEvaluation of diagnostic testsNot neededLowering the cutoff value increases the sensitivity and negative predictive value (This is true for a high value test like DM, HTN). However, for a low value test when the low value defines the disease like a low hemoglobin value in anemia, lowering the cutoff value does the opposite i.e. DECREASES the senitivity and negativ predictive value.High-yield addition to next year06/14/20 3:53 PM
472257Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683447/#:~:text=Pretest%20odds%3A%20(pretest%20probability%2F,(as%20we%20will%20show).The accompanying video to Likelihood Ratio talked about Pre-test probability, but there is no mention of it in the First Aid text. I propose there we an addition of Pre-test probability, Pre-test ODDS, Post-test probability, Post-test ODDS, and how that relates with Likelihood Ratio +/-. Pre-test probability = prevalence Post-test ODDS = Pre-test ODDS (before testing, patients with disease/ patients w/o disease) x LR+/- depending on the question Post-test probability = PPV (in most cases) or Post-test ODDS / [1 + Post-test ODDS] These equations will be more valuable when given a question stem that requires students to create a 2 x 2 table to understand and answer the question without having to rely on the Likelihood Ratio Nomogram.High-yield addition to next year07/16/20 11:41 PM
473258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskNot neededWas the year 'ad' OR 'bc' ?---------------- OR = ad/bcMnemonic05/14/20 8:18 PM
474258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2938757/ & https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Epidemiology & UW 1205 & FA 2017p248First aid definition of odds ratio: "representing odds of exposure among cases (a/c) vs odds of exposure among controls (b/d)." Others' definition of odds ratio (uworld, amboss, pubmed article, FA 2017): "odds of contracting a disease/outcome in those exposed (a/b) vs those not exposed (c/d)". Both ways of calculating odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d) and (a/b)/(c/d)) are actually equivalent (=ad/bc), but you can make that more clear to the reader. Otherwise seeing seemingly different definitions and ways to calculate odds ratio can be confusing. State in the text that the other interpretation of odds ratio is equally valid, and change the formula to read OR = (a/c)/(b/d) = (a/b)/(c/d) = ad/bcClarification to current text07/05/20 12:03 AM
475258Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsQuantifying riskhttps://physeo.com/biostatistics-section-9/Attributable risk reduction is the difference between risk in treatment group ( esposed ) and the risk in control not the oppositeMinor erratum07/24/20 4:22 PM
476260Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorsno needPygmalion rhymes with Chamalleon. If you expect a chamalleon to change color it probably will (observer-expectancy bias)Mnemonic06/12/20 2:45 PM
477260Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsReceiving operating characteristic curvehttps://www.amamanualofstyle.com/"Receiving operating characteristic curve" should be "Receiver operating characteristic curve"Spelling/formatting01/09/20 4:05 PM
478262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsOutcomes of statistical hypothesis testingMyselfType I vs Type II errors - When you are "young" (type I) or an "alpha", you assume that you can "make a difference." When you are cynical and "old" (Type II) or a "beta", then you assume nothing you do will make a difference.Mnemonic04/08/20 4:37 PM
479263Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsOutcomes of statistical hypothesis testinghttps://www.mathsisfun.com/data/probability-false-negatives-positives.htmlFaP before you FaN. False Positive type 1, False Negative type 2Mnemonic03/29/20 1:19 AM
480263Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsOutcomes of statistical hypothesis testingnone needed / usmlerx 20201 alpha male is cocky. 2 beta males find power in numbers. alpha = threshold for making a type 1 error = overconfidence in study's conclusion = cocky -> p(enis) value. beta males are insecure. insecurity -> underconfidence in study results = t2 error. They find power in numbers meaning they aggregate (type 2). power = 1-beta. Increasing the # of subjects studied (sample size) increases power & decreases beta, decreasing t2 error chanceMnemonic06/18/20 11:35 AM
481264Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsCommon statistical testshttps://www.amamanualofstyle.com/"Fisher's exact test" should be "Fisher exact test"Spelling/formatting01/09/20 4:08 PM
482265Public Health SciencesEthicsCore ethical principlesFormat suggestionMove the section explaining Decision-Making Capacity (pg 266) to before the Informed Consent section on pg 265. Decision-making capacity is a key consideration when determining a patient's ability to provide informed consent, so a discussion of decision-making capacity would naturally fit before a discussion of informed consent.High-yield addition to next year01/12/20 5:23 PM
483267Public Health SciencesEthicsConfidentialityNot neededException to confidentiality:fourth point states: "steps can be taken to prevent harm"; If steps can be taken to prevent harm then it is not necessary to breach the confidentiality thus making the statement to be incorrect.Major erratum05/15/20 12:51 AM
484268Public Health SciencesEthicsEthical situationshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-breast-reconstruction?search=mastectomy%20depression&topicRef=94744&source=see_link#H1The proposed response to a woman struggling with body image concerns after mastectomy lacks compassion and potentially implies that mastectomy makes women unattractive. This response and implication are potentially damaging to this vulnerable patient population, and a more compassionate, patient-centered discussion is warranted.Clarification to current text01/11/20 3:36 PM
485270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryChanges in the elderlyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/normal-agingI was struggling to find a good table-format that not only showed the physiological changes with aging, but also that specified the pathological outcomes of that change. I found this table (see attachment) on the book "Toronto Notes 2020", and it's all backed up by the article "Normal Aging" on UpToDate. I think this is a really interesting table to replace the content written in this section, and I'd suggest formatting the table with switching the words "increased" and "decreased" by simple arrows "↑↓" to make the table less polluted.High-yield addition to next year05/22/20 1:49 PM
486270Public Health SciencesHealthcare DeliveryDisease preventionhttps://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-preventionSecondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred. This is done by detecting and treating disease or injury as soon as possible to halt or slow its progress, encouraging personal strategies to prevent reinjury or recurrence, and implementing programs to return people to their original health and function to prevent long-term problems. Examples include: regular exams and screening tests to detect disease in its earliest stages (e.g. mammograms to detect breast cancer) daily, low-dose aspirins and/or diet and exercise programs to prevent further heart attacks or strokes suitably modified work so injured or ill workers can return safely to their jobs.Clarification to current text01/09/20 1:26 AM
487270Public Health SciencesThe Well PatientNEW FACTUworld ID: 19289; "Age-associated loss of bone marrow hematopoietic cells is reversed by GH and accompanies thymic reconstitution"- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=11796526; "Adipogenesis and aging: does aging make fat go MAD?"- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=12175476; "Normal aging- https://www.uptodate.com/contents/normal-aging?search=bone%20marrow%20response%20to%20aging&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H23810861"Received several questions in uworld on this. The compensatory hematopoietic response to phlebotomy, hypoxia, and other challenges is delayed and less vigorous in the older person due to a decrease in bone marrow mass and increase in bone marrow fat.High-yield addition to next year05/14/20 5:12 PM
488280CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart morphogenesishttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_Textbooks Longman text book of embryologyI draw a picmonic for cardiac looping which I attached in the last part of this page.Mnemonic01/12/20 2:13 AM
489281CardiovascularEmbryologyHeart embryologyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996372/Order of embryonic structures from rostral to caudal: Teens Always Break Curfew Visiting Abandoned Scenic Views (Truncus Arteriosus, Bulbus Cordis, Ventricle, Atrium, Sinus Venosus)Mnemonic07/30/20 4:16 PM
490283CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537207/Under coronary blood supply; Rt dominant should be 70-80%, Co-dominant 10-20% and minority is Left dominant compared to what mentioned on page 283Clarification to current text12/31/19 5:38 PM
491283CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1922987-overview#a2Arterial supply to AV node is not from the PDA; branch of RCA after giving off PDA. In 85-90% of human hearts, the arterial supply to the AV node is a branch from the right coronary artery that originates at the posterior intersection of the AV and interventricular grooves (crux). In the remaining 10-15% of the hearts, a branch of the left circumflex coronary artery provides the AV nodal artery.Minor erratum02/13/20 7:41 PM
492283CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the heartFirst Aid 2020(P)ericardium innervated by (P)hrenic nerve.Mnemonic05/03/20 3:41 PM
493283CardiovascularAnatomyAnatomy of the hearthttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=566LA is far back, we'll need an RV up front to there.Mnemonic06/18/20 12:52 PM
494284CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variableshttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Cardiac%20Function/CF007Increase in ventricular compliance (ventricular dilation) = Increase in preload and vice-versa (decreased compliance in decompensated heart failure). Include figure of compliance and formula.High-yield addition to next year01/22/20 7:47 PM
495284CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variablesCostanzo 6th edition pg 153Wall tension (not wall stress) = pressure x radius / 2 x wall thicknessMinor erratum02/08/20 4:12 PM
496284CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output variablesNot requiredIn the third column of the Preload section, Venodilators (not vasodilator - as the term vasodilator is generally reserved for arteriolar dilators) reduce preloadClarification to current text05/05/20 7:57 AM
497285CardiovascularPhysiologyCardiac output equationshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jsr.12156COPD also causes arterial stiffness leading to increased pulse pressureHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:20 PM
498285CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/the25/nvwf.htmlI was surprised to realize the JVP waveform was not in first aid (I got a question wrong in UWorld about it, and couldn't find it in first aid when I looked it up). That should probably be added.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 6:09 PM
499285CardiovascularPhysiologyResistance, pressure, flowhttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/HemodynamicsAdd a figure depicting blood flow in different blood vessels (showing pressure curve, resistance, area, velocity). See attached image (+ resistance curve, which peaks at arterioles and levels off afterward)High-yield addition to next year01/22/20 7:52 PM
500287CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2172196-overviewT-wave in the EKG should edit. Normal T-wave is asymmetric. Upward part goes slowly and downward part goes quickly.Major erratum03/02/20 1:22 PM
501287CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/examination-of-the-jugular-venous-pulse?search=jvp&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The right atrial pressure curve (JVP tracing) in the bottom left corner shows 'A' wave smaller than 'C' wave. The 'A' wave should be larger than the 'C' wave.Major erratum03/27/20 1:21 PM
502287CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_cycle#/media/File:Wiggers_Diagram_2.svg"MA'AM, COCO please." When you align "MA'AM" on top of "COCO" (while looking at the Wigger's diagram) it will show the order of which valves open and close during the cardiac cycle. For example, when these two mnemonics are on top of each other, you can see that "M" (for mitral) corresponds with "C" (for close): mitral valve closes. Next, you can see that "A" (for aortic) corresponds with "O" (for open): aortic valve opens. This is helpful for pinpointing which valve opens/closes.Mnemonic05/14/20 12:52 PM
503287CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cycleBnB Wigger's Diagram in Venous Pressure Tracings section.In the cardia cycle; jugular venous pulse drawing, I think there is a minor mistake that c wave must be at the TV closure; so the peak of the c wave should be in the interval of isovolumetric contraction. This also is the S1 region. So the wave should shift a little to left I guess.Minor erratum06/30/20 6:03 AM
504287CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and cardiac cyclenot required"c" wave - RV "c"ontraction ("c"losed tri"c"uspid valve bulging into atrium) - Highlight the Cs for C waveMnemonic07/12/20 8:31 AM
505287Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyAspirinhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499879/On adverse effects respiratory alkalosis is mentioned.Its worth referring that aspirin and salicylates in general(due to direct stimulation of the cerebral medulla) cause hyperventilation and thats how respiratory alkalosis arrises.Added a reference below but there are many other similar results with a google search aswellClarification to current text04/12/20 12:54 PM
506287Neurology and Special SensesPathologyHerniation syndromeshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_herniation#Tonsillar_herniationIts worth adding that the first 3 herniations are supratentorial while the last one in infratentorial. Classifying them like this might aid understanding.Clarification to current text04/12/20 1:00 PM
507287RenalPhysiologyAntidiuretic hormonehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal_tractMinor mispelling :"maximizes" should be "maximize".Spelling/formatting04/12/20 1:13 PM
508287RespiratoryPathologyMediastinal pathologyhttps://www.britannica.com/science/mediastinumMediastinum also contains trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves and thoracic duct aswell.These are not included.Also this is minor but on Hamman sign on the same page the sound is described as crepitus on cardiac auscultation.Crepitus is used to describe crackling sounds on external surfaces(skin) or joints and not cardiac sounds. Its minor detail but i would replace with "crackling" "popping" or something similarMajor erratum04/12/20 1:32 PM
509288CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseasehttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD009bIn AS compliance is decreased, hence bottom side of loop should shift upward alittle bit.Minor erratum01/20/20 11:18 AM
510288CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseasehttps://www.slideshare.net/samirelansary/arterial-line-analysis-46584416Dicrotic notch on the the aortic pressure tracing should be absent in cases of Aortic stenosis or regurgeMajor erratum02/28/20 10:25 AM
511288CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseasehttps://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD009bAortic pressure curve is not correct in AS. Both SBP and DBP are less than normal situation.Minor erratum04/01/20 9:27 PM
512288CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseasehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15470217/. also uworld qid:14976under "AORTIC REGURGITATION" , peak left ventricular pressure is shown normal(i.e 120). actually it shoots above way more than normal along with increased peak aortic pressure. The hemodynamic changes in AR are evident on cardiac catheterization and include reduced aortic diastolic pressure and elevated left ventricular (LV) diastolic pressure due to backflow of blood during diastole. In addition, aortic and LV systolic pressures are increased due to high stroke volume and a compensatory increase in cardiac contractility.Major erratum07/13/20 1:58 PM
513289CardiovascularPhysiologySplitting of S2MnemonicHighlight the "PA" in PAradoxical splitting to emphasize that the P2 sounds appears to come before A2. See attached image.Mnemonic01/12/20 12:30 AM
514290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartnot neededI recommend adding 3 rules to help understand how different bedside maneuvers affects heart murmurs; 1) Increase in Preload leads to increase intensity of all murmurs (except HCM and MVP; later click); Same for the opposite. 2) Increase in Afterload leads to increase intensity of Regurgitant murmurs and decrease intensity of stenotic murmurs (again except for HCM and MVP); Same for opposite. 3) HCM and MVP murmurs intensity always go opposite to Preload and afterload. This can be applied to all murmurs and will work!High-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:22 PM
515290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartUptodate, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/auscultation-of-heart-sounds , topic: " Auscultation of heart sounds" , movies section: "Mitral valve prolapse as heard with the patient squatting" and "Mitral valve prolapse as heard with the patient standing"The listed maneuvers DOESN'T affect the MVP INTENSITY, but, it will affect the DURATION between S1 and mitral click (instead of increase in intensity, MITRAL CLICK will start earlier, and vice versa).Minor erratum03/11/20 2:33 PM
516290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartN/AWhere to listen: APT M. Mnemonic: All Physicians Take MoneyMnemonic05/03/20 7:57 PM
517290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the heartN/AAdd left infraclavicular area as location for PDA continous murmur to figure auscultation of the heartClarification to current text05/09/20 5:49 PM
518290CardiovascularPhysiologyAuscultation of the hearthttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?rank=1~150&source=graphics_search&imageKey=CARD%2F51024&search=distinguishing%20characteristics%20of%20the%20causes%20of%20left%20ventricular%20outflow%20tract%20obstruction&sp=4The murmur of HOCM is best heard at the 4th left intercostal space, ie. tricuspid area.Clarification to current text06/02/20 10:49 PM
519291CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyHeart murmurshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1894036-overview#a8DIe in my ARMS: A helpful mnemonic to remember DIastolic murmurs, aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosisMnemonic02/15/20 10:05 AM
520291CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyHeart murmursuWorldThe severity of Mitral regurgitation can be best predicted by the presence of an audible S3.High-yield addition to next year05/09/20 4:01 PM
521291CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyHeart murmursuWorld, RxTricuspid regurgitation may radiate to right sternal border (key difference to differentiate from ventricular septal defect, also heard in tricuspid area)High-yield addition to next year05/09/20 5:28 PM
522291CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyHeart murmurshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525958/Aortic stenosis is usually described as a high pitched mid-systolic murmur. It doesn't start right at S1, but a little after the valve closes.Minor erratum06/27/20 1:13 PM
523291CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmurshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155618-overview#showallMitral regurgitation (not Mitral valve prolapse) is the most frequent valvular heart diseaseHigh-yield addition to next year03/17/20 7:27 AM
524291CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursMnemonic"MS. ARD snaps de(the) crescent rolls" = MS (mitral stenosis) with opening SNAP sound. AR (aortic regurgitation) with DECRESCENdo sound. Both occurring during Diastole (the D in ARD). "MR. ASS pans crescent rolls" = MR (mitral regurgitation) with PANsystolic (aka holosystolic) sound. AS (aortic stenosis) with CRESCENdo-decrescendo sound. Both occurring during Systolic (the second S in ASS)Mnemonic05/05/20 7:58 PM
525291CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursnot neededI have always had difficulties remembering that VSD murmurs are loudest at the tricuspid area. The way I remember it is: venTRICular --> venTRICUSPIDular. The TRIC in Ven"TRIC"ular can stand for the tricuspid area.Mnemonic06/04/20 4:25 PM
526291CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursnot neededSystolic murmurs: V traps Mr. P. VSD TR AS & PS MR & MVPMnemonic06/15/20 12:33 PM
527291CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursUR QID2105UW lists Mitral valve prolapse as late systolic and the picture shows holosystolic, not late crescendo murmurMajor erratum07/07/20 11:58 AM
528294CardiovascularPhysiologyAzoleshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871400/Antifungal agents such as Azoles can induce Torsades Des Pointes. Add AntiFungals, and the letter F to the ABCDE Pneumonic for Torsades De Pointes. Proposed pneumonic ABCDEFHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 5:33 PM
529294CardiovascularPhysiologyBrugada syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/brugada-syndrome-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis?search=brugada&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~69&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2Typically, the ECG findings consist of a pseudo-right bundle branch block and persistent ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V2. (FA says 'leads V1-V3')Minor erratum01/16/20 3:36 AM
530294CardiovascularPhysiologyFluoroquinoloneshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1950863-overview#a5; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651388Add Fluoroquinolones under AntiBiotics; and right besides "macrolides" onto the ABCDE pneumonic for drug-incuced Torsades de Pointes. Use of Respiratory Fluoroquinolones is associated with increased risk of Torsades De PointesHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 5:36 PM
531294CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointesn/arOMano-ward syndome is autosomal dOMinantMnemonic02/08/20 3:37 PM
532294CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointeshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534864/?report=readerDrug-induced long QT (ABCDE): AntiArrhythmics (class IA, III) AntiBiotics (eg, macrolides, fluoroquinolones) Anti“C”ychotics (eg, haloperidol, risperidone, ziprasidone) AntiDepressants (eg, TCAs) AntiEmetics (eg, ondansetron, metoclopramide) Azoles (eg, fluconazole) Methadone Electrolyte abnormalities (eg, hypomagnesemia) Antivirals (protease inhibitors (eg, saquinavir, atazanavir))High-yield addition to next year04/18/20 8:22 PM
533294CardiovascularPhysiologyTorsades de pointesmnemonicJervell and Lange-Niel-SEN syndrome has SEN-soryneural hearing loss, not conductive.Mnemonic04/28/20 1:43 AM
534295CardiovascularPhysiologyECG tracingshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/sinus-node-dysfunction-epidemiology-etiology-and-natural-history , https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470599/Age related degeneration of sinoatrial node. ECG finings: bradycardia, sinus pauses (delayed P waves) and sinus arrest (prolonged delay of P wave). Narrow QRS complex proceded by a long pause a no P wave known as junctional escape beats . Accompanied by clinical findings of fatigue, lightheadedness, palpitations, presyncope, syncope, dyspnea on exertion. Putting a tracing of ECG with the findings is a great way of showing the students since there has been questions on Qbanks related to this type of syndrome based on clinical findings which are nonspecific but with specific ECG finding.High-yield addition to next year05/04/20 2:43 PM
535295CardiovascularPhysiologyECG tracingsN/AIn Mobitz type 1 the PR interval builds up until the "beat drops." Mobitz sounds like Mozart, and in music when the beat drops the music stops, just like the PR interval. So the mnemonic could be "in Mobitz Type 1 Mozart builds the beat up, until it drops." In Mobitz type 2 however the "beat drops" suddenly with no build up, so Mobitz type 2 could be the modern remix of the Mozart classic where the "beat drops suddenly" like in a lot of modern songs now.Mnemonic06/13/20 9:04 PM
536296CardiovascularPhysiologyBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorshttps://medicine.uiowa.edu/iowaprotocols/carotid-body-and-carotid-sinus-general-informationThe carotid sinus is actually anatomically part of the INTERNAL carotid artery as shown in the image NOT the carotid bifurcation (as stated in the text)Minor erratum02/04/20 2:00 PM
537296CardiovascularPhysiologyBaroreceptors and chemoreceptorsN/ACushing reflex should only be explained AFTER chemoreceptors. This is because the Cushing reflex depends on the central chemoreceptors responding to high PCo2. In the current form, the book mentions central chemoreceptors before explaining how they function.Clarification to current text03/25/20 4:45 PM
538296CardiovascularPhysiologyNEW FACThttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7416025/sudden onset palpitations and rapid regular tachycardia -> paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, vagal maneuvers such as carotid sinus massage can be used acutely to terminate PSVTHigh-yield addition to next year05/27/20 8:16 AM
539297CardiovascularPhysiologyAutoregulationit's a mnemonic from meIn all local metabolites(vasodilators) of the heart there is letter O ( O2 , NO , CO2 , adenOsine ) so we can write these 4 O in red color and use mnemonic OOOOh my HEART is compensating(vasodilatation) i wrote it with color in the attached fileMnemonic02/12/20 9:22 AM
540297CardiovascularPhysiologyAutoregulationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3978771Adenosine has been shown to have no role in coronary autoregulation.Minor erratum03/25/20 4:41 PM
541298CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0733862707000855?via%3DihubD-transposition of great vessels: most common cyanotic heart lesion in the newborn periodHigh-yield addition to next year01/26/20 10:21 PM
542299CardiovascularPathologyCongenital cardiac defect associationshttps://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-pfo-and-asd/Atrial septal defect (ASD ) occurs due to septum defect but Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is due to failure in fusion of septums.Minor erratum03/03/20 10:42 AM
543299CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174141/#!po=67.8571Eisenmenger syndrome: Age of onset depends on the severity of primary shuntClarification to current text01/26/20 10:29 PM
544299CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-term-infants-children-and-adults#H6Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with congenital rubella infection and presents with triad of deafness cataracts and cardiac disease (ie. PDA)High-yield addition to next year05/13/20 3:59 PM
545299CardiovascularPathologyCongenital heart diseaseshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/416623-overview#a2; USMLE-Rx Qmax QID: 39743.2Coarctation of the aorta: Chest X-ray findings include prestenotic dilatation of aorta and the left subclavian artery results in classic “figure 3 sign.”High-yield addition to next year06/25/20 10:00 AM
546300CardiovascularPathologyHypertensionmyselfMnemonic for risk factors of hypertension. The mnemonic is " Elderly Sara PIcks ClotheS For Her Obese Aboral Dog". Elderly -increased age, Sara -Salt intake, PIcks -Physical Inactivity, ClotheS -Cigarette Smoking, For Her -Family History, Obese -Obesity, Aboral -Alcohol, Dog -Diabetes.Mnemonic07/11/20 10:32 AM
547301CardiovascularPathologyAtherosclerosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosisArteriolosclerosis findings and types should be distributed in a 3-column layout structure (see attached proposal)Spelling/formatting04/27/20 3:14 PM
548301CardiovascularPathologyHyperlipidemia signsUWTendinous xanthoma , occur especially in Achilles tendon (add: the extensor finger surfaces)High-yield addition to next year03/18/20 6:15 AM
549301CardiovascularPathologyHyperlipidemia signshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24781043/In xanthomas, it's written ( lipid-laden histocytes in skin)=> in fact lipid-laden macrophages are in the *connective tissue* of the skin (write connective tissue) , bwcauset reader when read skin will think its Langerhans cells.Clarification to current text03/27/20 4:31 PM
550301CardiovascularPathologyHyperlipidemia signsnot requiredHighlight the "L" in 'eyelids' and "L" in Xanthelasma so students can remember the connectionMnemonic07/17/20 11:35 AM
551301CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/sinus-node-dysfunction-treatment?search=sick%20sinus%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Sick sinus syndrome (sinus node dysfunction) came up while I was doing practice problems, but is not in First aid and should be added.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 6:20 PM
552302CardiovascularPathologyAortic aneurysmMyselfThe risk factors of abdominal aortic aneurysm can be easily memorized in this statement "An elderly man with history of tobacco use has a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm"Mnemonic07/11/20 2:05 PM
553302CardiovascularPathologyAtherosclerosisMyselfMnemonic for the complications of atherosclerosis. The mnemonic is "I EAT PaVlova DaIly". I -Ischemia, E -Emboli, A -Aneurysms, T -Thrombus, PVD - Peripheral Vascular Disease, I -Infarcts.Mnemonic07/11/20 1:12 PM
554302CardiovascularPathologyAtherosclerosisjust a mnemonicLocation : A CoP Car on Willis CircleMnemonic07/14/20 7:56 AM
555304CardiovascularPathologyIschemic heart disease manifestationsnot neededMnemonic for remembering the causes of Vasospastic/Prinzmetal Angina (i.e. Smoking, Triptans, and Cocaine): Prinz Toby Trips on Coke (Prinz - Prinzmetal, Toby - Tobacco (smoking), Trips - Triptans, Coke - Cocaine)Mnemonic06/05/20 2:53 AM
556304CardiovascularPathologyIschemic heart disease manifestationsmyselfMnemonic for remembering the triggers of the vasospastic angina. The mnemonic is "CAT". C- Cocaine, A- Alcohol, T- Triptans.Mnemonic07/12/20 6:46 AM
557304CardiovascularPathologyIschemic heart disease manifestationshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/hibernating-myocardiumMyocardial hibernation is a state of chronic myocardial ischemia in which contractility is reduced due to poor perfusion but remains viable. It refers to the presence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction due to reduced coronary blood flow at rest that is reversible by revascularization.High-yield addition to next year07/15/20 8:04 AM
558305CardiovascularPathologyEvolution of myocardial infarctionhttps://webpath.med.utah.edu/TUTORIAL/MYOCARD/MYOCARD.htmlIn the first 0-4h of Myocardial infarction coagulative necrosis is not seen, instead Wavy myocardial fibers but no inflammatory cells are seen. In the FA appears as coagulative necrosis from 0-24h.Clarification to current text07/08/20 2:31 PM
559306CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://litfl.com/de-winter-t-wave-ecg-library/Should probably add Wellens syndrome and De Winter T waves to the list of ECG findings suggesting MIs, particularly as these are considered STEMI equivalentsHigh-yield addition to next year01/20/20 8:11 PM
560306CardiovascularPathologyDiagnosis of myocardial infarctionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-workup#c1; https://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.proxy.mul.missouri.edu/content.aspx?sectionid=201362480&bookid=2503&jumpsectionid=201362491&Resultclick=2CK-MB is no longer regarded as having clinical significance in the diagnosis of MI, including detection of reinfarction. Troponin I is the gold standard and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology recommend that cardiac troponin be the only test that is ordered. The text should be adjusted to appropriately reflect the superiority of troponin I.Clarification to current text02/08/20 8:53 PM
561306CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMIhttps://litfl.com/right-ventricular-infarction-ecg-library/You really need to add an entry about right-sided MIs. They are always trying to trip up medical students on the identification and management of these MIs as they are quite different from left-sided and mismanagement can be disastrousHigh-yield addition to next year01/20/20 8:08 PM
562306CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMImnemonicP-osterior MI occurs due to occlusion of P-DA (ie, posterior descending artery)Mnemonic05/06/20 9:44 AM
563306CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/troponin-testing-clinical-use#H328327977 https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/08/14/12/31/eliminating-creatine-kinase-myocardial-band-testing https://www.uptodate.com/contents/biomarkers-of-cardiac-injury-other-than-troponin#H516921337 https://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/articles/2014/may/cardiac-troponin.aspxThere is no mention of the current guideline use of serial troponin measurements, not a single troponin measurement or CK-MB measurement, for the diagnoses (and even prognosis) of a myocardial reinfarction. Myocardial reinfarction should be diagnosed by serial troponin measurements (3-6 hours apart) with a >/=20% increase in troponin (cTn) levels as opposed to CK-MB levels or a single troponin measurement, according to current guidelines by the American College of Cardiology and UptoDate. Serial troponin levels are the only indicated diagnostic test for reinfarctions, not CK-MB. Not only can troponin levels be useful for reinfarction diagnoses, but also for detecting infarct size (proportional to cTn) and prognosis (inversely proportional to cTn). CK-MB usage adds no utility compared to troponin (AAC and Uptodate). Although it states in First Aid in page 306 that CK-MB is useful in diagnosing reinfarction, this is contrary to current guidelines. Additionally, FA p.306 does not mention the use of serial troponin at all for reinfarction diagnosis either, despite it being the only indicated diagnostic test for reinfarction. Finally, even for the detection of an isolated acute myocardial infarction, serial troponin measurements are recommended over a single troponin measurement (AACC).Major erratum04/23/20 5:18 AM
564306CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/serum-cardiac-biomarkers-in-patients-with-renal-failure?topicRef=1895&source=see_link https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/JAHA.117.008032Chronic kidney disease results in non-specifically elevated cardiac troponin levels (both cTnI and cTnT); therefore, serial troponin measurements to demonstrate an increase over time is far superior diagnostically for an MI than the typical “gold standard” single troponin measurement, regardless if it is a cutoff designed for a healthy population or a cutoff adjusted for CKD. This is combined with the fact that CKD patients are at an increased risk of an MI and are also more likely in the case of an MI to present with atypical symptoms and NSTE-AMI, which by its nature requires biomarker confirmation.High-yield addition to next year04/23/20 5:42 AM
565307CardiovascularPathologyMyocardial infarction complicationsNo NeedComplications of myocardial infarction (DARTH VADER) Death Arrhythmia Rupture (free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles) Tamponade Heart failure (acute or chronic) Valve disease Aneurysm of ventricle Dressler’s syndrome thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus) Recurrence/ mitral RegurgitationMnemonic06/19/20 7:06 AM
566307CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/maintenance-and-replacement-fluid-therapy-in-adults?search=IV%20fluids&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The various types of IV fluid replacement solutions and their indications should be included in First aid. I think that they would be most appropriate in the section that includes the types of shock, since IV fluids are a mainstay of treatment for almost all of them.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 9:51 PM
567308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-evaluationI propose that the title of the section hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy be changed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In most articles I find, uptodate, and the attached reference, it is referred to as HCM (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Myopathies are classified as “disorders in which heart muscle is structurally and functionally abnormal, in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease sufficient to cause the observed myocardial abnormality." I think a brief version of this definition should be added to the top of the page as a definition of “cardiomyopathy.” There are obstructive and non-obstructive forms of the disease HCM. I also propose removing the line "other causes of concentric LVH include aortic stenosis and hypertension. I believe this becomes confusing to others thinking that left ventricular hypertrophy due to either of these is also considered hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. I think this is more appropriate to be referenced in the hypertension, aortic stenosis, and heart failure sections. As a tutor, I have come across many students that have been confused trying to HCM from LVH secondary to these conditions. Myself, I initially thought hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy were different entities, however it is important to know that they are the same, and also distinct from left ventricular hypertrophy that occurs due to hypertension and aortic stenosis (increased loading on the heart muscle). Please see table 1 in the attached paper. I think the physiology of the obstructive nature is important to have, however instead of calling the the disease HOCM, calling it obstructive HCM or the obstructive form of HCM.Clarification to current text04/09/20 3:23 PM
568308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathiesFirst Aid USMLE Step 1 2020 page 290Mention how different maneuvers change the murmur heard in HOCM: the murmur will decrease with greater preload (hand grip, passive leg raise, squatting maneuvers) and will increase when preload is reduced (valsalva).High-yield addition to next year01/12/20 4:26 PM
569308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathiesUworld question ID 93Sarcoidosis and Hemochromatosis are listed as causes of both Dilated cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, and it says: although dilated cardiomyopathy is more common. This is incorrect. Sarcoid and Hemochromatosis cause restrictive cardiomyopathy and are listed as diastolic dysfunctions and not systolic dysfunctionsMinor erratum01/24/20 2:34 AM
570308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathiesnot neededTakotsubo cardiomyopathy: broken heart syndrome. a good hint is: Tacos always breakMnemonic01/24/20 2:36 AM
571308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathiesNA, mnemonicFor restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathies, Puppy Leash is not helpful. How about "PLEAS don't misdiagnose me with liver disease" and then Hemochromatosis as an additional, less common causeMnemonic06/11/20 6:55 PM
572308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5580843/#:~:text=Loeffler%20endocarditis%20is%20a%20rare,with%20significant%20morbidity%20and%20mortality.hypereosinophilic syndrome; histology shows eosinophilic infiltrates in "endomyocardium" not only "myocardium".Minor erratum06/24/20 3:41 AM
573308CardiovascularPathologyCardiomyopathiesn/away to remember dilated cardiomyopathy;BADD PIICCCC: B(beriberi)A(alcohol)D(dystrophin)D(doxorubicin) P(Perpartum)I(iron overload-hemochromatosis)I(idiopathic)C(coxsackie) C( cocaine) C(chagas) C(cad)Mnemonic07/07/20 4:19 PM
574308CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACTRobbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9e. Page 567Eccentric hypertrophy is not the underlying process behind dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a non-adaptive, primary muscle issue caused by genetics, iron, alcohol, virus, chemotherapy, pregnancy etc. It is not the same as eccentric hypertrophy, which is an adaptive response to long-standing volume overload. Histologically, the abnormalities in dilated cardiomyopathy are "nonspecific and do not point to a specific etiology. Most muscle cells are hypertrophied with enlarged nuclei, but some are attenuated, stretched and irregular." -Robbins. In your text, you write "Dilated cardiomyopathy displays eccentric hypertrophy," which makes it seem as if eccentric hypertrophy is the underlying process behind ventricular dilation in dilated cardiomyopathy. In fact, the histologic findings are nonspecific and that should be clarified as many students confuse dilated cardiomyopathy with eccentric hypertrophy, believing they are one and the same.Clarification to current text05/18/20 1:15 PM
575309CardiovascularPathologyHeart failureUSMLE First Aid 2020; Hussain A. Sattar, Fundamentals of Pathology 1st edition, pp 76.Mnemonic for remembering symptoms of Left Heart Failure: It is tough to COPE with Left Heart Failure. C - Crackles, O - Orthopnea, P - Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, PE - pulmonary Edema.Mnemonic06/04/20 4:54 PM
576310CardiovascularPathologyShockhttps://www.medscape.com/answers/152191-54568/what-is-the-role-of-dobutamine-in-the-treatment-of-cardiogenic-shockHigh doses of inotropes such as dobutamine in acute MI can worsen shock due to increasing O2 demand and hence worsening ischemia.High-yield addition to next year03/31/20 10:27 AM
577310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesnot neededKawasaki disease. a good hint to remember that Kawasaki is treated with Aspirin (especially since its the only time children should be given aspirin), is: KawASAki = ASA for aspirinMnemonic01/24/20 2:41 AM
578310CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/subclavian-steal-syndrome?search=subclavian%20steal&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~15&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Subclavian steal syndrome should be added to first aid. The most immediately relevant place is Takayasu arteritis (according to Sketchy path), but I know subclavian steal can be seen elsewhere as well (I got a UWorld question wrong about a man with subclavian steal that became symptomatic after he was playing table tennis with a friend).High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 6:16 PM
579311CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditishttp://reference.medscape.com/calculator/endocarditis-diagnostic-criteria-dukeAdding the Duke cruteria or 'modified' Duke criteria so we can diagnose bacterial endocarditisHigh-yield addition to next year02/10/20 5:05 PM
580311CardiovascularPathologyBacterial endocarditismnemonicR-oth spots are on the R-etinaMnemonic03/23/20 2:16 AM
581311CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesPersonal reasoningIgA vasculitis is associated with IgA nephropathy (Berger disease), not Buerger disease (spelling error with an extra "u", but it has a completely different meaning!)Minor erratum02/02/20 10:06 PM
582311RenalPathologyVasculitidesFirst AID for the USMLE Step 1, 2019- p. 585Under Immunoglobulin A Vasculitis (HSP), it lists that the disease is associated with "IgA nephropathy (Buerger Disease)". BUerger disease (Thomboangiitis obliterans) is very distinct from BERGER disease (IgA Nephropathy)- A nephritic syndrome.Major erratum05/07/20 10:22 PM
583312CardiovascularPathologyRheumatic fevernot requiredThe 5 As of Rheumatic Fever: 1. group A streptococci 2. Aschoff bodies 3. Anitschkow cells 4. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) 5. Anti-DNase BMnemonic07/21/20 3:17 AM
584313CardiovascularPathologyAcute pericarditishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3011134/Corticosteroids are associated with a higher recurrence rate.High-yield addition to next year04/05/20 9:24 AM
585313CardiovascularPathologyAcute pericarditishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954745/Pericardial knock seen in CHRONIC PERICARDITIS. Patient will have a history of recurrent acute pericarditis along with consistent Becks Triad. “Knock” is heard when a thickened and stiffened pericardium is abruptly arrested when attempting to expand. Will have a PERICARDIAL KNOCK early in diastole as opposed to an S3 gallop heard in systolic dysfunction. Heard very shortly after S2. Sound will occur earlier than an S3 heart sound.High-yield addition to next year06/22/20 2:02 PM
586313CardiovascularPathologyMyocarditismnemonicCO (carbon monoxide) decreases your CO (cardiac output), ie, it can cause myocarditis.Mnemonic05/06/20 1:46 AM
587313CardiovascularPathologyNEW FACTpage 159,USMLE Firstaid 2020Toxocara cannis instead of Toxoplasma gondiiMinor erratum06/12/20 5:46 PM
588314CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesUWorld, Pathomafor polyarteritis Nodosa; due to different stages of lumpy fibrosis (Nodosa) it gives the appearance of "String of Pearls". This appearance also found in renal FibroMuscular DysplasiaHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:31 PM
589314CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesnot neededMnemonic for remembering Polyarteritis Nodosa: FranK HANS is a Middle-aged man. F (in Frank) - Fever (and other non-specific symptoms e.g. weight loss, headache, malaise), K (in franK) - Kidney damage, H (in HANS) - Hypertension, A - Abdominal symptoms (Abdominal pain, Melena), N - Neurologic symptoms, S - Skin eruptions (cutaneous eruptions). In addition, the fact that FranK HANS is a middle-aged man can act as a memory cue for the most common demographic of individuals with Polyarteritis Nodosa (i.e. Middle-aged Males).Mnemonic06/04/20 5:41 PM
590314CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesUWorldadd sulfonamides to list of meds that cause cutaneous small vessel vasculitisMinor erratum07/31/20 11:56 PM
591315CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss?search=Clinical%20features%20and%20diagnosis%20of%20eosinophilic%20granulomatosis%20with%20polyangiitis%20(Churg-Strauss&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~137&usage_type=default&display_rank=1peripheral neuropathy (mononeuritis multiplex), untreated may progress to symmetric or asymmetric polyneuropathy accompanied with severe neuropathic painClarification to current text02/05/20 10:53 AM
592315CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesN/AHenoch-Schonlein Purpura = [H].[S].[P]. = Classic triad of [H]inge pain (myalgias), [S]tomach pain, [P]alpable purpura on buttocks/legsMnemonic03/10/20 11:47 PM
593315CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesN/AHenoch-Schonlein Purpura = [H].[S].[P]. = Classic triad of [H]inge pain (arthralgias), [S]tomach pain, [P]alpable purpura on buttocks/legsMnemonic03/11/20 8:30 AM
594315CardiovascularPathologyVasculitidesFirst Aid pg. 315STRAUSS: Small (vessels) Tight (lungs; restrictive) Reflexes absent (wrist/foot drop; peripheral neuropathy) Asthma/ANCA (p-ANCA) Urinary (pauci-immune glomerulonephritis) Sinusitis Skin (nodules or purpura)Mnemonic03/27/20 11:54 AM
595315CardiovascularPathologyVasculitideshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/granulomatous-vasculitisMy mnemonic is to remember the vasculitides that do not involve granulomatous inflammation. It is helpful especially in question stems involving histology. The mnemonic is Grandmas don't go to KaMP. Grandmas represents granulomas and then K(Kawasaki) a M(microscopic polyangiitis) P(polyarteritis nodosa). I have found this helpful as well as many of my friends so maybe it could benefit the entire First Aid community.Mnemonic04/16/20 12:57 PM
596316CardiovascularPathologyCardiac tumorsnot neededTo better remember that Myxoma leads to IL-6 production, can use My"SIX"oma. The "x" in myxoma helped me make the association between Myxomas and IL-siX production.Mnemonic06/04/20 5:47 PM
597316CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertension treatmenthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26395424Thiazide diuretics can cause hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.High-yield addition to next year04/03/20 4:51 PM
598316CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertension treatmentnot neededMnemonic for remembering the drugs used to treat Primary (essential) Hypertension. The drugs used to treat essential hypertension are a TAAD much. T - Thiazide diuretics, A - ACE inhibitors, A - Angiotensin II receptor blockers, D - Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockersMnemonic06/05/20 3:35 AM
599316CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertension treatmentnot neededMnemonic for remembering the treatments for Hypertension with Heart Failure: Patient has a BAAAD heart. B - Beta Blockers, A - ACE inhibitors, A - ARBs, A - Aldosterone Antagonists, D - Diuretics; Heart - Heart Failure.Mnemonic06/05/20 3:42 AM
600316CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertension treatmentnot neededMnemonic for remembering the treatments for Hypertension with Asthma. Those CATS are worsening my asthma. C - Calcium channel blockers, A - ARBs, T - Thiazide diuretics, S - Selective Beta-Blockers.Mnemonic06/05/20 3:46 AM
601317CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac therapyhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/cholera-toxin , https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851156/V. Cholera toxin works via Gs which increases cAMP. Pertusis toxin inhibits Gi, hence final effect is increasing cAMP level.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 2:06 PM
602317CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac therapyhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/g-proteinin Gq agonists box, change vasopressin to vasopressin-1 ,because vasopressin-2 works via Gs which is better to add the later on to Gs agonists box. Add Histamin-1 and Histamin-2 to Gq and Gs agonists respectively.Muscarinic-1 and M-3 works by Gq and Muscarinic-2 works by Gi. Add Nebivolol in the box which LPS is written,because Nebivolol stimulates NO synthase.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 4:17 PM
603317CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac therapyThis is an unbelievably poorly chosen name for a section that should have been very easy to name. It's about vasoactive medications - you can call it either "vasoactive medications" or "Mechanisms of vasoactive medications".Clarification to current text02/12/20 11:40 PM
604317CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac therapymnemonicm-ilrinone is PDE-3 inhibitor (m is inverted 3) while S-ildenafil is PDE-5 inhibitor (S looks like 5)Mnemonic04/19/20 8:17 AM
605317CardiovascularPharmacologyCardiac therapyCellular Processes in Cell Signalling Biology by Berridge, M., 2014. p. 46. Portland Press (London, UK). Available at: https://portlandpress.com/pages/cell_signalling_biologyFirstly, the title ‘Cardiac therapy’ does not make any sense. I would suggest changing it into ‘Pharmacology of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.’ Secondly, there are minor errata in the adenylyl cyclase and guanyly cyclase signalling pathways: • cAMP is produced from ATP, not AMP • cAMP is hydrolyzed to 5’-AMP, not directly converted back into ATP • cGMP is hydrolyzed to 5’-GMP, not directly converted back into GTP. Finally, a major erratum in the adenylate cyclase pathway is the signalling downstream of cAMP. In the vascular smooth muscle cells, cAMP activates protein kinase A, which in turn phosphorylates the target protein phospholamban. Phosphlamban is an inhibitor of the SERCA within the SER membrane. Phosphorylation of phospholamban by PKA inhibits phospholamban and indirectly activates SERCA (inhibition of inhibition). Thus, SERCA pumps cytosolic Ca2+ into the lumen of SER and reduces cytosolic [Ca2+], which produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasodilation (Berridge, 2014). In this diagram, however, it is shown that cAMP directly inhibits MLC-kinase, which is not correct.Major erratum05/27/20 5:16 AM
606318CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockersSee Page 324there is a hint: Verapamil = Ventricle. This is a BAD hint since Verapamil actually works on the Atrium (see page 324) and NOT the ventricleMinor erratum01/24/20 2:46 AM
607318CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockersMnemonicNiCardipine, Clevidipine: Hypertensive urgenCy, emergenCy ;; NiModipine: prevents cerebral vasospasMMnemonic06/26/20 1:02 AM
608318CardiovascularPharmacologyCalcium channel blockersMyselfMnemonic for remembering the names of dihydropyridines. The mnemonic is "CiNNAmoN'. C- Clevidipine, N- Nicardipine, N- Nifedipine, A- Amlodipine, N- Nimodipine.Mnemonic07/15/20 12:56 PM
609318CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertensive emergencyMyselfMnemonic for the drugs used in hypertensive emergency. The mnemonic is "Lara Can Follow Naruto at Night"Mnemonic07/05/20 1:15 PM
610318CardiovascularPharmacologyHypertensive emergencynot neededMnemonic for remembering the drugs used to treat hypertensive emergency. The mnemonic is "Lara Can Follow Naruto at Night". By taking the first letter of each word of this statement to indicate the drugs which are L-labetalol, C-clevidipine, F-fenoldopam, N-nicardipine and N-nitroprusside.Mnemonic07/06/20 9:54 PM
611318CardiovascularPharmacologyNitrateshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/right-ventricular-myocardial-infarction"Contraindicated in right ventricular infarction": Add: "which occurs in inferior MI". This addition is important because right ventricular infarction is much more difficult to diagnose through ECG than inferior MI.Clarification to current text04/04/20 12:05 PM
612319CardiovascularPharmacologyRanolazinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3014127/Ranolazine : say "RaNaLazine", R for refractory angina, Na for Sodium,La for Late. Ranolazine Inhibits the late phase of inward sodium current, Hence its clinical usage is angina refractory to other medical therapies.Mnemonic01/05/20 8:24 AM
613319CardiovascularPharmacologySacubitrilhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157573/Neprilysin inhibitors also prevent degradation of bradykinin.Referring the increased Bradykinin is very helpful when it comes down to understanding and memorizing the vasodilatory effect of Sacubitril and why it should not be used along ACE inhibitors.Added a reference below but its also referred in wikipedia neprilysins info.High-yield addition to next year04/12/20 12:28 PM
614320CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fenofibrate-drug-information?search=fenofibrate:%20drug%20information&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~44&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1activates PPAR-a. downregulates apoprotein C-III (inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) and upregulates the synthesis of apolipoprotein A-I, fatty acid transport protein, and lipoprotein lipase resulting in an increase in VLDL catabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles = decrease in VLDL levelsClarification to current text02/05/20 11:02 AM
615320CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentsAngelin, B., Einarsson, K., Hellström, K., & Leijd, B. (1978). Effects of cholestyramine and chenodeoxycholic acid on the metabolism of endogenous triglyceride in hyperlipoproteinemia. Journal of lipid research, 19(8), 1017-1024. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3618626Adverse effects should include hypertriglyceridemia. (It is a common adverse effect/contraindication I have been asked about in Uworld, NBME, AMBOSS)High-yield addition to next year02/12/20 7:44 PM
616320CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15258194Niacin reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis via noncompetitive inhibition of Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2High-yield addition to next year04/17/20 11:07 PM
617321CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentshttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/PCSK9PCSK9 leads to decreased LDL receptors, not increased. The image shows a positive sign coming from PCSK9, but there should be a negative signMinor erratum04/03/20 4:50 PM
618321CardiovascularPharmacologyLipid-lowering agentsNot needed.PCSK9 degrades the LDL receptor. This is correctly emphasized by an inhibitory “arrow” sign but incorrectly denoted with a green “+” circle instead of a red “-“ circle.Minor erratum07/02/20 10:33 PM
619322CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)not applicablemnemonic for class IB to add phenytoin and not write it separately: I'll buy Liddy's Fine Mexican Tacos (fine or phine referring to phenytoin)Mnemonic03/05/20 9:51 AM
620322CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—sodium channel blockers (class I)Not neededthis is a mnemonic to remember which subtype of class I antiarrhythmics show the strongest binding to Na channels, increasing their use dependence: Fast taxi CAB (Fast = the faster the heart rate, the stronger the effect. CAB = class IC > class IA > class IB)Mnemonic03/19/20 2:44 PM
621323CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—potassium channel blockers (class III)mnemonicam-IOD-arone is 40% IOD-ine by weightMnemonic04/28/20 10:11 AM
622323CardiovascularPharmacologyAntiarrhythmics—β-blockers (class II)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/nonsustained-ventricular-tachycardia-clinical-manifestations-evaluation-and-managementBeta blockers are the 1st line agents for the treatment of symptomatic non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. From UpToDate text: "For the initial treatment of patients with symptomatic NSVT, we suggest beta blockers rather than calcium channel blockers or antiarrhythmic medications (Grade 2C)." For patients with a structural heart disease and sustained monomorphic VT, amiodarone can be the 1st line agent, though. The text should make this distinction. Students reading the current text are under the impression that beta blockers are only used in patients with supraventricular tachycardias. Therefore, please add: "non-sustained VT" to the clinical use section.Minor erratum07/16/20 8:02 AM
623323EndocrineAnatomyPancreatic secretionsFirstAid - Endocrine pancreas cell typesBAD (P)IGS: Beta cells - Insulin, Alpha cells - Glucagon, Delta cells - Somatostatin, P is for pancreasMnemonic02/03/20 12:24 AM
624324CardiovascularPharmacologyIvabradinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671466/1. IvaBRADIne caused BRADYcardia. 2. My BRAD pitt blocks funny people, IvaBRADine blocks funny sodium channels.Mnemonic01/11/20 11:57 AM
625324CardiovascularPharmacologyIvabradinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671466/1. IvaBRADIne causes BRADYcardy. 2. BRAD pitt blocks funny people, IvaBRADine blocks funny sodium channels.Mnemonic01/11/20 4:44 PM
626324CardiovascularPharmacologyIvabradinemnemoniciva-"BRIGHT"-ine (ie, Ivabradine) causes visual BRIGHTness.Mnemonic04/18/20 1:28 AM
627324CardiovascularPharmacologyIvabradinehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/ivabradine-drug-information?search=ivabradine&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~41&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1#F28562238For the side effects of ivabradine, the mnemonic ivaBRIGHTine is a useful way to remember that the main side effects are luminous phenomena and visual brightnessMnemonic05/13/20 10:22 AM
628325IndexIndexIndexFA 2020The index directs the item "Islets of Langerhans" to page 325, which is the title page for the Endocrine chapter. Based on previous versions, this section would likely be present on page 326 or 327, but it has been omitted entirely. I propose including this material again next year.Spelling/formatting01/04/20 9:59 AM
629326EndocrineEmbryologyEmbryologic derivativeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/845125-overviewAfter “Thyroid follicular cells derived from endoderm”, add "parafollicular cells arise from the 4th pharyngeal pouch"High-yield addition to next year01/03/20 9:11 AM
630327EndocrineAnatomyAdrenal cortex and medullaIt’s a mnemonicMnemonic for renal zones and hormones produced in them (I think it’s better than the one currently used). Mnemonic: aldosterone ACTs to maintain GFR (Aldosterone, Cortisol, Testosterone) .. (Glomerulosa, Fasciculata, Reticularis)Mnemonic02/16/20 12:14 PM
631327EndocrineAnatomyGlucagonnot neededwhen you add back what's been deleted (someone already noted that "Islets of Langerhans" have been completely removed from the 2020 edition), A good mnemonic for Glucagon is: Glucagon is made by the alPHa cells in the periPHeryMnemonic01/24/20 2:23 AM
632327EndocrineAnatomyPituitary glandhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/posterior-pituitary“…Transported to posterior pituitary via neurophysins (carrier proteins) and stored in Herring bodies (specialized nerve endings). Derived from neuroectoderm.”High-yield addition to next year04/15/20 5:21 PM
633328EndocrinePhysiologyHypothalamic-pituitary hormonesPub Med ID: 18224538. See also Uworld question ID. 1839In the "Clinical Notes" section it says: Pulsatile GnRH leads to puberty, fertility. Consider adding: Decreased Leptin (as seen in anorexic patients) leads to Functional hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) ie. inhibition of pulsatile GnRH release causing reduced FSH and LH and estrogen, leading to amenorrhea.High-yield addition to next year01/28/20 6:30 PM
634328EndocrinePhysiologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519536/Under increased TRH it says that it can be caused by primary or secondary hypothyroidism. Secondary hypothyroidism when caused by lack of TSH from the pituitary can cause elevated TRH however if the cause of secondary hypothyroidism is due to lack of TRH due to damage of the hypothalamus then this would lead to low TRH not high TRH.Clarification to current text06/19/20 11:35 AM
635329EndocrinePhysiologyAntidiuretic hormoneBRS physiologyfunctions of ADH: add that ADH causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels by V1 receptorsClarification to current text04/10/20 1:57 PM
636329EndocrinePhysiologyGrowth hormonehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190751/Ghrelin stimulates GHHigh-yield addition to next year04/30/20 10:33 PM
637331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/thyroid-hormone-synthesis-and-physiology?search=dopamine%20tsh&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3In the feedback loop for thyroid hormone release, can add glucocorticoids, dopamine as inhibiting TSH releaseClarification to current text03/30/20 11:21 AM
638331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormonesCostanzo, LS. Physiology, 6e, Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018.The text states that thyroid hormones increase basal metabolic rate via increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity. It should be added that thyroid hormones also induce the synthesis of additional Na+/K+-ATPases, which also contributes to increased basal metabolic rate.Clarification to current text04/06/20 4:00 PM
639331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormoneshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6127638Dopamine inhibit TSH secretion.Clarification to current text04/30/20 4:57 PM
640331EndocrinePhysiologyThyroid hormoneshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/thyroxine-deiodinaseAdd 5'-deiodinase and Na/I pump inhibitors to the actual diagramClarification to current text04/30/20 5:03 PM
641332EndocrinePhysiologyParathyroid hormonehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/parathyroid-hormone-secretion-and-action?search=parathyroid%20hormone&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H2506925384Text reads: Increases Ca2+ and PO43- absorption in the GI system. This should read: Indirectly increases Ca2+ and PO43- absorption in the GI system by increasing amount of activated Vitamin D from the kidney.Minor erratum02/18/20 6:34 PM
642332EndocrinePhysiologyParathyroid hormonenot requiredHighlight the P in PO4^3- and the P in PCT --> Decreased "P"O4^3- reabsorption in "P"CTMnemonic08/02/20 8:15 AM
643333EndocrinePhysiologyCalcitoninhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/calcitonin-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis?search=calcitonin&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~136&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Calcitonin inhibits bone resorption. Not bone resorption of Calcium, because this way it means that it inhibits the resorption of calcium in the bone, which would increase serum calcium. I would simply delete 'of calcium' and add the part about inhibiton of osteoclasts. Thank youClarification to current text03/02/20 12:43 PM
644333EndocrinePhysiologyGlucagonhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279127/Promotes glycogenolysis(only in liver not in muscle)High-yield addition to next year01/26/20 10:41 PM
645334EndocrinePhysiologyInsulinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-blood-glucose-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus?search=SGLT1&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~7&usage_type=default&display_rank=1SGLT1 = Predominantly expressed in Small intestine & SGLT2 in Kidney , Sotagliflozin is a dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor , While SGLT2 inhibitors only act on kidney.Clarification to current text06/12/20 1:48 AM
646335EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/919218-medicationtreatment goal is to suppress ACTH by exogenous steroidHigh-yield addition to next year01/26/20 10:50 PM
647335EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/uncommon-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasias?sectionName=CYP17A1%20DEFICIENCIES&search=17%20alpha%20hydroxylase%20deficiency&topicRef=104218&anchor=H1698113&source=see_link#H169811311-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is increased and aldosterone in decreased in 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency. DOC is causing the increase in high blood pressure.Clarification to current text03/07/20 2:19 PM
648335EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasFirst aid 2020 page 658In the image, 17,20 lyase should be shown to be inhibited by ketoconazole and spironolactone, as is stated on page 658 of First Aid 2020 (17,20 lyase and 17,20 desmolase are the same enzyme).High-yield addition to next year04/08/20 5:45 PM
649335EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasiasmnemonic21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia because the 21 is the biggest number out of these 3 numbers: 11, 17, 21.Mnemonic04/19/20 5:44 AM
650336EndocrinePhysiologyAppetite regulationMnemonicGH RELease is INcreased by GHRELINMnemonic01/11/20 9:09 PM
651336EndocrinePhysiologyAppetite regulationhttps://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/hp.aspLepTHIN makes you thinMnemonic03/22/20 7:55 AM
652336EndocrinePhysiologyCortisolNot neededFunctions of Cortisol: ABCDEF (Appetite, Blood pressure, Catabolism, Decreased immunity/wound healing, Emotional lability, Fragile bones)Mnemonic06/13/20 4:27 AM
653337EndocrinePhysiologyReceptor bindingmneumonicPET CAT in(tracellular) TV - it would be easier to remember where the mechanism of action is of all the hormones if it was changed from "on" to "in" to emphasize the fact that they work intracellularly.Mnemonic07/13/20 1:17 PM
654337EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesMnemonicmnemonic fornon-receptor tryosine kinase - GET PIG Through JAK/STAT pathway.GET PIG( G-CSF,Erythropoeitin,Thrombopoeitin Prolactin,Immunomodulators,GH)Mnemonic02/18/20 5:58 PM
655337EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormoneshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/peptide-hormone-signal-transduction-and-regulation?search=serine%20threonine%20receptor&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H14TGF-beta receptor is listed underneath the category " tyrosine kinase receptor". Instead, TGF-beta should be listed as a serine/threonine receptor.Minor erratum04/05/20 6:58 PM
656337EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesnone needed.NRTK: the JAcKed GI proposes. Jak/stat signaling, GH & G-csf, Immune, Prolactin, EPO & TPOMnemonic06/13/20 10:25 AM
657338EndocrinePathologyDiabetes insipidusno needif you could centralize "Urine specific gravity < 1.006 Urine osmolality < 300 mOsm/kg Serum osmolality > 290 mOsm/kg Hyperosmotic volume contraction" it will be betterSpelling/formatting02/02/20 2:16 PM
658338EndocrinePathologySyndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretionnot neededA good mnemonic for the symptoms of SIADH is to note that: in SIADH WATER is HELD up. the word HELD stands for 1) Head trauma/CNS disorders 2) Ectopic ADH (small cell lung cancer) 3) Lung (pulmonary disease) 4) Drugs (eg cyclophosphamide)Mnemonic01/24/20 2:20 AM
659339EndocrinePathologyAcromegalymnemonicpegvi-SOM-ANT is SOMatotropin receptor ANTagonist.Mnemonic04/01/20 2:58 AM
660339EndocrinePathologyAcromegalyPathoma bookAdd that HF is due to enlargement of visceral organs (due to excessive GH) which leads to organ dysfunction as HFClarification to current text04/11/20 3:38 PM
661340EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603073/gynecomastia in hyperthyroidism occur due to increase in SHBG .. Gynecomastia(increase SHBG)Clarification to current text02/12/20 9:49 AM
662340EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603073/gynecomastia in hyperthyroidism occur due to increase in SHBG .. Gynecomastia(increase SHBG)Clarification to current text02/12/20 9:54 AM
663341EndocrinePathologyHypoparathyroidismthe disease is Cretinismthe Hint of 6 P's should be Changed to: Findings (7 P’s): Puny/Petite (short stature)Mnemonic01/24/20 2:11 AM
664341EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-igg4-related-disease; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IgG4-related_diseaseIn the second column of Reidel thyroiditis, replace "IgG4-related systemic disease" with "IgG4-related disease".Clarification to current text01/05/20 3:43 PM
665341EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismnot neededas written: Riedel thyroiditis ... hard (Rock-like). The "R" from Riedel and the "R" from rock-like should be in red font.Mnemonic01/24/20 1:50 AM
666341EndocrinePathologyHypothyroidismhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25890614Hashimoto thyroiditis shows lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers in histology. Remember Japan flag. Hashimoto is a Japenese name and Hurthle cell is similar to Japan flag.Mnemonic03/25/20 8:21 PM
667342EndocrineSystemsHyperthyroidismSelf madeFor graves disease manifestations- To be in GRAVE you need to be DED (dead) Diffuse goitre, Exophthalmos, Dermopathy ( pretibial myxedema)Mnemonic01/19/20 1:50 AM
668343EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/282276-overview#a7The text under papillary carcinoma states at first "excellent prognosis" then again at the end "good prognosis." Should just be stated once as excellent. This was correct in the 2019 edition.Minor erratum01/09/20 2:18 PM
669343EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancerI made this mnemonic up/have no sources.For papillary carcinoma: "Orphan children at Chernobyl grew extra fingers" - This gets at orphan Annie eye nuclei, radiation exposure in childhood, and the papillary configuration.Mnemonic01/31/20 2:40 PM
670346EndocrinePathologyChanges in glomerular dynamicsBoards and Beyond says "this is a high yield image to know for your boards". please see attachedplease add back from the FA 2019 edition where it says: Nodular glomerulosclerosis (aka Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules). Additionally, please add an image for this disease.High-yield addition to next year01/24/20 2:09 AM
671346EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus?search=MODY&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~20&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H8MODY (maturity onset diabetes of the young) is something I came across in Sketchy path and UWorld that should be added to first aid, either as its own section in the endocrine chapter, or at least as a mention with the causes of type II diabetes mellitus.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 9:57 PM
672348EndocrinePathologyNelson syndromeNo needAdd that hyperpigmentation is due to excess secretion of MHS (derivative of ACTH)Clarification to current text04/11/20 5:33 PM
673349EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyNot neededIn flowchart, it says 2*/3* adrenal insufficiency, we can have ↓/-/↑ ACTH levels. Basic definition says that we can't have ↑ ACTH levels in 2/3* adrenal insufficiency. It was correct in FA 2019.Major erratum01/28/20 3:58 PM
674349EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyNot neededIn flowchart, it says 2*/3* adrenal insufficiency, we can have ↓/-/↑ ACTH levels. In 3*, there is initial rise in ACTH.Clarification to current text01/28/20 5:40 PM
675349EndocrinePathologyAdrenal insufficiencyhttps://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/western_world.htmUnder Primary Adrenal Insufficiency, you use the term "Western world" as a juxtaposition to the "developing world." If you mean "developed world" then use that term, not an antiquated, Christianity-influenced, biased term that suggests that countries in the Eastern hemisphere are undeveloped.Clarification to current text06/24/20 2:51 PM
676349EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyFirst Aidcauses glucosuria. glucose FLOZIN (flows in) the urineMnemonic03/12/20 5:30 PM
677350EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugshas shown up on multiple qbanksfor desmopressin's clinical uses, add uremic platelet dysfunctionHigh-yield addition to next year03/19/20 8:07 AM
678350EndocrinePathologyNeuroblastomaDoesn't applyNeuroBLASToma is positive for BOMBesin (Blast=Bomb)Mnemonic02/23/20 12:01 AM
679350EndocrinePathologyPheochromocytomafirst aidRule of 10s (Bs) 10% bad (malignant), 10% bilateral, 10% bladder (extra-adrenal, bladder being common), 10% bony (calcify), 10% babies (kids)High-yield addition to next year02/18/20 12:44 PM
680351EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasmnemonicMEN1 gene encodes for men1n (write "1" instead of "I") and it is on chromosome 11 (many 1s).Mnemonic04/03/20 3:35 AM
681351EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasmnemonicRET codes for RE-ceptor T-yrosine kinase.Mnemonic04/03/20 3:36 AM
682351EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasDon't have one this came from my brainWith the MENs I kept getting confused which P's meant what with the PPP, MPP, MMP mnemonic. So I made it more specific. MEN 1: Men need pans (pancreatic ca) para (parathyroid) their pits (pituitary). MEN2A: Men need meds (medullary) para (parathyroid) their phallus (pheochromocytoma. MEN2B: 2B happy, let's send their medicated (medullary thyroid) phalluses (pheo) to Mars (marfanoid habitus).Mnemonic06/08/20 6:39 PM
683351EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasNA except I think that the current mnemonic can rub people wrong and could be improved upon1 Man/MEN is strong, but 2 RETired MEN are DOMINANT ;;;;; One (1) man (MEN and also MEN1 mutation for type 1) is strong, but 2 (for MEN 2A and 2B) RETired (for RET mutation) men are dominant (mode of inheritance)Mnemonic07/09/20 2:51 PM
684351EndocrinePathologyPancreatic islet cell tumorshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/283039-treatment#d6 ; The photo I have attached below is from Bailey and Love's Short Practice of SurgeryEnucleation is the surgery of choice for insulinomas. The 2020 edition of First Aid uses the term 'resection' for the treatment of insulinomas. Enucleation is a better term to use. Also, diazoxide is used for the treatment of insulinomas that are not amenable to surgical correction. This point can be added to the text.Minor erratum07/23/20 7:31 AM
685352EndocrinePathologyCarcinoid syndromeliterally the FAOpen parenthesis in the carcinoid syndrome description. 3rd line at the end of sentence, thers a ) but no initial (Spelling/formatting07/08/20 2:41 PM
686352EndocrinePharmacologyCarcinoid syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/telotristat-ethyl-drug-informationTelotristat is a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor used combination with a somatostatin analog to treat carcinoid syndrome. NOT a somatostatin analog.Major erratum01/12/20 8:39 PM
687352EndocrinePhoto AcknowledgmentsDiabetes mellitus therapyPrinciples of Pharmacology - GolanJust thought a diagram for this would be greatClarification to current text02/05/20 10:48 AM
688352EndocrinePharmacologyZollinger-Ellison syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555311/Positive secretin stimulation test: paradoxical increase ingastrin levels after administration of secretin.Minor erratum01/26/20 5:45 PM
689353EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapy1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801817/ 2. https://www.nejm.org/doi/suppl/10.1056/NEJMoa1811744/suppl_file/nejmoa1811744_appendix.pdfFA 2020 lists hyperkalemia as one of the adverse effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors and I don't think this is correct. The physiology doesn't make too much sense (no reason for sglt-2's increased glucosuria or dehydration to create a hyperkalemic state), and nephrology forums confirmed this. There were two large scale clinical trials which also did not report hyperkalemia with SGLT2 inhibitors, which I have linked. Also, UpToDate does not list it as a side effect.Major erratum03/01/20 10:54 AM
690353EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/tolazamide-342720; https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-8719/tolazamide-oral/details; https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/TolazamideTolazamide is a 1st generation sulfonylurea used for the treatment of Diabetes MellitusHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 7:36 PM
691354EndocrinePharmacologyFludrocortisonemnemonic"FLUID"rocortisone (ie, fludrocortisone) retains FLUID, just like aldosterone.Mnemonic05/11/20 1:26 AM
692354EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsFirst Aid 2020 pg 329Desmopressin - add the text "ADH analog"Clarification to current text01/26/20 10:16 AM
693354EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsMnemonic created by Suganiya Srikanthan, M.D.Mnemonic for desmopressin clinical indicationsMnemonic02/24/20 12:11 PM
694354EndocrinePharmacologyHypothalamic/pituitary drugsmnemonicconi-VA-P-t-AN is VA-so-P-ressin receptor AN-tagonistMnemonic04/19/20 12:08 PM
695354EndocrinePharmacologyLevothyroxine, liothyroninemnemonicLEVOthyroxine is T4 (four letters before "thyroxine") while LIOthyronine is T3 (3 letters before "thyronine")Mnemonic04/01/20 2:53 AM
696354EndocrinePharmacologyThionamideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/antithyroid-drugs-beyond-the-basics#:~:text=Propylthiouracil%20must%20be%20taken%20two,severe%20birth%20defects%20than%20methimazole.Propylthiouracil (PTU): Primary Trimester UseMnemonic02/29/20 1:46 PM
697354EndocrinePharmacologyThionamideshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-spectrum-of-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-autoantibodies"The strongest links between medications and ANCA-associated vasculitis are with drugs employed in the treatment of hyperthyroidism (propylthiouracil, methimazole, and carbimazole). Propylthiouracil may be the most common offending agent in drug-induced MPO-ANCA seropositivity."High-yield addition to next year05/21/20 10:04 AM
698355EndocrinePharmacologyCinacalcetmnemonicSEN-a-CALC-et (ie, Cinacalcet) SEN-sitizies CALC-ium sensing receptors.Mnemonic05/08/20 1:45 AM
699356EndocrinePharmacologyThionamidesmnemonicPTU - Blocks Tu (2) enzymesMnemonic02/03/20 12:51 PM
700359GastrointestinalEmbryologyNEW FACThttps://www.nature.com/articles/7211922Jejunum/ileum atresia - bilious emesis, abdominal distension; Xray pattern called "apple-peel" or "christmas tree" deformityHigh-yield addition to next year07/14/20 8:09 AM
701361GastrointestinalAnatomyImportant gastrointestinal ligamentsMnemonicHighlight the letter "F" in Falciform ligament to remember it is the ligament that connects the liver to the Front (anterior wall) of the abdominal cavity.Mnemonic01/12/20 10:57 AM
702362GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract histologymnemonicB-runner glands are B-icarbonate secreting glands of su-B-mucosa.Mnemonic04/19/20 6:24 AM
703363GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and branchesmnemonicin Nutcracker syndrome your left nut (left testicle) get big (varicocele).Mnemonic03/14/20 7:41 AM
704363GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and brancheshttp://www.rxpgonline.com/modules.php?name=Mnemonics&file=print&jokeid=2658.htmlPCS School is Really Teacher Less In Summer P: inf Phrenic A C: celiac Trunk S: superior mesenteric A School: suprarenal A Really: renal A Teacher: testicular A (gonadal) Less: lumbar A In : inf mesenteric A Summer: median Sacral AMnemonic03/22/20 11:30 AM
705363GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract anatomynot needed.rectosigmoid junction- the last sigmoid arterial branch from the IMA and superior rectal artery." this should be corrected to: rectosigmoid junction- the last sigmoid arterial branch from the IMA i.e. the superior rectal artery - connects with the middle Rectal artery off the internal iliac artery.Major erratum03/06/20 12:30 PM
706366GastrointestinalAnatomyPectinate linemnemonicThe "i" should be capitalized and bolded in the box that lists the veins that supply tissue below the pectinate line. "Internal rectal vein --> Internal pudendal vein --> Internal Iliac vein --> common Iliac vein --> IVC". The I's drain INFERIOR to the pectinate line.Mnemonic05/21/20 7:40 AM
707367GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architecturemnemonicCo"cane" affects zone 1 (the number "1" looks like cane).Mnemonic03/17/20 3:09 PM
708367GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architecturehttps://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hepatic-and-biliary-disorders/approach-to-the-patient-with-liver-disease/liver-structure-and-function?query=liver%20lobuleThe images of the liver lobules label the central vein as the hepatic vein. However, the central veins are terminal branches of the hepatic vein, and thus this labeling can be confusing. A better depiction might be labeling the central veins and drawing them joining to form the hepatic vein.Clarification to current text05/12/20 9:41 AM
709368GastrointestinalAnatomyBiliary structuresFirst AidSphincter of Oddi----duOdenum////////////////////////Ampulla of Vater---pAncreasMnemonic04/16/20 2:18 PM
710368GastrointestinalAnatomyFemoral regionhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/femoral-artery-aneurysm?search=femoral%20artery&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H2892986634&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~150&display_rank=1#H2892986634Image is mislabeled for the location tagged as the femoral artery/vein. At the tagged location this is still the external iliac artery. The name changes to the femoral artery after it crosses the inguinal ligamentMajor erratum06/20/20 9:37 AM
711369GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal wallFirst Aid 2020 Page 369The diagrams might be better labeled as "Anterior abdominal wall viewed from inside" and "Anterior abdominal wall viewed from outside" as the current label says "Posterior abdominal wall" which is misleading.Clarification to current text03/17/20 6:57 AM
712370GastrointestinalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/spigelian-hernias?search=spigellian%20hernia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H2225564148Spigelian Hernias: Ventral Abdominal wall hernia in patients with rapid weight loss among other risk factors. Herniation through the linea semilunaris, lateral to rectus abdominis. Prevalence is increasing (either due to better imaging or a true increase due to obesity epidemic).High-yield addition to next year05/05/20 4:13 PM
713371GastrointestinalPhysiologyNeoplasia and neoplastic progressionhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/125910-treatment#d8Treatment for VIPoma; OctreotideHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 7:09 PM
714373GastrointestinalAnatomy and PhysiologyLocations of gastrointestinal secretory cellshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/search?search=synthesis-secretion-and-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-peptides&sp=0&searchType=PLAIN_TEXT&source=USER_INPUT&searchControl=TOP_PULLDOWN&searchOffset=1&autoComplete=false&language=&max=0&index=&autoCompleteTerm=Good mnemonic to memorize the name of the gastrointestinal secretory cells and their functions: DISK around the pancreas. Destroy GI secretions (D cells, somatostatin). Induce gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion (I cells, cholecystokinin). Supports high pH in duodenum, Suppresses gastrin release (S cells, secretin). Kicks the stomach (decrease H+ secretion) and Knocks insulin from pancreas (K cells, GIP)Mnemonic06/26/20 5:17 AM
715374GastrointestinalPhysiologyBilehttp://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/liver/bilirubin.htmlFunctions of bile which written are 3, the 4th missed one is (bilirubin excretion)High-yield addition to next year03/18/20 12:15 PM
716376GastrointestinalPathologyAchalasiamnemonicACHalasia - due to loss of AuerbaCH plexusMnemonic07/10/20 10:58 AM
717377GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11928080Esophageal varices : Dilated vein in submucosae and lamina propriaHigh-yield addition to next year01/26/20 5:51 PM
718377GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825946/Scleroderma Esophageal dysmotility: Manometry shows decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and absent or ineffective peristalsis of the distal esophagusHigh-yield addition to next year02/01/20 1:07 PM
719377GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologieshttps://www.google.com/search?client=opera&q=Sclerodermal+esophageal+dysmotility&sourceid=opera&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17016130Scleroderma esophageal dysmotility or Esophageal dysmotility in scleroderma is the correct form not 'Sclerodermal esophageal dysmotility'Clarification to current text02/01/20 1:16 PM
720377GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal pathologiesmorals? I don't have a specific linkUnder the term "esophageal varices", parto of the definition states "Common in cirrhotics, may be source of life-threatening hematemesis." I believe the word "cirrhotics" should be replaced with patients with cirrhosis. As future providers, we should not be naming patients by their diagnoses and we diminish patients by labeling them things like "cirrhotics".Clarification to current text07/06/20 7:35 PM
721377GastrointestinalPathologyNEW FACTSatar, H. 2018. Gastrointestinal Pathology. Pathoma pg. 102Risk factors for GERD: StOMACH (Smoking tobacco; Obesity; McDonald [fatty diet]; Alcohol; Caffeine; Hiatal Herniation)Mnemonic05/24/20 7:57 PM
722378GastrointestinalPathologyBarrett esophagushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3418534/Barrett esophagus: endoscopic feature: salmon-pink colored extensions (or “tongues”) of mucosa that grow into the esophagusHigh-yield addition to next year02/01/20 12:47 PM
723378GastrointestinalPathologyEsophageal cancerMemory deviceTo remember that Squamous cell carcinoma is more common in the upper 2/3, think of it as the Superior 2/3 and highlight the "S" to associate the two. Example image attached to clarify.Mnemonic01/11/20 10:56 AM
724379GastrointestinalPathologyGastric cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385454/According to most recent study, increased risk of gastric cancer is associated with blood type A and ABHigh-yield addition to next year01/26/20 5:59 PM
725379GastrointestinalPathologyGastric cancerFirstAidTo remember the names of locations of spread: supraclaVicular has a V for Virchow, KruKenberg has two K's for bilateral ovaries, and Sister Mary JOseph (O for periumbilical)Mnemonic08/03/20 7:08 PM
726380GastrointestinalPathologyPeptic ulcer diseasemnemonicDUodenal ulcer occur by DUal mechanisms ( decrease mucosal protection or increase gastric acid secretion )Mnemonic04/02/20 5:27 PM
727381GastrointestinalPathologyMalabsorption syndromesAmbossT SPRUE = [T]etracycline (responds to abx versus celiac's), [S]teatorrhea, [P]roximal small bowel (D-J), [U]nderweight (progressive WL), [E]ndoscopy (diagnostic)Mnemonic05/28/20 2:57 PM
728382GastrointestinalPathologyImmunoglobulin isotypeshttps://firstaidteam.com/2014/11/10/mnemonic-monday-inflammatory-bowel-disease-crohns-vs-ulcerative-colitis/Crohn's is ONE word = TH1 ; Ulcerative Colitis is TWO words = TH2Mnemonic06/02/20 8:16 PM
729382GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesnot neededin the section Extraintestinal Manifestations of Crohn disease and Ulcerative colitis, I use the mnemonic: BOWELS hurt your VOWELS to help recall: INTEGUMENTARY rash: (pyoderma gangrenosum, ERYTHEMA nodosum), EYE INFLAMMATION (EPISCLERITIS, UVEITIS), ORAL ULCERATIONS, (APHTHOUS stomatitis), ARTHRITIS (peripheral, spondylitis). highlight the first letters which are all vowels.Mnemonic03/12/20 10:47 PM
730382GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseaseshttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/crohn-disease-1original text : (“string sign” on barium swallow ). Correction: string sign is seen on barium small bowel follow though not barium swallow ( this is for the oesophagus imaging )Major erratum03/28/20 7:14 AM
731382GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseaseshttps://www.google.com/search?q=barium+small+bowel+follow+through+string+sign&rlz=1C1JZAP_enEG755EG755&sxsrf=ALeKk006eYG8BfG3QhEwvhMfHTrCromCTw:1585394210079&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjGyeHVhb3oAhUL2BoKHWOoD_wQ_AUoAXoECA0QAw&biw=1216&bih=678&dpr=2.25figure A is noted as a barium swallow. This is barium small bowel follow through. barium swallow shows the oesophagus not small bowelMinor erratum03/28/20 7:19 AM
732382GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseasesmnemonicto remember that crohn disease is TH1 mediated , write it as crONE diseaseMnemonic03/29/20 7:29 AM
733382GastrointestinalPathologyInflammatory bowel diseases382To remember that ulcerative colitis is associated with Th2 while crohn's is associated with Th1 response, remember how many words are in the disease ("ulcerative colitis" = two words = Th2; "Crohn's" = one word = Th1)Mnemonic06/08/20 8:27 PM
734382GastrointestinalPathologyIrritable bowel syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-crohns-disease-in-adults?search=crohns&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3ASCA'em if they SMOKE and have STONES for Crohn's (A better way to remember major differences between Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis)Mnemonic01/24/20 2:00 PM
735382GastrointestinalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndromes-including-cowden-syndrome?search=cowden%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~51&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Although first aid has a section on pg. 225 for oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in many cancers, "Cowden syndrome" is not explicitly mentioned in the book, which is a high yield familial cancer syndrome associated w/ a common tumor suppressor mutation (in PTEN). It came up in UWorld.High-yield addition to next year06/13/20 10:07 PM
736382GastrointestinalPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndromes-including-cowden-syndrome?search=cowden%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~51&usage_type=default&display_rank=1I recently submitted a submission saying Cowden syndrome should be added to first aid, and here is a mnemonic I came up with to help remember it: "Bet-C the COW lives in her PEN." (Cowden syndrome is associated w 'PTEN' mutations, and is associated with development of breast, endometrial, thyroid, and colorectal cancers/polyps.Mnemonic06/13/20 10:10 PM
737383GastrointestinalPathologyAppendicitisUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-appendicitis-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-differential-diagnosis?search=acute%20appendicitis%20differential&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H5345977Add "Meckel diverticulum" as a high yield possible differential diagnosis.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 10:31 PM
738385GastrointestinalPathologyIntussusceptionFirst Aid pg. 385(causes of intussusception) PRIVID - Purpura (Henoch-Schonlein) Rotavirus (vaccine) Intraluminal (tumor/mass) Viral Infection Diverticulum (Meckel's)Mnemonic03/26/20 6:22 PM
739385GastrointestinalPathologyIntussusception<https://www.uptodate.com/contents/intussusception-in-children?search=intussusception%20in%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~112&usage_type=default&display_rank=3>So the treatment is completely missing in the section. Rapid treatment is important; Nonoperative reduction i.e. Barium or Air Enema is used to treat the intussusception or Surgery for further complications.High-yield addition to next year05/31/20 2:02 AM
740386GastrointestinalPathologyOther intestinal disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?imageKey=PEDS%2F117369&topicKey=PEDS%2F4991&search=necrotizing%20enterocolitis&source=outline_link&selectedTitle=4~150 ////////// also https://www.uptodate.com/contents/neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-pathology-and-pathogenesis /// and Robbins PBD, 9th ed, chapter 10, page 459 (section on NEC).Since necrotizing enterocolitis can cause both pneumatosis intestinalis and pneumoperitoneum, I think it's useful to distinguish them (to avoid confusion) by just adding a parenthesis after both of them: pneumatosis intestinalis (gas withing the intestinal wall); pneumoperitoneum (perforation leads to free air inside the abdominal cavity). Also, the way it's written, it looks like pneumatosis is a consequence of perforation, which is NOT. I've re-written this section as an example.Clarification to current text05/31/20 1:41 PM
741386GastrointestinalPathologyVolvulushttps://www-uptodate-com.rossuniversity.idm.oclc.org/contents/sigmoid-volvulus?search=sigmoid%20volvulus&sectionRank=2&usage_type=default&anchor=H453107688&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~15&display_rank=1#H453107688X-ray of sigmoid volvulus depicts it extending into the LUQ. While sigmoid volvulus and apex of the "coffee bean" sign can appear on either side, I believe it more often extends into the RUQ. UpToDate also has it listed as "extending from the pelvis to the right upper quadrant as high as the diaphragm". The radiology text book pdf uploaded also states that cecal volvulus extends into the left upper quadrant. This concept is unclear in current First Aid book.Minor erratum07/24/20 11:37 PM
742387GastrointestinalPathologyColonic polypsnot neededMnemonic to remember the regions involved in Juvenile Polyposis syndrome: juvenile PolypoSCiS syndrome. S - Small Bowel, C - Colon, S - Stomach.Mnemonic06/05/20 3:54 AM
743387GastrointestinalPathologyPolyposis syndromesFirst Aid errata 2017Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is caused by mutation of 5q21 not 5q22.Minor erratum02/07/20 12:03 PM
744387GastrointestinalPathologyNEW FACTn/aGARDnEr --> GARDEN is Chewed --> osteomas of skull or mandibleMnemonic04/26/20 4:29 PM
745388GastrointestinalPathologyColorectal cancermnemonic"if you are fat , weight loss is always RIGHT" to remember that right sided colon cancer cause weight lossMnemonic04/02/20 5:01 PM
746388GastrointestinalPathologyColorectal cancernoneCEO of colorectal cancer. Colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer association.Mnemonic07/16/20 9:41 AM
747388GastrointestinalGeneticsLynch syndromeThought of it myself.A good mnemonic for Lynch syndrome is "Lynch the CEO'S": Colorectal, Endometrial, Ovarian, SkinMnemonic07/05/20 11:25 AM
748388GastrointestinalPathologyLynch syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=lynch%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H2Mnemonic for remembering the organ system affected and pathogenesis: LYNCH-ing the C.E.O.S is in MISMATCH with basic economics (C: Colon, E: Endometrial, O: Ovarian, S: Skin):Mnemonic05/04/20 8:14 PM
749389GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisN/AHemochromatosis is a problem with Iron (Fe) --> F = the 6th letter of the alphabet, HFE found on Chromosome 6Mnemonic04/14/20 8:08 PM
750389GastrointestinalPathologyMolecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/colorectal-cancer-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-protective-factors?search=microsatelite%20instability%20pathway&topicRef=2485&source=see_linkMicrosatellite instability pathway in colon cancer is due to methylation or mutations in mismatch repair genes (i.e. MLH-1 and MSH-2). In this pathway, epithelium affected by inherited or acquired mutations of mismatch repair genes (i.e. MLH-1, MSH-2) undergo somatic mutations resulting in loss of function of 2nd allele and become a sessile serrated adenoma. Once there is an accumulation of mutations in genes involved in cell survival and proliferation, it will become a carcinoma. [Image found on Amboss]High-yield addition to next year01/06/20 4:42 PM
751390GastrointestinalPathologyNonalcoholic fatty liver diseasehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults?search=nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~133&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H19331440The text states that "AST > ALT in nonalcoholic liver disease..", however AST>ALT is characteristic for alcohol related liver disease. It should be ALT>AST for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Minor erratum07/15/20 3:22 AM
752390GastrointestinalPathologySerum markers of liver pathologyhttps://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Laboratory_medicine#xid=Ln0wFg&anker=Z1e451667f863dcfa4a71041436f9de6fThe amount my classmates can drink is ASTounding.Mnemonic02/10/20 11:55 AM
753390GastrointestinalPathologySerum markers of liver pathologyself“Increase in alcoholic liver disease: AST > ALT” Mnemonic: “A Shot of Tequila”Mnemonic04/07/20 12:05 PM
754392GastrointestinalPathologyBudd-Chiari syndromeUW Q ID 1701Add some information about 'portal vein Thrombosis' and some comparison points between budd chairi syndrome and portal vein thrombosis in 1- liver changes (on histology) 2- spleen and varicocelesHigh-yield addition to next year03/18/20 6:08 AM
755392GastrointestinalPathologyOther liver tumorsUW Q ID 16070Add the 'Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: a bigign liver tumor marked by central stallate scar containing an abnormally large artery. It usually arises in young Women and most cases are asymptomatic and found incidentally"High-yield addition to next year03/18/20 6:05 AM
756394GastrointestinalPathologyHereditary hyperbilirubinemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inherited-disorders-associated-with-conjugated-hyperbilirubinemia?search=Inherited%20disorders%20associated%20with%20conjugated%20hyperbilirubinemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Rotor syndrome - defect in hepatic storage of conjugated bilirubin, which leaks into the plasma, resulting in hyperbilirubinemia.Minor erratum02/05/20 11:05 AM
757394GastrointestinalPathologyHereditary hyperbilirubinemiasnot needed, see page 387 (FA 2020)Dubin-Johnson - The highlighted "D" can also be used to remind us that Dubin Johnson causes Direct (conjugated) hyperbilirubinemia. Thus add the word "Direct" and highlight the "D'.Mnemonic03/08/20 1:05 PM
758394GastrointestinalPathologyHereditary hyperbilirubinemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inherited-disorders-associated-with-conjugated-hyperbilirubinemiaDubin-Johnson Syndrome: mutation in canalicular multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2)High-yield addition to next year03/10/20 2:57 PM
759395GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseUW and Pathoma page 122In the book it says "Primary biliary cholangitis", but according to the description it should be "Primary biliary cirrhosis"Clarification to current text03/10/20 3:23 PM
760395GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseaseRobbin’s basic pathology bookIn the primary biliary cholangitis (pathology part add : risk of cirrhosis with a jigsaw like patternClarification to current text03/31/20 10:31 AM
761395GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract disease-on primary sclerosing cholangitis on additional features column you mention that it can lead to secondary biliary cholangitis. I noticed on the same page that you changed the name of secondary biliary cholangitis to secondary biliary cirrhosis on the 2020 edition. I believe this needs to be updated on the primary sclerosing cholangitis additional feature column to avoid confusionClarification to current text07/24/20 6:24 PM
762395GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1878061-overviewMost commonly, hemochromatosis is due to a Cysteine to Tyrosine substitution at position 282; C282YHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 7:22 PM
763395GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-hereditary-hemochromatosis#H245076412 /////// also https://www.termedia.pl/Management-of-cardiac-hemochromatosis,19,30233,1,1.html //////// and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947953/Cardiac iron overload may lead to DILATED cardiomyopathy. Check the references. I don't know where did you guys find that "classic" association between hemochromatosis and restrictive cardiomyopathy.Major erratum05/24/20 5:05 AM
764395GastrointestinalPathologyHemochromatosisnot neededTo remember that Hemchromatosis is caused by mutations of the HFE gene on chromosome 6 (SIX), you can use the pnemonic HemochromatoSIX (instead of hemachromatosis) in which SIX stands for chromosome 6.Mnemonic06/05/20 3:58 AM
766395GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseMnemonicMnemonic to remember the gene mutations between Wilson disease and Menkes disease: The ATP7"B" gene mutation in Wilson disease causes copper "B"uildup. The ATP7"A" gene mutation in Menke disease causes copper "A"bsence.Mnemonic01/11/20 10:14 PM
767395GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseasehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/wilson-disease-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-natural-historyWilson disease - The C's: excess (C)opper, cause (C)irrhosis, (C)orneal deposits (Cayser-Fleischer rings) and (C)NS symptoms (parkinsonism); also needed for (C)ollagen (C)ross-linkingMnemonic03/31/20 4:19 PM
768395GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseasehttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7893/wilson-disease6 + 7 = 13; Wilson is 6 letters, associated with ATP7B on chromosome 13Mnemonic06/02/20 8:20 PM
769395GastrointestinalPathologyWilson diseaseFIRST AIDWILSONS DISEASE INVOLVES GENE ON CHROMOSOME 13(1+3=4) AND LEADS TO COPPER DEPOSITION IN 4 MAIN ORGANSMnemonic06/17/20 12:15 PM
770396GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologiesFirst Aid USMLE Step 1 page 320Add "fibrates" as a common association with cholesterol gallstones (as mentioned in the Fibrates section on pg 320).High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 11:20 PM
771396GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4724589/Gallstone ileus: most common intestinal obstruction will be the terminal ileum and the ileocecal valve because of their relatively narrow lumen and potentially less active peristalsisMinor erratum01/26/20 6:22 PM
772396GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6403401; https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/cholesterol-stoneTPN causes cholesterol gallstones and not pigment gallstones per UWorld and sources listed.Clarification to current text04/02/20 10:05 AM
773397GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-chronic-pancreatitis-in-adults?search=Clinical%20manifestations%20and%20diagnosis%20of%20chronic%20pancreatitis%20in%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1hereditary pancreatitis - recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis which can progress to chronic form (PRSS-1 mutation, SPINK-1 and CFTR)Clarification to current text02/05/20 11:37 AM
774397GastrointestinalPathologyAcute pancreatitissame page word rearrangmentComplications. Outrageous and Horrific PAIN with Bleeding: Organ failure (ALI/ARDS, shock, renal failure), Hypocalcemia, Pseudocyst, Abscess, Infection, Necrosis, Bleeding (hemorrhage)Mnemonic04/04/20 9:40 AM
775397GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologiesMnemonicAcute pancreatitis is typically due to Autodigestion; Calcification is only seen in Chronic pancreatitisMnemonic01/11/20 10:40 PM
776397GastrointestinalPathologyChronic pancreatitisUSMLE First Aid 2020; Hussain A. Sattar, Fundamentals of Pathology 1st edition, pp 115-116The symptoms/complications of chronic pancreatitis can be represented by the acronym SPIDER. S - Secondary diabetes mellitus, Pancreatic cancer, pancreatic Insufficiency, D - Dystrophic calcification, E - Epigastric abdominal pain that radiates to the back, R - amylase/lipase levels may/may not remain noRmalMnemonic06/05/20 4:10 AM
777398GastrointestinalPathologyPancreatic adenocarcinomaNonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis → FA 2020 p.228Mnemonic for both Risk factors and Presentation: DJ CAT says MEOAW: [Risk factors]—Diabetes, Jewish and African-American males, Chronic pancreatitis, Age, Tobacco use. [Presentation]—Migratory thrombophlebitis, nonbacterial thrombotic Endocarditis, Obstructive jaundice, Abdominal pain, Weight loss.Mnemonic04/04/20 9:51 AM
778398GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACThttps://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/safety-clinical-trial-shows-possible-increased-risk-cancer-weight-loss-medicine-belviq-belviq-xrSaw a poster above talking about weight loss drugs - agreed, but to note, if you are going to include Lorcaserin, note that the FDA has pulled it from the US market in the last few weeks due to potential increased risk of cancer (data analysis ongoing)High-yield addition to next year03/01/20 11:32 PM
779399GastrointestinalPharmacologyBismuth, sucralfatemnemonicHighlight the letters 'al" in "sucralfate" to remember 'aluminum toxicity'Mnemonic03/29/20 1:37 PM
780399GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACTUworld Question ID: 18542, UpToDate Topic 10195 Version 123.0, PuMed 17509103Please add: Lubiprostone, an apical CIC-2 chloride channel agonist, used for the treatment of constipation. Chloride is pumped into the lumen, and sodium/water follows. Adverse effects: Headache & nauseaHigh-yield addition to next year03/20/20 4:41 PM
781399GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACThttps://www.drugs.com/pro/cimetidine.htmlCimetidine is also known to cause pancytopenia. Side note: there is a question about this exact side effect within the USMLE Rx Q bank.High-yield addition to next year05/16/20 12:17 PM
782400GastrointestinalPharmacologyLoperamidemnemonicL-OP-eramide is is OP-ioid agonist.Mnemonic04/18/20 3:28 AM
783400GastrointestinalPharmacologyMetoclopramideFA 2020 P4007 D's of Metoclopramide: D2 receptor antagonist; Drowsiness; Depression; Diarrhea; Parkinson's Disease, Tardive Dyskinesia; Drug interactions: Digoxin; Diabetes drugsMnemonic05/03/20 7:30 PM
784400GastrointestinalPharmacologyOndansetronhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499839/ ; UWorld Question 15706 highlights this important pointI think it would be good to clarify that 5-HT antagonism occurs at the vagal terminals in the GI tract, thus acting peripherally (in addition to centrally, as already noted). The peripheral mechanism of decreased vagal stimulation on the bowel wall is the predominant mechanism of action. However, from the current text, it seems that the central effects of the drug are predominant. Per UWorld question 15706, I think it is meaningful to differentiate between aprepitant and ondansetron and when they are used for chemotherapy induced vomiting (ondansetron is <24 hours after chemotherapy; aprepitant is 1-5 days after chemotherapy).Clarification to current text05/08/20 4:37 PM
785400GastrointestinalPharmacologySulfasalazinehttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/sulfasalazine-oral-route/side-effects/drg-20066179?p=1Sulfasalazine has adverse effect of causing an orange tinge to urine and sweatClarification to current text06/22/20 10:10 AM
786400GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACTUptodate.comAntiemetics,types and usesHigh-yield addition to next year04/04/20 8:13 AM
787400GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACTPMID: 29156182, see Uworld question ID: 18595Please add a section for Weight Loss drugs (Orlistat is already listed, page 400) to include CASs (Central Appetite Suppressants) which are sympathomimetic weight loss drugs such as Phentermine (Norepinephrine-releasing agent) and diethylpropion (a similar CNS stimulant), these are contraindicated in patient's with Heart Disease. Other drugs to include here are the combo pill Naltrexone and Bupropion which is used for weight loss as well.High-yield addition to next year06/17/20 6:47 PM
788401GastrointestinalPharmacologyAprepitantmnemonica-P-repit-ANT is substance-P ANT-agonistMnemonic05/11/20 5:29 AM
789401GastrointestinalPharmacologyAutonomic drugsUWORLD question #18595Add section on weight loss medications into GI chapter. Such as Lorcaserin, sympathomimetic amides, orlistat, etc.High-yield addition to next year02/22/20 4:42 PM
790401GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2172208-overviewI had question in the Uworld about Bisacodyl, which is a stimulant laxative just like senna. Also, we could include castor oil as stimulant laxative because Uworld explanation mentioned it too.High-yield addition to next year02/19/20 3:46 AM
791401GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevention-and-management-of-side-effects-in-patients-receiving-opioids-for-chronic-pain#H4580064Can add methylnaltrexone (MOA: antagonizes gut opioid receptors) to chart of laxatives especially as it is mentioned that opioid-induced constipation is an indication for giving these drugs.High-yield addition to next year03/07/20 1:17 PM
792401GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativesUW QUESTIONSIn stimulants laxatives the inly drug is Senna in the table, we can add 'Bisacodyl' as wellHigh-yield addition to next year03/18/20 6:11 AM
793401GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativeshttp://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-chronic-constipation-in-adultsTo the table it should be added under examples of drugs for constipation management. The group of drugs: Chloride channel agonist (eg. lupiprostone) which causes chloride efflux into intestinal lumen, which is followed by sodium and water, Side effect: headache and nausea. Peripherally acting u-opioid receptos antagonists (eg. methylnaltrexone) which counteracts inhibitory effect of opioids on peristalsis. Side effect: rare . Under stimulant laxatives you should put under examples besides senna, bisacodyl as well because it is one more tested drug, and it is usually more likely to appear on questions banks. It should be added as well under example part.Clarification to current text05/06/20 4:19 PM
794401GastrointestinalPharmacologyLaxativesmnemonicbulimia nerv-OS-a patients abuse OS-motic laxativesMnemonic05/11/20 5:28 AM
795401GastrointestinalPharmacologyNEW FACTWww.uptodate.com.Emollient is Aka Surfactant laxative and thus reduces surface tension of stool. (2) Stimulants laxatives includes also Bisacodyl and mineral oilHigh-yield addition to next year06/29/20 2:51 PM
796405Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/red-blood-cell-antigens-and-antibodiesThe table says that there are Anti-D (IgG) antibodies in plasma for Rh- blood, but that is not true. This would only be the case if 1. an Rh- mother was exposed to her fetus' blood and that fetus was Rh+, allowing her to form anti-D antibodies, or 2. the Rh- mother were to take Rhogam as prophylaxis for an Rh+ baby or 3. if a Rh- person were to get a transfusion with Rh+ blood. If a person were to just have Rh- blood, there would be no reason for them to have anti-D antibodies without exposure to Rh+ blood in their normal existing plasma.Clarification to current text06/15/20 4:59 PM
797405Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyBlood groupsnothere are no anti D antibodies present in D negative patientsMinor erratum06/20/20 6:21 AM
798405Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemolytic disease of the newbornhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/rhogam-hyperrho-s-d-rho-d-immune-globulin-343143Rhogam is used for the prevention of Hemolytic disease of the newbornHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:47 PM
799406Hematology and OncologyAnatomyNeutrophilsThese are the chemotactics listed already. I just made a mnemonic last year and it has helped me remember them"LICK you Pla8 (Plate)" = chemotactics -> LTB4, IL8, C5a, Kallikrein, Platelet- activating factor.Mnemonic05/24/20 12:46 PM
800407Hematology and OncologyAnatomyMacrophageshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16405098to add "Langhans cells" when describing granuloma formation, and to remind not to mix it with "Langerhans" dendritic cells in skinHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:32 PM
801407Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)https://www.uptodate.com/contents/megakaryocyte-biology-and-the-production-of-platelets?search=platelets%20nucleus&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H2platelets are AnucleateHigh-yield addition to next year02/09/20 7:33 AM
802407Hematology and OncologyAnatomyThrombocytes (platelets)mnemonichalf-life of pl-EIGHT-lets is EIGHT to ten days.Mnemonic05/04/20 8:27 AM
803408Hematology and OncologyAnatomyDendritic cellshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505393/The passage for dendritic cells states that they expression MHC class II and Fc receptors, but it should also include that they express MHC class I molecules (this is important for cross presentation, i.e. activation of both CD8 and CD4 cells)High-yield addition to next year03/12/20 3:28 PM
804409Hematology and OncologyAnatomyPlasma cellshttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-plasma-cell-clock-face-or-cart-wheel-nuclear-pattern-as-seen-in-2D_fig5_224919995I think the yellow arrows in the photo should point to the plasma cells in the right bottom corner of the photo as they are a better example of the "clock-face" chromatin distributionClarification to current text04/12/20 12:44 PM
805410Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2085637-overviewCathode and anode are labeled incorrectly. The cathode label should be on the right side of the diagram while the anode label should be on the left. The +/- labels are in their correct place.Major erratum06/19/20 8:14 PM
806411Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyPlatelet plug formation (primary hemostasis)uptodate, UWorldUnder Thrombogenesis: add Desmopressin activates release of vWF from endothelial cellsHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:35 PM
807411Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACTPathomaMnemonic for Thrombophilia : T Tissue damage H Hereditary (Factor V Leiden, AT III, Homocystinemia) R Rest (Prolonged bed rest) O Obstetric M Malignancy B Blood flow disturbance I Immune mechanism (SLE, Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome)Mnemonic05/31/20 2:58 AM
808412Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysUWorldFor Fibrinolytic system: to add the following thrombolytics (Urokinase, Kallikerin, Hageman faxtor XII), also both tPA and Urokinase are inhibited by PAI( Plasminogen activator inhibitor). Also the following are direct PLASMIN inhibitors (Tranexamic Acid, Aprotinin, alpha 2 microglobulin, alpha 2 atitrypsin)High-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:36 PM
809412Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-hemostasis?search=urokinase&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~69&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H26Add "urokinase" to list of ThrombolyticsHigh-yield addition to next year01/11/20 8:11 PM
810413Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulationUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-k?search=vitamin%20k%20deficiency&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~80&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H10In the Vitamin K Deficiency section, mention that antibiotics (especially 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins) could precipitate vitamin K deficiency by knocking out vitamin K-producing GI gut flora.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 8:00 PM
811414Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyn/aAcanthocytes- "Acanthocytes are Asymmetrical while Echinocytes are more Even." DegMACytes- "I took a bite at MACdonald's."Mnemonic02/15/20 3:38 PM
812414Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyn/aThe splenic macrophages "deg" out the Heinz body. --- for DegmacytesMnemonic03/29/20 8:34 PM
813414Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphologyuWorldBurr cells can occur as an artifact or in association with uremia, pyruvate kinase deficiency, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, or mechanical damage.High-yield addition to next year04/11/20 4:37 PM
814414Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC morphology-acanthocytes should be included as seen in vitamin E deficiency, as stated within the biochem vitamin E section of first aid itself.Clarification to current text05/26/20 11:49 PM
815416Hematology and OncologyPathologyBasophilshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/basophilic-stipplingRBC basophilic stippling image show "basophil" not RBC with basophilic stipplingMajor erratum01/04/20 10:54 AM
816416Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2060369-overview#a2Pls add Lead Poisoning as cause of Basophilic Stippling on page 416. Lead poisoning is mentioned as caused for basophilic stippling at the discussion of Lead Poisoning on page 419 and rapid review on Basophilic stippling. In fact, the rapid review mentioned lead poising for basophilic stippling referencing p416, but it is NOT mentioned on p416. I believe since most of students are visual learners, page 416 will be referenced as a quick review regarding rbc pathologies, and it is imperative Lead Poisoning is mentioned as a cause for basophilic stipplingHigh-yield addition to next year04/05/20 6:55 PM
817416Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC inclusionsMnemonicin the RBC Inclusions section, highlight the "B" and "S" to remember Basophilic Stippling is seen on Blood Smear (vs ringed sideroblasts seen on bone marrow aspirate). See example image attached.Mnemonic01/11/20 11:14 PM
818416Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-peripheral-blood-smear?search=dohle%20bodies&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~7&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H15Based on UWorld questions as well as things from lecture in the last year, I think that Döhle bodies should be added to the table section regarding RBC inclusions. "Döhle bodies are light blue in color, peripheral in location, and are most commonly seen in the neutrophils of patients with infection. When accompanied by other changes in neutrophils (eg, left shift, toxic granulation, cytoplasmic vacuoles), this finding is very sensitive for the presence of infectious or inflammatory disease."High-yield addition to next year03/24/20 2:15 PM
819417Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasMnemonicUpdate the Microcytic Anemia acronym TAIL to TAILS, to account for Sideroblastic anemia (listed under the Microcytic Anemia section on pg 419).Mnemonic01/11/20 7:49 PM
820417Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasSee page 419 (FA 2020): “Sideroblastic Anemia. Causes: genetic (eg, X-linked defect in ALA synthase gene) - i.e. this is an example of microcytic anemiain the diagram it says: Hemoglobin affected (TAIL)... it should be changed to TAILS and the S should be for Sideroblastic AnemiaClarification to current text01/24/20 2:01 AM
821417Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasNot requiredThe reticulocyte Index formula can be mentioned more clearly by 1) Replacing "actual Hct" with "calculated Hct" and 2) The forward slash with a proper denominator which has the normal Hct.Clarification to current text05/11/20 2:59 AM
822417Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasselfAdd Sideroblastic Anemia under Microcytic subheading. Hemoglobin affected would now spell out TAILSClarification to current text07/09/20 6:38 PM
823417Hematology and OncologyPathologyReticulocyte indexhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/calculator-reticulocyte-production-index-rpi-in-adults?search=reticulocyte%20index&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~101&usage_type=default&display_rank=1I think it would be important to add reference values for reticulocyte index. An RI >3 indicates appropriate response, and an RI <2 indicates and inadequate response.High-yield addition to next year04/10/20 12:22 PM
824418Hematology and OncologyPathologyMicrocytic, hypochromic anemiasfrom mechange in the color of Hemoglobin H disease in alpha thalasemia (– –/– α)Mnemonic02/21/20 3:33 AM
825420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMacrocytic anemiasN/aThe mnemonic "A Diamond ring on your Finger" can be used to remember triphalangeal thumbs in diamond-blackfan anemia.Mnemonic03/24/20 11:57 AM
826420Hematology and OncologyPathologyMacrocytic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773552/Zidovudine is associated with increased risks for megaloblastic anemiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:12 PM
827420Hematology and OncologyPathologyNEW FACThttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-and-pathophysiology-of-vitamin-b12-and-folate-deficiencies?search=folate%20deficiency&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3"FOlate body stores last FOur months"Mnemonic05/27/20 1:21 AM
828421Hematology and OncologyPathologyNonhemolytic, normocytic anemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816182 ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067673Anti-thyroid medications such as Methimazole and PTU are associated with aplastic anemiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:07 PM
829421Hematology and OncologyPathologyNormocytic, normochromic anemiasno needunder the extravascular hemolysis: there is more space between hereditary and spherocytosisSpelling/formatting02/09/20 11:20 AM
830421Hematology and OncologyPathologyNormocytic, normochromic anemiashttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/198759-overviewParvovirus infection is linked to development of Aplastic AnemiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:09 PM
831422Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiasUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-management-and-prognosis-of-sickle-cell-disease?search=sickle%20cell%20management&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3In the section for Sickle Cell Anemia, mention the importance of vaccinating against encapsulated bacteria as sickle cell patients are functionally asplenic and at increased risk of infection.High-yield addition to next year01/11/20 7:02 PM
832422Hematology and OncologyPathologyIntrinsic hemolytic anemiasmnemonicSick cell tr"eight" (ie, trait) is present in eight percent of African Americans.Mnemonic05/25/20 7:37 AM
833423Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cold-agglutinin-disease https://www.uptodate.com/contents/warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?topicRef=7084&source=see_linkgot this question right but the explanation is confusing ... it says that in warm AIHA RBCs are coated with autoantibodies (IgG) and is phagocytize by Macrophages , it also says that macrophages have receptors for the C3 region of the IgG molecule ... but it doesnt say anything about the IgG activating complement to bind at C2 which induces the macrophage to bind to C3 ... this is also a little divergent from the text ...FA2020 p423 says that "warm AIHA is a chronic anemia in which IgG causes RBC agglutination" and that "Cold AIHA is an acute anemia in which IgM + complement causes RBC agglutination" so Im confused: does warm AIHA involve IgG and complement (like this question indicates) -- and the textbook is just omitting that complement is involved in warm AIHA? or is complement only involved in cold AIHA and thus the question is wrong because macrophages are attacking IgG bound RBCs w/o the aid of complement and thus they are binding to the C3 portion of the autoantibody bound to the surface of the RBC? please elucidate this!! and let me know the answer (jacobproano@gmail.com) im not sure if these feedback things are seen by humans or are just screened via algorithm so im going to copy and paste this message and email the FA CS properly as well. thank you! QID: 39435.2Clarification to current text01/25/20 1:08 PM
834423Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-warm-agglutinins-and-drugs?search=warm%20autoimmune%20hemolytic%20anemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~32&usage_type=default&display_rank=3#H18I think penicillin needs to be added as a major cause of warm AIHA. The current text only mentions alpha-methyldopa as a cause of drug-induced warm AIHA, but penicillin is arguably a much more common cause.High-yield addition to next year02/11/20 8:50 AM
835425Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoninghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547665/According to UWorld and this StatPearls article: "The primary enzymatic defect in [acute intermittent porphyria] is the deficiency of porphobilinogen-deaminase, also called hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), the third enzyme in heme synthesis. The acute attacks of AIP are a result of the uncontrolled upregulation of the ALA synthase enzyme." In FirstAid, only the PBG deaminase mutation is mentioned, not the ALA synthase upregulation involved in acute attacks.Clarification to current text04/03/20 10:46 AM
836425Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningNot needed'G'et your 'S'ister 'A'way 'P'lease, 'W'e 'H'ave 'U'nder 'C'onstruction 'P'oisonous HEME ('G'lycine + 'S'uccinyl coA-------'A'minolevulinic acid-------'P'orphobilinogen-------'H'ydroxymethylbilane-------'U'roporphyrinogen III-------'C'oproporphyrinogen III-------'P'rotoporphyrin-------HEMEMnemonic05/14/20 7:54 PM
837425Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningselfTreatment of PCT is Phlebotomy, Chloroquine and Avoid getting Tan (avoid sun exposure). Hence PCT stands for its treatment as well.Mnemonic06/20/20 3:57 PM
838426Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersN/AHemophilia A is deficiency in factor Aight ( VIII )Mnemonic02/01/20 5:32 PM
839426Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/biology-and-normal-function-of-factor-viii-and-factor-ix?search=hemophilias&source=search_result&selectedTitle=15~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=15 . https://www.uptodate.com/contents/factor-xi-eleven-deficiency?search=hemophilia%20c&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~48&usage_type=default&display_rank=1HEMOPHILIAS (ABC): Hemophilia A just say just say the word HEMOPHIL, this word has 8 letters, that way you will remember factor 8 is missing. Hemophilia B just say the word HEMOPHILI, this word has 9 letters, that way you will remember factor 9 is missing. Hemophilia C use all the letters of HEMOPHILIAS, this word has 11 letters, that way you will remember factor 11 is missing, also the last 2 letters of hemophiliAS will tell you some genetic facts because that all of them are reSSesive but hemophiliAS C type are Autosomal Ressesive.Mnemonic02/03/20 10:16 PM
840426Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordershttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6596376/Emicizumab is a drug used to prevent bleeding or reduce the number of bleeds in people with haemophilia A.High-yield addition to next year02/18/20 2:34 PM
841426Hematology and OncologyPathologyCoagulation disordersFirst AidI always have trouble remembering if Hemophilia A and B are X-linked or Autosomal recessive. To remember this I made up the mnemonic to do with the factors that are deficient plus the inheritance. The disorders A and B inhibit factors VIII and IX, respectively. Counting VIII, IX, X (X-linked). X obviously being the inheritance of the two.Mnemonic06/27/20 7:55 AM
842427Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/954877-overview#a7 , https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/200311-overview#a6It should be added that Bernard-Soulier Syndrome and Glanzmann Thrombasthenia are both inherited in autosomal recessive fashion.High-yield addition to next year04/02/20 5:35 AM
843428Hematology and OncologyPathologyMixed platelet and coagulation disordershttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7867/von-willebrand-disease#ref_5258The text states von Willebrand disease is autosomal dominant. However, some forms of von Willebrand disease can be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Specifically, VWD type 2N, type 3, and some cases of type 1 and type 2A are autosomal recessive.Clarification to current text02/19/20 9:50 AM
844429Hematology and OncologyPathologyHodgkin lymphomahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/201886-overview; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30485408Nodular Predominant is a rare subtype of Hodgkin Cell Lymphomas. Differs from other Hodgkin Cell Lymphomaks in that it is negative for the markers CD15+ and CD30+. Furthermore it has characteristically "pop corn" shaped Reed-Sternberg Cells.High-yield addition to next year05/03/20 7:03 PM
845430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomanot neededHow to remember the translocated genes in Non-Hodgkin lymphomas: “Bimonthly cycle my creatine, for massive biceps.” “Bimonthly” = Bcl2, goes with “for” = follicular. “Cycle” = cyclin D1, goes with “massive” = mantle cell. “my creatine” = c-myc, goes with “biceps” = Burkitt.Mnemonic04/18/20 8:04 PM
846430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www-uptodate-com.library.iau.edu.sa/contents/epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-burkitt-lymphoma?search=Burkitt%20lymphoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~79&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Burkitt lymphoma (Burkeight lymphoma has 8;14 translocation)Mnemonic01/14/20 4:38 PM
847430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www-uptodate-com.library.iau.edu.sa/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-follicular-lymphoma?search=follicular%20lymphoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Follicular lymphoma (Fourllicular lymphoma has translocation 14;18)Mnemonic01/14/20 5:21 PM
848430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma?search=Clinical%20manifestations,%20pathologic%20features,%20and%20diagnosis%20of%20mantle%20cell%20lymphoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1MCL cells express high levels of surface IgM and IgD and, for unknown reasons, show lambda light chain restriction in up to 80 percent of cases. They also express pan-B cell antigens (eg, CD19, CD20), CD5, and FMC7.High-yield addition to next year02/05/20 11:40 AM
849430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomaemedicineBurk(8) (I)ym(4)maMnemonic04/03/20 12:20 PM
850430Hematology and OncologyPathologyNon-Hodgkin lymphomamnemonicpau-T-rier microabscess is composed of malignant T-cells (highlight the letter "T" in "pauTrier"Mnemonic04/04/20 1:47 AM
851432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasNAHairy Men make me BARFMnemonic01/26/20 8:23 PM
852432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasUSMLE Rx Qbank Explanation for an ALL questionALL treatment phases should be added at the bottom since it only says that ALL is most responsive to therapy. However, therapy itself is divided into 3 phases: Induction, Consolidation and Maintenance. So perhaps by adding these three treatment phases it would be easier for students to answer detailed questions regarding the appropriate treatments for ALLHigh-yield addition to next year02/20/20 1:56 PM
853432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917686; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382572/;Hairy Cell Leukemia has characteristic CD103 and CD123 markersHigh-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:51 PM
854432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemias--For Acute myelogenous leukemia. I propose this mnemonic: 15-17 year olds go to A MaLl (emphasizing AML) via Metro transPOrt (emphasizing MPO) to purchase shAUER RODS. This mnemonic helps with remembering the translocation, disease, and histological findings.Mnemonic05/12/20 10:47 AM
855432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasnoCD 10 is not a pre B cell marker, it is CD 19,CD 10 is a cancer markerMinor erratum06/20/20 6:34 AM
856432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasnocytoplasmic inclusions seen mostly in APL (formerly M3 AML) is incorrectMinor erratum06/20/20 6:39 AM
857432Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6142556/#:~:text=each%20cellular%20program.-,Approximately%2080%25%20of%20CLL%20patients%20carry%20at%20least%201%20of,%25%20to%2060%25%20of%20cases.CLL is commonly associated with BCL-2 overexpression.High-yield addition to next year07/08/20 8:45 PM
858432Hematology and OncologyPathologyMyelodysplastic syndromeshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-the-myelodysplastic-syndromes?search=myelodysplastic%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H37if Blast in bone marrow is high but less than 20% so it suggests MDS. Bone marrow blasts of >20% suggest AML. improtant way to differentiate between themHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:40 PM
859433Hematology and OncologyPathologyChronic myeloproliferative disordershttps://www-1uptodate-1com-100022cti03d7.han3.wum.edu.pl/contents/classification-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia?search=blast%20crisis&topicRef=4497&source=see_link https://www-1uptodate-1com-100022cti03d7.han3.wum.edu.pl/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia?search=blast%20crisis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~54&usage_type=default&display_rank=2In FA 2020, it is written that CML can transform into AML/ALL. Current literature emphasizes differentiating accelerated CML from ALL/AML, as CML in blast crisis retains its BCL-ABL gene and thus its weakness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. "It is critical to distinguish AML from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis due to the importance of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of the latter. AML transforming from myelodysplastic syndrome is still considered AML, but in those transforming from other myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, it is useful to know that the acute disease arose from an underlying chronic entity"Clarification to current text05/02/20 3:46 PM
860434Hematology and OncologyPathologyChromosomal translocationsNone needed.In chromosomal translocations, the t(14;18) translocation has an extra space before it and is misaligned. It should be moved to the left to align with the other translocations.Spelling/formatting03/16/20 8:51 PM
861434Hematology and OncologyPathologyChromosomal translocationsN/ABurkitt Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma are in alphabetical order (8;14;18) (B and F respectively). Mantle and Marginal also are in alphabetical order (Both start with M, both translocations start with 11, but mantle ends at 14 while marginal ends at 18)Mnemonic03/29/20 2:19 PM
862434Hematology and OncologyNeoplasiaLangerhans cell histiocytosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-pathologic-features-and-diagnosis-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis?search=langerhans%20cell%20histiocytosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~145&usage_type=default&display_rank=1LCH is NOT a disorder of Langerhans cells. "LCH is so named because the morphology and immunophenotype of the pathologic cells resemble Langerhans cells, which are specialized dendritic cells found in the skin and mucosa. However, LCH is derived from myeloid progenitor cells from the bone marrow, and is not derived from the Langerhans cell of the skin." Text needs correction. It could read "Collective group of proliferative disorders of histiocytes (e.g. macrophages, lymphocytes)."Major erratum07/13/20 12:06 PM
863434Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1100579-overview; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28847997; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20220088Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis cells express CD207High-yield addition to next year05/03/20 6:55 PM
864434Hematology and OncologyPathologyLangerhans cell histiocytosishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963792/#:~:text=S100%20was%20thought%20to%20be,mammals%20%5B2%2C3%5D.&text=S100%20protein%20was%20recognized%20in,expressed%20in%20controversial%20histogenesis%20tumors."....Cells express S-100 (mesodermal origin)"....I thought that S-100 is expressed in cells that are of Neural crest origin, not mesoderm.Minor erratum07/04/20 4:24 PM
865434Hematology and OncologyPathologyPolycythemiahttps://academic.oup.com/icb/article/46/1/25/661337 https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/jappl.1996.81.2.636?journalCode=jappl https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.14814/phy2.14051High altitude causes a decrease in plasma volume via diuresis. This is the major mechanism for polycythemia within the first few days at in high altitude. The table shows no change in plasma volume. Not a minor detail--it's a UWorld learning objective.Minor erratum05/16/20 6:16 PM
866434Hematology and OncologyGeneticsNEW FACTSELF8urkit Lymphoma (14 characters after the 8) = 8;14Mnemonic04/13/20 8:43 PM
867434Hematology and OncologyGeneticsNEW FACTselfFourlicular Lymphoma (18 total characters) = 14;18Mnemonic04/13/20 8:46 PM
868435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect thrombin inhibitorsmnemoniccan reverse DAbigatran with iDArucizumabMnemonic03/23/20 8:31 AM
869435Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyDirect thrombin inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/direct-oral-anticoagulants-doacs-and-parenteral-direct-acting-anticoagulants-dosing-and-adverse-effects?search=direct%20thrombin%20inhibitors&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H7&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=2~142&display_rank=1#H7The Big Rude Gator (DaBIGatran, BivalRUDin, ArGATROban)Mnemonic07/30/20 3:36 PM
870435Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.umassmed.edu/contents/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-etiology-and-epidemiology?search=carpal%20tunnel%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3Etiologies of carpal tunnel syndromeMnemonic05/26/20 12:53 PM
871436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinuWouldProtamine is isolated from Salmon Sperm; contraindicated in case of shell-fish allergy. Causes HSR type IHigh-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:42 PM
872436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinuptodateAntithrombin decrease the action of activated IIa, IXa, Xa, XIIa and XIIa (not only IIa and Xa)High-yield addition to next year12/31/19 4:43 PM
873436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparinmnemonicP-r-O-tamine sulfate is PO-sitively charged while h-E-parin is n-E-gatively charged.Mnemonic04/19/20 11:24 AM
874436Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyWarfarinhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/protein-c-deficiency?search=protein%20C%20deficiency&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~141&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Warfarin - since protein C has a shorter half-life than the other vitamin K-dependent factors (except for factor VII) and thus is depleted more rapidly.Minor erratum02/05/20 11:43 AM
875437Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyADP receptor inhibitorsnot neededmechanism is inhibiting platelets "activation" (no expression of p2y12 R) which leads to inhibition of platelets "aggregation"Mnemonic12/31/19 4:45 PM
876437Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyADP receptor inhibitorsnot neededmechanism is inhibiting platelets "activation" (no expression of p2y12 R) which leads to inhibition of platelets "aggregation"Minor erratum12/31/19 4:45 PM
877437Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyThrombolyticshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/alteplase-tpa-drug-information?search=tPA&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~66&usage_type=default&display_rank=2tPA wipes the blood away!Mnemonic07/30/20 3:39 PM
878438Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCancer therapy––cell cyclehttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cladribine#section=Mechanism-of-ActionThere is a contradiction between page 438 and page 440 in terms of cytarabine's specificity for the cell cycle. Page 438 lists cladribine as specific for the S phase, whereas page 440's footnote states that cladribine is cell cycle nonspecific. The footnote on page 440 is more correct, and the classification of cladribine on page 438 should be removed from antimetabolites specific for the S phase. From the supporting reference: "Cladribine's action is cell cycle-phase nonspecific; cladribine equally affects dividing and resting lymphocytes."Clarification to current text03/17/20 12:33 PM
879438Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCancer therapy––cell cyclehttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cladribine#section=Mechanism-of-ActionThere is a contradiction between page 438 and page 440 in terms of cladribine's specificity for the cell cycle. Page 438 lists cladribine as specific for the S phase, whereas page 440's footnote states that cladribine is cell cycle nonspecific. The footnote on page 440 is more correct, and the classification of cladribine on page 438 should be removed from antimetabolites specific for the S phase. From the supporting reference: "Cladribine's action is cell cycle-phase nonspecific; cladribine equally affects dividing and resting lymphocytes."Major erratum03/17/20 12:35 PM
880439Hematology and OncologyImmunosuppressantsAntitumor antibioticsnone.BLeomycin - ‘BLoWmycin’ drops Bombs (free radical formation) Blows up DNA (breaks DNA) and the Lungs (for pulmonary fibrosis); Busulfan Bursts Breathing (pulmonary fibrosis) and the Bone marrow (for pretransplant bone marrow ablation and severe bone marrow suppression)Mnemonic02/21/20 5:07 PM
881439Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntitumor antibioticsUpToDateDOXO-ruby-cin: D(NA gyrase inhibition) O(xygen free radicals) X(looks like a cross; cross-linking DNA) O(looks like a cell membrane; disrupts cell membrane transport) Ruby (heart toxicity)Mnemonic05/06/20 7:08 PM
882440Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyAntimetaboliteshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-hairy-cell-leukemia?search=cladribine&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~50&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Cladribine- I'm so "CLAD" (glad) that I have HAIR! (Treatment of hairy cell leukemia)Mnemonic01/24/20 7:34 PM
883441Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyNEW FACTnot needed(T)axanes MOA - inhibits the (T)eardown microtubules while Vinca alkaloids inhibits (V)iosynthesis of microtubules. Similarly Irinotecan can be written as Irinotec-ONE (it inhibits topoisomerase ONE) and Etoposide can be written as Eto(BOTH)side since it inhibits topoisomerase 2 (both).Mnemonic03/31/20 4:25 PM
884442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyCetuximab, panitumumabhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CetuximabBofore the start of treatment genetic testing for wild-type KRAS is required. Mutation of KRAS leading to ineffective treatment.High-yield addition to next year04/27/20 4:02 AM
885442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyEtoposide, teniposidenot neededetopoSIDE and tenipoSIDE , inhibit topoisomerase 2(both side)Mnemonic02/18/20 2:41 PM
886442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyEtoposide, teniposidemnemonicpronounde eTWOposide instead of etoposide to remember that it inhibits topoisomerase II.Mnemonic03/25/20 6:30 AM
887442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyIrinotecan, topotecanhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/topotecan-drug-information?search=Topotecan&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1~58&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Mnemonic - "I can bring two (II) by my side to the "topo" the hill" Explained - I = 1, irinote-can and topote-can inhibit topoisomerase 1, two = II - etopo-side and tenipo-side inihbit topo-isomerase 2Mnemonic02/19/20 3:31 PM
888442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyIrinotecan, topotecanmnemonic"I" in the word "Irinotecan" looks like 1 so you can imagine "1rinotecan" to remember that it inhibits topoisomerase IMnemonic03/25/20 6:33 AM
889442Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyIrinotecan, topotecanhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/therapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-older-adult-patients-and-those-with-a-poor-performance-statusThe clinical use of irinotecan is for colon cancer, and the way to remember it is: ​Irin​otecan for ​colon cancer ​Irin ​(​iron) deficiency anemia is seen in colon cancerMnemonic04/19/20 7:03 PM
890443Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTamoxifen, raloxifenehttps://academic.oup.com/jnci/article/91/19/1654/2543863partial agonist in endometrium which increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancerClarification to current text06/05/20 9:02 AM
891443Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTrastuzumabhttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbi/2014/852748/ *HER-2 is on chromosome 17"Trast me, even at 17, HER-2 can get breast cancer."Mnemonic01/31/20 2:32 PM
892443Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTrastuzumabnot requiredTras2zumab; 2 for HER2 and for 2 cancers, breast and gastric cancerMnemonic07/10/20 7:42 AM
893444Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-compartment-syndrome-of-the-extremitiesSigns and symptoms of limb compartment syndrome are the 6 P's: Pain, Paresthesia, Paresis, Pallor, Pulselessness, PoikilothermiaHigh-yield addition to next year05/14/20 5:53 PM
894447Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyUpper extremity nervesPubmed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072726 , https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082510Ulnar nerve lesions result in an impaired wrist flexion and adduction (ULNAR DEVIATION) due to the inervation of the flexor carpi ulnaris. First aid saids that happens a Radial deviation, but the correct term is Ulnar deviation. Otherwise, results in a missunderstanding of the adduction impaired fuction. The nerve that is involved in an impaired wrist flexion and abduction ( RADIAL DEVIATION) IS THE MEDIAN NERVE (proxymal lesions)Major erratum03/03/20 4:26 PM
895447Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyUpper extremity nerveshttps://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/pronation-and-supinationIt would be great to clarify that the musculocutaneous nerve do supination when the forearm is flexed, AND the radial nerve do supination when the forearm is fully extended. Lesion to the midshaft of the Humerus can cause loss of supination due to loss of innervation to the supinator muscle.Clarification to current text04/04/20 11:39 AM
896447Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nerveshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/shoulder-dislocation-and-reduction(A)xillary nerve is affected in (A)nterior dislocation of humerus; (red highlight). Anterior dislocation of the humerus is the most common dislocation and it seen in many qbank questions. I suggest adding an additional easy mnemonic to remember that (a)nterior dislocation is simply also an (a) nerve - the axillary nerve. This will help this information be remembered for life.Mnemonic04/23/20 10:23 AM
897447Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyUpper extremity nervesUWorldUnder radial nerve injury, it should be noted that a midshaft fracture to the humerus can cause weakness of the wrist and finer extension (Ex: wrist drop) with SPARING of the triceps brachii as fibers innervating the triceps leave the radial nerve before midshaft location (as it enters the radial groove). Thus, the triceps reflex and elbow extension will be SPARED. It should also be clarified that sensation over the posterior arm will be SPARED as the posterior brachial cutaneous nerve branch will bud off proximal to the spiral groove in a midshaft fracture.Clarification to current text05/16/20 9:12 PM
898448Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyBrachial plexus lesionsPMID: 26231961, Uworld question ID 15553Please add a #10 lesion to the diagram (see pic below) to include C7 radiculopathy (cervical spondylosis) - which presents with deficits involving both the radial (eg, triceps reflex, wrist extension) and median (sensation to palm and index and middle finger) nerves.High-yield addition to next year06/10/20 11:23 AM
899449Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyTypes of muscle fibersIts a mnemonic so no references needed.On the type II muscle: similar to "1 slow red ox" add "2 fast but won't last"Mnemonic05/05/20 4:09 PM
900450Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyHand musclesmnemonicL-umbricals make the hand look like inverted L (ie, MCP flexed, PIP and DIP extended)Mnemonic07/16/20 9:42 AM
901451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip musclesnot neededABductors; B for Butt/Buttocks (Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus)Mnemonic03/09/20 12:43 PM
902451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip muscleshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/hip-extensors https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1898964-overview#a2The primary hip extensors are the gluteus maximus and the hamstrings (i.e., the long head of the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus).High-yield addition to next year05/04/20 12:46 PM
903451Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyActions of hip muscleshttps://www.jospt.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2519/jospt.2010.3025The muscle groups are named according to the action they perform, but the last 2 (Internal Rotation and External Rotation) are just verbs, not nouns. I think they could be changed to "Internal Rotators" and "External Rotators" to keep the same spelling/formatting.Spelling/formatting05/27/20 8:50 PM
904452Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologyAutoimmune blistering skin disordersNone(DESMO)some people have VULGAR mouths - to remember that pemphigus vulgaris affects mucous membranes and desmosomes/desmogleinMnemonic07/23/20 12:33 PM
905453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyLower extremity nervesNo need, First Aid 2020 pag 453Gluteal nerves mnemonic : " STAND UP MAX `` this mnemonic will help you remember some things 1) the muscle that this nerve invervates is the gluteus MAXIMUS 2) primary complain from the patient : trouble to STAND UP or climb stairs - (extension of the hip and lateral rotation of the thigh) 3) Nerve origin in the lumbosacral plexus = ´´STAND´´ is a 5 letter word (L5) ´´UP´´ - is a 2 letter word (S2). In case you want to know the superior gluteal nerve origin you just need to put a minus 1 to each number of the inferior gluteal nerve origin.Mnemonic02/20/20 3:58 PM
906453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyLower extremity nerveshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513304/; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibialis_anterior_muscleIn the text under the Presentation/Comments section for the Common Fibular Nerve the ability to invert the foot is neglected although the motor effects of the deep peroneal nerve to the tibialis anterior contribute to that motion.Minor erratum05/01/20 6:50 PM
907453Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACTPMID: 26409623Add section on "Myotomes"of nerve roots comprising the brachial plexus. More specifically, add rule-of-thumb that proximal muscles innervated by a certain nerve tend to be from an upper nerve root contribution and distal muscles tend from the same nerve tend to be innervated from a lower nerve root contribution. For instance, for the "Median Nerve", mention that the more proximal muscles the Median Nerve innervates (e.g. flexor carpi radialis) will be innervated by upper nerve contribution of Median Nerve, namely C6-C7. Whereas the more distal Median Nerve innervated muscles (e.g. thenar muscles) are more heavily innervated from fibers originating from C8-T1 nerve root. Therefore, we can use this rule-of-thumb to help in determining location/level of nerve root lesion.High-yield addition to next year06/06/20 12:04 PM
908454Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyKnee examhttps://www-uptodate-com/contents/physical-examination-of-the-knee?search=acl%20pcl&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~107&usage_type=default&display_rank=4#H45480535If you cross your fingers, they're oriented the same way as the ACL and PCL. The medial finger is posterior (PCL) and the lateral finger is anterior (ACL).Mnemonic02/25/20 12:47 PM
909454Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyKnee examhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/medial-collateral-ligament-injury-of-the-knee?search=MCL%20injury&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H11In the section on abnormal passive abduction- physician applies a MEDIALLY directed (valgus) force on the lateral knee indicating an MCL injury. This can also be described by applying a lateral force on the ankle, which applies the same valgus stress on the knee, but the current diagram makes this concept very confusing. In abnormal passive addution- physician applies a LATERALLY directed (varus) force on the medial knee indicating an LCL injuryClarification to current text04/14/20 3:14 PM
910455Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyPlatelet plug formation (primary hemostasis)noplatelet undergo morphological change and not conformational changeMinor erratum06/12/20 3:48 AM
911455Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyPlatelet plug formation (primary hemostasis)noADP does not help platelets to adhere to endothelium during primary hemostasisMinor erratum06/12/20 3:58 AM
912455Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyPlatelet plug formation (primary hemostasis)noGPIIbIIIa should be replaced by new name integrin αIIbβ3Minor erratum06/12/20 4:15 AM
913456Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyCoagulation and kinin pathwaysnopolymerisation instead of aggregation when reefing to fibrin monomerSpelling/formatting06/12/20 6:50 AM
914456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMotoneuron action potential to muscle contractionUpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/susceptibility-to-malignant-hyperthermia-evaluation-and-management?search=ryr1&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~10&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H5In Step 4, update the ryanodine receptor abbreviation to (RYR) instead of (RR), as "RYR" is the abbreviation published and discussed in formal research settings.Spelling/formatting01/12/20 11:10 AM
915456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMotoneuron action potential to muscle contractionMnemonicHighlight the letters "T" and "D" to remember that skeleTal muscle is organized as a Triad and carDiac muscle is organized as a Dyad.Mnemonic01/12/20 3:48 PM
916456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMotoneuron action potential to muscle contractionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5425715/I would recommend adding the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) to the figure and text. This is essential for calcium reuptake following muscle contraction, and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia.High-yield addition to next year02/15/20 10:24 PM
917456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMotoneuron action potential to muscle contractionnot neededin number 6, highlight the "P" from Pi (Phosphate) and the "P" from Power stroke to remember that one induces the other.Mnemonic04/20/20 4:16 PM
918456Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2231150-overviewMalignant hyperthermia is caused by halothane and succinylcholine in people with a an abnormal ryanodine receptor in skeletal muscle. It can be treated with dantrolene which blocks release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulumHigh-yield addition to next year05/15/20 4:28 PM
919457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyTypes of muscle fibersMnemonicIn the "Types of muscle fibers" section, under "Notes" for Type II muscle fibers, think "it takes 2 hands to lift weights" to remember Type 2 skeletal muscle fibers are built when weight training.Mnemonic01/12/20 11:22 AM
920457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyTypes of muscle fibershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-exercise-intolerance-in-heart-failure?search=type%20II%20muscle%20fibers&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~57&usage_type=default&display_rank=22 fast sweet white chickens (as a pneumonic to remember type II msucle fiber details)Mnemonic03/19/20 4:58 PM
921457Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyTypes of muscle fibersnot neededhighlight "mito" from mitochondria in Type 1 muscle and then add to the already provided mnemonic: 1 mity (mighty) slow red ox"Mnemonic04/20/20 4:19 PM
922458Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyMuscle proprioceptorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547656/The sensory fiber's name that are circled in the attached picture should be change from "Iα" (I-Alpha) and "Iβ" (I-Beta) to "Ia" and "Ib."Major erratum04/09/20 2:06 PM
923459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyCell biology of boneMnemonicSee image for recommended phrases to insert in the osteoBlast and osteoClast entries, highlighting that they produce Basic and aCidic environments, respectively.Mnemonic01/12/20 1:14 AM
924459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyEstrogenhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5364970/Estrogen stimulates OPG (decoy RANKL receptor). This is important in estrogen deficiency and drugs such as steroids as they both decrease OPG and can lead to secondary Osteoporosis.High-yield addition to next year03/09/20 12:36 PM
925459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyWrist and hand injuriesMnemonicUnder "Carpal tunnel syndrome" the Wrist and Hand Injuries section, highlight the "T" and "Ph" to remember Tinel sign is provoked by Tapping on the wrist, and PHalen maneuver is performed by Flexing the patient's wrists.Mnemonic01/12/20 12:56 AM
926459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyWrist and hand injuriesMnemonicIn the Wrist and Hand Injuries section, highlight the letter "U" to emphasize that Ulnar nerve compression occurs in gUyon canal syndrome.Mnemonic01/12/20 1:03 AM
927459Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyWrist and hand injuriesmnemonicT-inel test T-aps the wrist while "F"-a-L-en test FL-exes the wrist.Mnemonic05/19/20 9:43 AM
928460Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon hip and knee conditionsFirst Aid 2020 page 460In the "unhappy triad" paragraph either the diagram or the text is wrong, as they are contradictory. The text says there is a lateral force, but the diagram is showing a medial force to the lateral aspect of the knee.Minor erratum03/25/20 4:29 PM
929460Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon hip and knee conditionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/medial-collateral-ligament-injury-of-the-knee?search=valgus%20stress%20test&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~18&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H11In the diagram of unhappy triad, the force labelled as "lateral force" should be in the opposite direction. In the unhappy triad, there is injury of medial collateral ligament along with other ligaments. To assess the functionality of the medial collateral ligament, we use the valgus stress test during which the force is applied FROM the lateral side and is directed towards the medial side, therefore it only makes sense that the force causing the unhappy triad should be coming in from the lateral side (directed medially).Minor erratum06/26/20 3:04 PM
930461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionsnot neededSlipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: add the hint: "think of an obese child eating ice cream" to help recall that the femoral neck looks like a scoop of ice cream etc..Mnemonic04/27/20 6:07 PM
931461Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyCommon musculoskeletal conditionshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573502/The text states that medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) is caused by bone resorption that outpaces bone formation. This mechanism is incorrect. MTSS is caused by traction periostitis and bone microtrauma as a result of overuse.Major erratum04/13/20 3:42 PM
932462Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyAchondroplasia1- https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24419316/ 2- https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/23/11/2914/623534in addition to endochondral ossification the membranous ossification is severely affected in AchondroplasiaMinor erratum06/16/20 6:12 PM
933463Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteopetrosishttps://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0315/p1293.htmlOsteoPETRrosis also known as "Marble bone" disease. This will help students remember that it is stony like marble. Also to highlight PETR in petrosis as remind students with PETRA (stones)Mnemonic01/15/20 1:05 PM
934464Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsmnemonicosteo-B-lastoma is B-ig (ie, more than 2cm vs osteoid osteoma) and bigger things hurt more (ie, osteblastoma pain is unrelieved by NSAIDs vs that of osteoid osteoma)Mnemonic04/09/20 12:26 PM
935465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2011/276463/; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472389/In column 4 of the Ewing sarcoma row, replace "Anaplastic small blue cells of neuroectodermal origin" with "Anaplastic small blue cells of mesenchymal origin”Minor erratum01/03/20 9:04 AM
936465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27265835For Ewing Sarcoma, the 2020 First Aid edition states "of neuroectodermal origin". However, this needs to be changed to "mesenchymal stem cell origin".Minor erratum01/07/20 1:18 PM
937465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsUWorldEwing sarcoma is a mesenchymal stem cell neoplasm but the appearance resembles neuroendocrine tumors.Minor erratum01/09/20 10:13 PM
938465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/chondrosarcoma?search=chondrosarcoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~51&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Chondrosarcoma - Affects elderly + moth eating piece of cloth appearanceHigh-yield addition to next year02/05/20 11:44 AM
939465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-staging-and-prognostic-factors-of-the-ewing-sarcoma-family-of-tumors?search=ewing%20sarcoma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~68&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Although the histogenetic origin of Ewing Sarcoma has been debated over the years, increasing evidence from immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies supports a mesenchymal progenitor cell origin for all EFT.High-yield addition to next year02/24/20 5:05 PM
940465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsUworldHistology: small round cells separated by fibrous septae. Scant, clear cytoplasm (heavy glycogen), areas of hemorrhage or necrosis.High-yield addition to next year02/24/20 5:22 PM
941465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsnot neededCapitalize and Highlight the "E" from neuroEctoderm to help recall the "E"wing Sarcoma comes from neuroectoderm.Mnemonic04/24/20 2:56 PM
942465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorsuWorld. Question ID: 15635Ewing Sarcoma is mesenchymal in origin rather than of neuroectodermal originMinor erratum05/28/20 4:20 PM
943465Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPrimary bone tumorshttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2011/276463/Ewing Sarcoma has been recently proven to be MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL NEOPLASM instead of NEUROECTODERMAL origin.Major erratum08/01/20 4:36 AM
944466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritishttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15978850; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211973/Depending on the type of osteoarthritis, women are not always at higher risk. With the exception of knee osteoarthritis and hand osteoarthritis, the difference in osteoarthritis risk is not clear cut. Men have a higher risk than women with regard to cervical osteoarthritis; and the Framingham study found that men have a significantly higher rate of radiographic hip osteoarthritis.Clarification to current text01/19/20 10:05 PM
945466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritisUworld question ID: 15629, PMID: 26198292Please add the following information regarding the pathophysiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (the key addition being synovial angiogenesis): Synovial Hyperplasia --> accelerated metabolic rate --> local hypoxia --> increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and VEGF --> synovial angiogenesis (neovascularization) --> pannus formationHigh-yield addition to next year06/07/20 8:30 PM
946466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOsteoarthritis vs rheumatoid arthritishttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2432