2024 FA Step 1 Proposed Errata & Suggestions
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15Section IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesSection IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesSection IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesNoticed it while readingHello! Bringing a typo from the Pixorize section to your attention- Comparable "to to" Sketchy and Picmonic.Spelling/formatting
27Section ISection INEW FACThttps://www.usmle.org/bulletin-information/scoring-and-score-reportingYour score report will remain available on the website of the organization that registered you for your examination for approximately 365 days (not 120 days that mentioned in the book) from the date of the e-mail notification.Major erratum
313Section I Supplement (on FA Team blog)Section I SupplementSection I SupplementAccording to the previous sentencesEach block ( not subsection) consists of 200 questions to be completed within four hours.Major erratum
435BiochemistryMolecularPurine salvage deficienciesUWorldHello! Elevated PRPP amidotransferase activity is observed in Lesch Nyhan syndrome, this has been mentioned in the text but it would be helpful to have it added to the diagrams as well. UWorld has illustrated thisClarification to current text
536BiochemistryMolecularDNA replicationN/A"There are two sides to every story" - etopoSIDE and tenipoSIDE inhibit topoisomerase TWOMnemonic
640BiochemistryAbbreviations and SymbolsNEW FACTits a normal adenine bind with thymine it could not be transversionTransversion—purine to pyrimidine (eg, A to T) or pyrimidine to purine (eg, C to G).Major erratum
746BiochemistryCellularMicrotubuleSelf-studyHello! We can mention Chediak Higashi syndrome here as it is associated with microtubule dysfunctionHigh-yield addition to next year
852BiochemistryLaboratory TechniquesEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assaynoneIn the illustration for indirect ELISA, an enzyme is mistakenly drawn for the primary antibody.Minor erratum
955BiochemistryGeneticsPopulation geneticsnoneGenetic drift: chance instead of changeSpelling/formatting
1057BiochemistryGeneticsModes of inheritancePractical Genetic Counseling , Edition 7 , by Peter S. Harper . Chapter 2 Page 40 and the link below https://www.nature.com/scitable/students-page/164/#:~:text=Females%20with%20an%20X%2Dlinked%20dominant%20disorder%20can%20be%20either,daughters%20will%20have%20the%20disorder.in X-linked Dominant ; children of affected mothers each have a 50% chance of being affected . It should indicate that case in heterozygous mothers but in homozygous mothers the chance is 100%.Minor erratum
1158BiochemistryGeneticsCystic fibrosisjust a mnemonic, the book itself contains the information.the names of all CFTR modulators contains all CFRT letters: ivaCaFToR, lumaCaFToR, tezaCaFToR. You may highlight these letters or type them in capital letters or in a different color in the next FA edition.Mnemonic
1260BiochemistryGeneticsTrinucleotide repeat expansion diseasesNot neededMnemonic- "Hunt Trisha's Fragrance At Mayo clinic" 1) Hunt - HUNTington, 2) Trisha's - TRInucleotide, 3)Fragrance - FRAGile X, 4)At - friedreich ATaxia, 5) Mayo clinic - MYOtonic dystrophy.Mnemonic
1364BiochemistryNutritionVitamin AN/AUnder function, "all-trans retinoic acid" has "all" italicized instead of "trans"Spelling/formatting
1464BiochemistryNutritionVitamin B1https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-water-soluble-vitamins?search=wet%20beriberi&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1WET beriberi causes peripheral EDEMA (excess fluid) secondary to high-output cardiac failureMnemonic
1565Section I Supplement (on FA Team blog)NutritionVitamin B5https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://multiplesclerosisnewstoday.com/multiple-sclerosis-symptoms/dysesthesia/%23:~:text%3DDysesthesia%2520is%2520an%2520abnormal%2520sensation,are%2520usually%2520painless%2520and%2520temporary.&ved=2ahUKEwj6h4vN1IOHAxWKD1kFHShtBRAQFnoECAMQBQ&usg=AOvVaw2yzVFF7e8jhebGUUuc-exEDysesthesia occurs when paresthesia becomes intense or painful.Clarification to current text
1671BiochemistryMetabolismEnzyme terminologyhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase&ved=2ahUKEwjx5qfS94WHAxWkEVkFHR32DwQQmhN6BAgZEAc&usg=AOvVaw1gqFNYL1lS-RnK1-kGF-_0Adding "phosphate group from" between adds and inorganic phosphate for phosphorylase enzymeClarification to current text
1774BiochemistryMetabolismGlycolysis regulation, key enzymesIt is impossible that a reaction produces ATP in two directions.The arrow pointing to 1,3-BFG should be deleted.Minor erratum
1875BiochemistryMetabolismTCA cycleN/ATo remember TCA cycle enzymes that require NADs: "I am an alpha male" (isocitrate, alpha ketoglutarate, malate dehydrogenase). To remember the enzyme requiring FAD: "Fads suck" (succinate dehydrogenase).Mnemonic
1976BiochemistryMetabolismElectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylationN/AA mnemonic to remember what happens at each complex of ETC: Now Full Cycle Has ATP - NADH, FADH, Cytochrome C, H2O, ATPMnemonic
2078BiochemistryMetabolismDisorders of galactose metabolismNo such term as “galacitol” exists in medical literature.Under classic galactosemia “galactitol” is mentioned as “galacitol” twice.Spelling/formatting
2183BiochemistryMetabolismCystinuriaN/AA mnemonic to remember that cystine stones have 6 sides: SIXstineMnemonic
2284BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenSupporting evidence: Page 72 of USMLE First Aid has the correct direction of glycolysis and gluconeogenesisIn the second figure, the arrows in glycolysis is going from G1P to G6P to Glucose. These should be flipped. The arrows under gluconeogenesis should be flipped as wellMinor erratum
2384BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenNo referenceGluconeogenesis and glycolysis are wrongly labelled in the diagram. They need to be interchangedMinor erratum
2485BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogen storage diseasesN/ANot sure how high yield this is, but Glycogen Storage Disease type VI is knows as Hers disease, which is classified by a deficiency in Hepatic glycogen phosphorylase. Hers for Hepatic (H for H).Clarification to current text
2586BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesFor Everything Else: First Aid and For Danon Disease: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lysosome-associated-membrane-protein-2-deficiency-glycogen-storage-disease-iib-danon-disease?search=danon%20disease%20x%20linked%20dominant&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1To Remember the Inheritance of Lysosomal Storage Diseases: stoRAge-AR-Majority are Autosomal Recessive eXcept three are X-linked(Xception). Danon is X-linked Dominant(D for Dominant) and HunteR and FabRy are X-Linked Recessive.(R for recessive)Mnemonic
2686BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesNot needed[Note- Only mnemonic letters are taken in capital letters] sphingolipidoses: 1) " TEXaS GANG " - Tay Sachs, hEXosaminidase, GANGleoside 2) " FACT " - FAbry, Angiokeratomas, Ceramic Trihexoside 3) " MET ARYA in CAR SUv " - METachromatic leukodystrophy, Arylsulfatase A, CERebroside (CAR) SUlfate. 4) " GALena PSYCHOlogist IN KRABi " - GALactocerebroside PSYCHOsINe, KRABbe 5) " GAUtaM LIkes GLUe " - GAUcher, Macrophages, LIpid, GLUcocerebroside 6) " NICKy in SPaIN " - NIemann piCK, SPhINgomyelin. mucopolysaccharidoses: 1) " HURt ALIson DERMATologist " - HURler syndrome, A-L-Iduronidase, DERMATan sulfate. 2) " HUNT IDriS " - HUNTer syndrome, IDuronate-2 Sulfatase.Mnemonic
2786BiochemistryMetabolismLysosomal storage diseasesSpellingSulfatides should be changed to sulfatide (Removing of plural s)Spelling/formatting
2888BiochemistryMetabolismKetone bodieshttps://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Biochemistry/Fundamentals_of_Biochemistry_(Jakubowski_and_Flatt)/02%3A_Unit_II-_Bioenergetics_and_Metabolism/16%3A_The_Citric_Acid_Cycle/16.03%3A_Regulation_of_the_Citric_Acid_Cycle#:~:text=Citrate%20synthase%20is%20regulated%20in,inhibitor%20of%20acetyl%2DCoA%20binding.Chronic alcohol overuse creates a high NADH state which inhibits citrate synthase, thus leading to an accumulation of oxaloacetate. The First Aid text states only that high NADH state leads to an accumulation of oxaloacetate and fails to explain why a buildup of oxaloacetate would downregulate the TCA cycle. Without the knowledge that NADH inhibits citrate synthase, it is not intuitive to grasp that an increase in oxaloacetate would downregulate rather than fuel further iterations of the TCA cycle.Clarification to current text
2991BiochemistryMetabolismMajor apolipoproteinshttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22028427/ (i will attach the photo of the table of apolipoproteins)IDL don't have CII apolipoprotein (only in chylomicrons, VLDL, HDL )Minor erratum
3092BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasN/AA Mnemonic to remember Type 2 Dyslipidemia: Type TWO is a deficiency in the SECOND letter of the alphabet (B100)Mnemonic
3192BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasN/AA Mnemonic to remember Type 1 Dyslipidemia: Type ONE is a deficiency in the FIRST step after VLDL synthesis (LPL/C2) bindingMnemonic
3292BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiasN/AA Mnemonic to remember Type 4 Dyslipidemia: Type FOUR is getting MORE VLDL out the DOORMnemonic
3398ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IIself understoodIn the "DIAGRAM OF MHC II, Remove the LABEL OF SHORT AND LONG ARM", MHC-II has 2 arms of EQUAL LENGTH.Minor erratum
3498ImmunologyCellularMajor histocompatibility complex I and IISame tableIn the drawing for MHC II, instead of indicating that they are both equal sized chains, it is shown that there is a long and short one, copying the previous drawing.Minor erratum
35103ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunoglobulin isotypesSpellingClosing quotation mark should be added after AGE.Spelling/formatting
36105ImmunologyPathologyComplement disordersDeficiency or dysfunction of C1 inhibitor (previously referred to as C1 esterase inhibitor) leads to elevated bradykinin, which causes edema due to vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. - UWorldC1 esterase inhibitor is now called C1 inhibitor.Clarification to current text
37106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokinesN/Afor interleukin 12, we make Th1, not 2. good way to remember what IL-12 does, aids to differentiate to Th1 not Th2Mnemonic
38106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImportant cytokinesMnemonicInterferon Gamma induces igG isotype switching.Mnemonic
39106ImmunologyImmune ResponsesMacrophage-lymphocyte interactionNothingYou have written: Acute (IL-1, IL6, TNF-alfa), then recruit (IL-8, IL-12) in front of important cytokines but you should move it to the next line and put it in front of : Secreted by macrophagesSpelling/formatting
40107ImmunologyImmune ResponsesRespiratory bursthttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/phagolysosomeIn the picture, Phagolysosome should be changed with phagosome.Minor erratum
41108ImmunologyImmune ResponsesCell surface proteins1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924742/CD 94 as a new and important marker for Natural Killer cell (NK cell) along with CD 16 and CD 56.High-yield addition to next year
42111ImmunologyImmune ResponsesHypersensitivity types1.ROBBINS&COTRAN PATHOLOGIC OF DISEASE (tenth edition) 2.RAPID REVIEW PATHOLOGY EDWARD F. GOLJAN (fifth edition) 3. BASIC IMMUNOLOGY ABUL K. ABBAS (sixth edition) (I will provide photo from the books in the file attachements section))In type III reaction Examples: Rheumatoid arthritis. But Rheumatoid arthritis is in type IV reaction (T cell-mediated diseases))Minor erratum
43114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesN/A"GRANny's CATs keep her positive"-Chronic GRANulomatous disease has a high susceptibility to CATalase positive organisms.Mnemonic
44114ImmunologyImmune ResponsesThymusnot neededDiGeorge --> D1George is a 11q microdeletion on chromosome 22 due to failure to develop 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches (mnemonic is 1-2-3-4)Mnemonic
45115ImmunologyPathologyAntiphospholipid syndromeUSMLE step 1 First aidAnti B2 glycoprotein can be said as anti BaBy glycoprotein as it causes recurrent pregnancy lossMnemonic
46115ImmunologyImmune ResponsesImmunodeficienciesn/athe car SKIDs 2 a stop. SCID associated with IL-2R gamma defect.Mnemonic
47124MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologySpecial culture requirementsFormatting"Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar with cysteine and iron" is better than "Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine and iron" because the latter is confusing( buffering with cysteine and iron)Spelling/formatting
48126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPigment-producing bacteriahttps://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2024/1/14/intent-in-the-genocide-case-against-israel-is-not-hard-to-prove"Israel has yellow sand" has got to go. Perhaps using a genocidal state for a mnemonic is not the best way to remember things. Why not something more along the lines of Isra-yellow-ii, to remember that A israelii has yellow granulesMnemonic
49126MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyPigment-producing bacteriahttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinomyces_israeliiIsrael has yellow sand. Needs to be removed, the bacterium itself was named after a German scientist, nothing to do with Israel. I also don’t like to use mnemonics that remind me of genocide thank you very muchMnemonic
50128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial geneticsno needconjugation (the word "conjugal" is misspelled "congugal" in the illustration)Spelling/formatting
51128MicrobiologyBasic BacteriologyBacterial geneticsAbbreviationsF stands for fertility which can be added in parenthesis.Clarification to current text
52135MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyEnterococcihttps://pro.uptodatefree.ir/show/3163, https://clsi.org/standards/products/microbiology/documents/m100/ https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/cmr.00058-18#:~:text=In%20the%20clinical%20setting%2C%20ampicillin,who%20can%20tolerate%20this%20agent.&text=Enterococcal%20resistance%20to%20%CE%B2%2Dlactams,PBP)%20designated%20PBP4%20in%20E. (under acquired antimicrobial resistance)It says ''Enterococci (E faecalis and E faecium) are normal colonic microbiota that are penicillin G resistant''. Here statement Penicillin G resistant is wrong and they are susceptible to Penicillin G though not as much as other Streptococci. In fact Penicillin (Ampicillin better) + Gentamicin is treatment of choice in sever penicillin susceptible Enterococcal infection like endocarditis. They do acquire drug resistance to Penicillin via either change in PBP or rarely Beta lactamase production, but they are not intrinsically resistant to Penicillin as implied by your statement.Major erratum
53142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySalmonella vs ShigellaUWorldImportant pathophysiology of Salmonella TyphiHigh-yield addition to next year
54142MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySalmonella vs Shigellahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-salmonella-gastroenteritis#:~:text=The%20typhoidal%20Salmonella%2C%20such%20as,with%20little%20or%20no%20diarrhea.It is mentioned that the spread of salmonella typhi is hematogenous while it is mostly due to feco oral transmission which is not mentionedMinor erratum
55145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologySyphilishttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/Content.aspx?bookid=369&sectionid=39914797In the text, you mentioned Neurosyphilis in the section about tertiary syphilis, which can be confusing in board questions. This is because Neurosyphilis can occur during secondary syphilis, which is a common occurrence. However, students often incorrectly link it to the tertiary stage. The supportive text from AccessMedicine: The nervous system is affected early in syphilis, and 10–25% of patients have CSF abnormalities at the time of the development of the secondary stage.Clarification to current text
56149MicrobiologyMycologySystemic mycosesSelf-studyHello! I was studying systemic mycoses and created a small diagram to help clarify the different forms fungi can take. Hope it helps!Clarification to current text
57149Photo AcknowledgmentsPhoto AcknowledgmentsPhoto AcknowledgmentsSelf-made with reference to First aid step 1, UWorld.Diagram/Image for "ORGANISMS & DISEASES CAUSED BY THEM around the world (GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION)"High-yield addition to next year
58152MicrobiologyParasitologyProtozoa—gastrointestinal infectionshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cryptosporidiosis-treatment-and-preventionHello, first and foremost, I have to say that the edition I'm studying with is the 2023 edition, so I'm unsure if this suggested correction was already mentioned and added into the 2024 edition. But nonetheless, thank you very much for your consideration of this suggestion. In the Cryptosporidium entry under Protozoa—gastrointestinal infections, the treatment has listed "nitazoxanide in immunocompromised hosts". However, after looking online, it seems that nitazoxanide, while approved by the FDA for use in immunocompetent patients, currently has uncertain/unconfirmed findings in the treatment of cyrptosporidium in immunocompromised hosts. Whether this is something that should be changed in future additions or not, thank you very much for your consideration and for making First Aid such a helpful study source for Step 1.Clarification to current text
59156MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)N/AANcylostoma causes microcytic ANemiaMnemonic
60156MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)N/A"Enterobius VERMIcularis makes you SQUIRMY" (causes anal pruritus)Mnemonic
61156MicrobiologyParasitologyNematodes (roundworms)N/A"Ethyl the witch loves to luau luau" - diETHYLcarbamazine treats WUCHereria bancrofti and LOA LOAMnemonic
62164MicrobiologyVirologyParamyxoviruseshttps://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/4/613RSV is listed twice in the families Paramyxovirus and Pneumovirus. It looks like Pneumovirus is a subfamily within Paramyxovirus.Minor erratum
63164MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780702079597000257?scrollTo=%23hl0000318"Human pathogens from the family Pneumoviridae include RSV and human metapnuemovirus (hMPV). Both are common causes of respiratory illness, only occurring in humans and particularly in infants and young children. Previously, they belonged to the family Paramyxoviridae." This excerpt is taken from Manson's Tropical Diseases Chapter 25. Since RSV is no longer considered part of the paramyxoviridae family, I believe it would be beneficial to students to remove it from the "Paramyxoviruses" row in this table and only have it present in the "Pneumoviruses" in order to prevent confusion.Minor erratum
64171MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hepatitis-e-virus-infection?search=Hepatitis%20viruses%20lack%20envelope&source=search_result&selectedTitle=13%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=13#H496154696nAkEd viruses (HAV and HEV), the two hepatitis viruses that lack an envelope can be used to spell naked, the A and E in naked could be higlighted in red to help remember.Mnemonic
65171MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis viruseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208707/Superinfection of HDV on a HBV is associated with high risk of sever chronic liver disease while co infection is associated with higher risk of sever acute disease and this is the opposite of what would be understood form the incubation period that is written in the book so i think that this needs to be clarified to prevent misunderstanding. Thank youMajor erratum
66172MicrobiologyVirologyHepatitis serologic markersUpToDate: Hepatitis B virus: Screening and diagnosisOn the table in the Recovery Phase the Anti-HBc should be +(IgG)Major erratum
67176MicrobiologySystemsBugs causing diarrheaN/ACauses of watery diarrhea: "VIRAL PRO TRAVELERS PReFer a DIFFerent Concierge" (VIRUSES, PROtozoa, ETEC (TRAVELER'S diarrhea), C PeRFringens, C DIFF, Cholerae)Mnemonic
68176MicrobiologySystemsBugs causing diarrheahttps://medinaz.com/blog/2022/08/24/bloody-diarrhea-causing-pathogens-mnemonic/Causes of bloody diarrhea: bloodY CASESMnemonic
69177MicrobiologySystemsCommon causes of meningitishttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232915-overviewmeningitis has a classical triad of headache, fever and nuchal rigidity and has typical signs known as kernigs sign and brudzinski sign addition of which to the upcoming edition would be a high yieldHigh-yield addition to next year
70179MicrobiologySystemsCommon vaginal infectionsNot needed1) Bacterial Vaginosis: "Fish in Garden Call Michelle" - Fishy odor, Gardnerella, Clindamycin, Metronidazole. 2) Trichomonas Vaginitis: "Michelle Try Greek Yogurt with Fresh Fruit " - Metronidazole, Trichomonas, Green-Yellow, Frothy, Foul. 3) Candida Vulvovaginitis: "Canadian Cheese is Fabulous" - Candida, cottage Cheese, Fluconazole.Mnemonic
71180MicrobiologySystemsHerpesviruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infection?search=herpes%20genitalis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E111&usage_type=default&display_rank=2HERPes HURTs, mnemonic to remember that ulcers caused by HSV are painfulMnemonic
72185MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsPiperacillinhttps://www-uptodate-com.aucmed.idm.oclc.org/contents/principles-of-antimicrobial-therapy-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections?search=Principles%20of%20antimicrobial%20therapy%20of%20Pseudomonas%20aeruginosa%20infections&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H6674980Mnemonic to help remember to use Piperacillin on Pseudomonas " Pipe down Pseudomonas"Mnemonic
73187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsVancomycinp136 first aidclostridium difficile should be correct to clostridiodes difficileSpelling/formatting
74187MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsVancomycinp136 first aidclostridium difficile should be correct to clostridiodes difficileMinor erratum
75194MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsAntimycobacterial therapyn/a"Don't Run Tu CLOse to LEopards", a mnemonic for remembering Dapsone and Rifampin for Tuberculoid form and adding Clofazimine for Lepromatous formMnemonic
76198MicrobiologyAntimicrobialsHIV therapyNot needed[Note - only mnemonic letters are taken in capital] hiv therapy 1) nrti : "ABu dhabi To EMirates towers on sheikh Zayed road in LAMborghini" - ABacavir, Tenofovir, EMtricitabine, Zidovudine, LAMivudine 2) nnrti : "DORA EFfective in RILs (Reels)" - DORAvirine, EFavirenz, RILpivirine 3) INtegrase strand transfer inhibitors : "IN BIllion Dollars" -(INtegrase), BIctegravir, DOLutegravir 4) PROtease inhibitors : "LOki AT DAllas RITual PROgram" - LOpinavir, ATazanavir, DArunavir, , RITonavir, (PROtease) 5) ENTry inhibitors : "ENTer MARta's ENgagement" - (ENtry inhibitors), MARaviroc, ENfuvirtide.Mnemonic
77204PathologyCellularCellular adaptationsmnemonicon the picture, you can write - change in cell 'S'tructure - dy'S'plasia,; cell 'T'ype - me'T'apalsiaMnemonic
78207PathologyPathologyPsammoma bodiesSame Info as FA 2024, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/papillary-thyroid-cancer-clinical-features-and-prognosis#subscribeMessageBetter mnemonic: PSaMMOMa: Papillary thyroid carcinoma, Serous Ovarian carcinoma, Meningioma, Mesothelioma, Milk( Prolactinoma)Mnemonic
79208PathologyCellularAmyloidosishttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature04533"Alzheimer disease β-amyloid protein Cleaved from amyloid precursor protein " was proved to be wrong and the main paper was retractedMajor erratum
80209PathologyInflammationAcute phase reactantsUWorldProcalcitonin is decreased in viral infections, not normal.Major erratum
81213PathologyInflammationGranulomatous inflammationN/Acaseating: Cheesy texture. Noncaseating: non-cheesy texture. C match with C, Non C match with non CMnemonic
82232PharmacologyPharmacokinetics & PharmacodynamicsPearson correlation coefficientNoneVmax is written instead of Emax. The former is used for enzymes while the latter for drugs.Minor erratum
83239PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsCholinomimetic agentsn/a"Carbachol curtain call" closed curtains (eg after a theater performance) analagous to constricted pupils/ a lower pressure environmentMnemonic
84240PharmacologyPharmacologyMuscarinic antagonistshttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=490&firstAidYear=2023Duration tiotropium>ipratropium (drink tea over a long time)Mnemonic
85241PharmacologyAutonomic DrugsSympathomimeticshttps://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB00841Dobutamine says -/decrease BP when it should be -/increase BPMajor erratum
86249PharmacologyPharmacologyDrug reactions—hematologicits in the notes section. There is not a specific reference as this is a pneumonic that was created for referenceIn light of the controversy and P Diddy with domestic Abuse maybe remove the reference to him as COOMBS test and replace with Honey COOMBS as a suggestionClarification to current text
87253PharmacologyMiscellaneousDrug nameshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650962/In page 253 ==> -tadine is termed h1 antagonist (Loratidine) while in reality this is actually 2nd gen! and "-tidine" is termed h2-antagonist and given example is Cimetidine, while in reality this is 1st gen!Major erratum
88256Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsObservational studieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/glossary-of-common-biostatistical-and-epidemiological-terms?search=cohort%20study&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1A mnemonic to remember the difference between different observational studies; look at the second letter: cRoss-sectional - Right now (who has disease and risk right now). cAse-control - Already has the disease. cOhort - One day will have the disease (may have risks, see if they will One day get the disease)Mnemonic
89259Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsKaplan-Meier curveup to datein the description it is given y axis represnts event probability but in the adjacent graph y axis is represented by survival probabilityMinor erratum
90262Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsBias and study errorsN/AOne can remember the Hawthorne effect by thinking of being watched like a hawkMnemonic
91263Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfounding vs effect modificationText is inconsistent with diagramit says "Note: Association disappeared after stratification" but the diagram shows a strong association between smokers and drinking coffee and weak/no association for non smokers who drink coffee (in the confounding section)Major erratum
92263Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsConfounding vs effect modificationNoneUnder effect modification, the examples coulumn the word Oral Contraceptive (OCP) is spelled as OPCSpelling/formatting
93266Public Health SciencesEpidemiology & BiostatisticsNEW FACTMyself“Watching you like a HAWk” for Hawthorne EffectMnemonic
94285CardiovascularEmbryologyAortic arch derivativeshttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1923100-overview?form=fpf"Fight 4 your Rights" = right recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around the 4th archMnemonic
95288CardiovascularAnatomyHeart anatomyUWorldHello! The AV node is supplied by the atrio-ventricular (AV) nodal artery which is a branch of the posterior-descending artery.Posterior-descending artery origination depends on left or right dominance and so the blood supply of the AV node also depends on the dominance. The previous text of 'RCA supplies the AV node' will now be incomplete.Clarification to current text
96292CardiovascularPhysiologyHeart murmursFirst AidS3 is the sound from blood turburlence during early diastole, while S4 is the sound of the blood entering a stiffened ventricle. So, S3 is where Blod Hits Blood (3 words = S3) and S4 is where Blood Hits Heart Wall (4 words = S4).Mnemonic
97293CardiovascularPhysiologyPressure-volume loops and valvular diseaseUWorld Step 1 Qbank - Question ID 945 -> Explanation of choice (A)Under title of Aortic Regurgitation, explanation (in words) is correct, but graph is wrong. Aortic Regurgitation -> blood backflows in LV during diastole -> EDV increases -> SV increase (this is correctly written in FIrst Aid) but the graph is wrong. Due to increased SV -> Systolic pressure also increases (not 120 mm Hg).Major erratum
98295CardiovascularAnatomy and PhysiologyHeart murmursSelfRight Heart Murmurs (Pulmonary Valve, Tricuspid Valve) increase during Inspiration. I of R i ght stands for Inspiration. Left Heart Murmurs (Aortic Valve, Mitral Valve) increase during Expiration. E of L e ft stands for Expiration.Mnemonic
99310CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353029/In diastolic HF the EDV will be decrease not remain normal . The explanation of this, in patients with diastolic HF the compleince of ventricles will be low ( hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) So it will receive less blood from atrium (the cause of congestion ) so EDV will decrease (EDV proportion inversly to Ejection fraction, so EF will decrease ) and SV will decrease ( SV proportion directly to Ejection fraction ,so EF will decrease ) these make the EF preserved in Diastolic HF. (EF=SV÷EDV)Major erratum
100310CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353029/In diastolic HF the EDV it will decrease will not remain normal . The explanation of that, in patients with diastolic HF the compliance of ventricles will be low(steffness in LV /ex , hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) So it will receive less blood from atrium because the size of ventricle will be less like in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the left ventricle have concentric hypertrophy growth of myocardial ,so EDV decrease (which can cause systemic or pulmonary congestion ) (EDV proportion inversely to Ejection fraction, so EF will decrease ) and SV will decrease ( sv =EDV-ESV)/ ( SV proportion directly to Ejection fraction ,so EF will decrease ) these make the EF preserved in Diastolic HF.(in diastolic HF : decrease of edv / increase in edvp / decrease sv / preserved EF) (EF=SV÷EDV)Major erratum
101310CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353029/In diastolic HF the EDV it will decrease will not remain normal . The explanation of that, in patients with diastolic HF the compliance of ventricles will be low(steffness in LV /ex , hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) So it will receive less blood from atrium because the size of ventricle will be less like in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the left ventricle have concentric hypertrophy growth of myocardial ,so EDV decrease (which can cause systemic or pulmonary congestion ) (EDV proportion inversely to Ejection fraction, so EF will decrease ) and SV will decrease ( sv =EDV-ESV)/ ( SV proportion directly to Ejection fraction ,so EF will decrease ) these make the EF preserved in Diastolic HF.(in diastolic HF : decrease of edv / increase in edvp / decrease sv / preserved EF) (EF=SV÷EDV)Major erratum
102310CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353029/In diastolic HF the EDV it will decrease will not remain normal . The explanation of that, in patients with diastolic HF the compliance of ventricles will be low(steffness in LV /ex , hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) So it will receive less blood from atrium because the size of ventricle will be less like in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the left ventricle have concentric hypertrophy growth of myocardial ,so EDV decrease (which can cause systemic or pulmonary congestion ) (EDV proportion inversely to Ejection fraction, so EF will decrease ) and SV will decrease ( sv =EDV-ESV)/ ( SV proportion directly to Ejection fraction ,so EF will decrease ) these make the EF preserved in Diastolic HF.(in diastolic HF : decrease of edv / increase in edvp / decrease sv / preserved EF) (EF=SV÷EDV)Major erratum
103311CardiovascularPathologyNarrow complex tachycardiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-atrial-fibrillation-rhythm-control-versus-rate-control?search=atrial%20fibrillation&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2This is both an addition+mnemonic, For "Rate Control" We can use - ABCD. A- Atrial Fibrillation B- Beta Blockers, C- Calcium channel blockers D- Digoxin. It's in synchronization with it's line of treatment (BB,CCB are 1st line, Digoxin is 2nd line) we can also add in "A" , the drug "Amiodarone" as 3rd line so it's "312" "ABCD" - Amiodarone 3rd line, BB+CCB 1st line, Digoxin 2nd line.High-yield addition to next year
104312CardiovascularPathologyHereditary channelopathiesAlex Midani (myself)Roma(no)-Ward syndrome >> (no) deafness.Mnemonic
105316CardiovascularPathologyHeart failurehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353029/ https://cvphysiology.com/heart-failure/hf006In diastolic HF the EDV it will decrease will not remain normal . The explanation of that, in patients with diastolic HF the compliance of ventricles will be low(steffness in LV /ex , hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) So it will receive less blood from atrium because the size of ventricle will be less like in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the left ventricle have concentric hypertrophy growth of myocardial ,so EDV decrease (which can cause systemic or pulmonary congestion ) (EDV proportion inversely to Ejection fraction, so EF will decrease ) and SV will decrease ( sv =EDV-ESV)/ ( SV proportion directly to Ejection fraction ,so EF will decrease ) these make the EF preserved in Diastolic HF.(in diastolic HF : decrease of edv / increase in edvp / decrease sv / preserved EF) (EF=SV÷EDV)Major erratum
106318CardiovascularPathologySyncopehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/mechanisms-causes-and-evaluation-of-orthostatic-hypotension?search=orthostatic%20hypotension&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H5755741For the Diagnosis of Orthostatic Hypotension the drop in SBP should be ≥ 20mmHg and/or fall in DBP should be ≥10mmHg; it's not just ">", it is "more than or equal to". Time criteria should be "within two to five minutes of quiet standing (after a five-minute period of supine rest)".Clarification to current text
107318CardiovascularPathologySyncopehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/carotid-sinus-hypersensitivity-and-carotid-sinus-syndrome?search=carotid%20sinus%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E28&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H3491581588Add "Carotid Sinus Syndrome" with the following contents: recurrent reflex syncope in individuals with carotid sinus hypersensitivity when carotid sinus is stimulated (neck massage, shaving, tightening a necktie); increased baroreceptor response. Pause Heart Rate for ≥3 seconds AND/OR fall in SBP by ≥50mmHg when carotid sinus is massaged. Risk factors includes: Coronary atherosclerosis, previous history of neck surgery or irradiation, advanced age >50years.High-yield addition to next year
108319CardiovascularPathologyAcute pericarditisNot neededPericarditis causes: CRANIUMS- C: CT disorders (SLE, RA), R: thoracic Radiotherapy, A: autoimmune diseases (rheumatic fever), N: neoplasia (metastasis), I: Idiopathic or viral Infections (CoxB virus), U: Uremia, M: MI (early vs dressler’s syndrome), S: thoracic SurgeryMnemonic
109319CardiovascularPathologyRheumatic feverhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-rheumatic-fever-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosisA (add) "nonsuppurative" consequence of (remove pharyngeal) infection with Group A B-hemolytic streptococci...... Antibodies to M protein cross-react with self antigens (add Nerve and myocardial protein), often myosin due to molecular mimicry......... Under Treatment section add " a) For the Eradication of foci of infection: Penicillin V, Cephalosporin/Macrolides (if allergic to penicillin) b) For Arthritis: NSAIDs (Aspirin,Naproxen). For Prophylaxis: Penicillin G" .......... Under Mnemonics JONES REPLACE "Pancarditis" with "Carditis"Clarification to current text
110334EndocrinePhysiologyNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556629/Chest wall injury (via ANS) which suppress dopamine releaseClarification to current text
111335EndocrineAnatomy and PhysiologyThyroid hormoneshttps://firstaidteam.com/First Aid 2024 page 335 has numbers (1-6) for the thyroid hormone; however, I couldn't find the explanations. Could you perhaps tell me what the numbers represent, even if I'm not sure if it will be noted as a correction?Clarification to current text
112339EndocrinePhysiologyAdrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasias1. Laffin LJ, Rodman D, Luther JM, et al. Aldosterone Synthase Inhibition With Lorundrostat for Uncontrolled Hypertension: The Target-HTN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023;330(12):1140-1150. 2. Freeman MW, Halvorsen YD, Marshall W, et al. Phase 2 Trial of Baxdrostat for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2023;388(5):395-405. 3. Oaks MK, Raff H. Differentiation of the expression of aldosterone synthase and 11 beta-hydroxylase mRNA in the rat adrenal cortex by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;54(5-6):193-199. 4. Raff H, Gehrand A, Bruder ED, Hoffman MJ, Engeland WC, Moreno C. Renin knockout rat: control of adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone synthesis in vitro and adrenal gene expression. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;308(1):R73-R77.Aldosterone synthase catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone -> Corticosterone AND corticosterone -> AldosteroneMinor erratum
113341EndocrinePhysiologySignaling pathways of endocrine hormonesN/A"Growth Hormone makes you JAKed."-GH uses a JAK/STAT pathwayMnemonic
114342RenalPhysiologyPrimary polydipsia and diabetes insipidusN/a (quoted this section of First Aid)Diabetes insipidus is "characterized by the production of large amounts of dilute urine... [with a] specific gravity <1.006... [and an] osmolality usually <300 mOsm/kg." In order to remember that without intervention urine remains dilute: Diabetes Insipidus, urine so clear you can take a "sip o' dis". Also, page number 342 is 2023 version of First Aid.Mnemonic
115342EndocrinePathologyPrimary polydipsia and diabetes insipidusUWorld Step 2 Bank is the main source. NIH Article- https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470458/&ved=2ahUKEwjX2oKxrMqFAxW9UGwGHcJIDakQFnoECCQQAQ&usg=AOvVaw2un471p9L2iNXvr_aSxqf-Patients with AVP deficiency (AVP-D) (formerly central diabetes insipidus) or AVP resistance (AVP-R) (formerly nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) have impaired urinary concentrating ability and produce inappropriately dilute urine. This name update would require major changes wherever central/nephrogenic diabetes insidious is mentioned in the book.Major erratum
116346EndocrinePathologyHyperthyroidismSelf-studyHello! The histology of hyperthyroidism shows scalloped colloid and is frequently featured in questions. It would be helpful to have a picture reference. I have attached a similar one.Clarification to current text
117347EndocrinePathologyThyroid cancern/aFor Medullary Carcinoma's association with MEN 2A and 2B, "MEN2"llary carcinomaMnemonic
118350EndocrinePathologyDiabetes mellitushttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/molecular-features-of-food-allergens?search=glycosylation%20and%20glycation&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E117&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 AND https://next.amboss.com/us/article/lt0vd3?q=diabetic+nephropathy#Zd107f9da1c66ed0ee9bcc2ce6d1c0694"non-enzymatic glycation" is an error on wording. Glycation is Non-Enzymatic Glycosylation. Glycosylation is an enzymatic process and usually limited to intracellular environment. Glycation is spontaneos and not requiring an enzyme, which is why it happens a lot in the extracellular vasculature. pg 616 and 711 also have this error.Minor erratum
119350EndocrinePathologyHypoglycemia in diabetes mellitushttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/118361-overview#a4In the flow chart showing the mechanism of decreased available insulin in diabetes mellitus, increased glycogenolysis leads to hyperglycemia and glycosuria, not “hypoglycemia” which in turn leads to osmotic diuresis and increased plasma osmolality.Minor erratum
120351EndocrinePathologyHyperglycemic emergencieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047968/#:~:text=DKA%20is%20associated%20with%20various,of%20prolonged%20and%20excessive%20hyperphosphaturia.In the LABS section it reads the following “(…) Osmotic diuresis (leads to) high Potassium loss in urine (leads to) total body Potassium depletion.” I think hat there was a mistake here. that by Potassium it was meant to put PhosphateMajor erratum
121356EndocrinePathologyMultiple endocrine neoplasiasSotos JG. Abraham Lincoln's marfanoid mother: the earliest known case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B? Clin Dysmorphol. 2012 Jul;21(3):131-136. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0b013e328353ae0c. PMID: 22504423." Abraham Lincoln is a MEN 2B" this will help the medical students to remember the important point that ppl with MEN 2B have a marfanoid habitus, and since Abraham Lincoln is known for his marfanoid habitus it will help the students remember it.Mnemonic
122359EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyhttps://youtu.be/xEkoAv2W6iQ?si=wPzwLq0K-KTLZ3QrDirty Medicine’s mnemonics are very good, 32:08Mnemonic
123359EndocrinePharmacologyDiabetes mellitus therapyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/practice-changing-updates?search=tirzepatide&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E16&usage_type=default&display_rank=1, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/glucagon-like-peptide-1-based-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus?search=tirzepatide&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4%7E16&usage_type=default&display_rank=3,new class of dual-acting GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP] receptor agonists such as tirzepatide are growing in clinical use and relevance for patients with diabetes and weight loss.. In fact UpToDate has released a practice changing update recommending the use of Tirzepatide or semaglutide for weight loss over other medications. Tirzepatide has shown greater control for diabetes and weight loss.High-yield addition to next year
124360EndocrinePharmacologyFludrocortisonehttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.lib.utah.edu/contents/fludrocortisone-drug-information?search=fludrocortisone&source=panel_search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E64&usage_type=panel&kp_tab=drug_general&display_rank=1Would add "hyponatremia" to "clinical uses", and would also add "hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia" to the "adverse effects." I think clinically speaking, the hypokalemia is the most clinically significant as it usually requires daily replacement.High-yield addition to next year
125369GastrointestinalAnatomyDigestive tract histologynoneThere is no actual arrow in the histological picture in C which should point to the Peyer patchesSpelling/formatting
126370GastrointestinalAnatomyAbdominal aorta and brancheshttps://www.ucmals.com/pseudo-nutcracker-syndrome-myths-realities-and/It would be best to add a drawing clarifying nutcracker syndrome, such as the one in the linkClarification to current text
127372GastrointestinalAnatomyPortosystemic anastomoseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4062210/There is an error in the existing portosystemic anastomoses image because the splenic vein should anastomoses with superior mesenteric artery after inferior mesenteric to make portal vein not to paraumbilical vienMinor erratum
128372GastrointestinalAnatomyPortosystemic anastomoseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4062210/There is an error in the existing portosystemic anastomoses image because the splenic vein should anastomoses with superior mesenteric artery after inferior mesenteric to make portal vein not to paraumbilical vienMinor erratum
129372GastrointestinalAnatomyPortosystemic anastomoseshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428891/A label for the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) should be added in the diagram to clarify the confluence of the SMV and the splenic vein to form the portal vein. At present, the diagram fails to label the SMV, and it incorrectly shows the splenic vein draining into the paraumbilical vein.Minor erratum
130375GastrointestinalAnatomyFemoral regionhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/femoral-ring#:~:text=It%20contains%20fat%2C%20lymphatic%20vessels,below%20by%20the%20cribriform%20fascia.The opening of the femoral ring, as suggested in the diagram, does not include the femoral artery nor the femoral vein. The femoral vein is the lateral border of the femoral ring and the lacunar ligament is the medial border. The femoral ring (and subsequently the canal) only contains fat, lymphatic vessels and the lymph node of Cloquet.Major erratum
131378GastrointestinalPhysiologyGastrointestinal regulatory substancesNot neededMnemonic for the cells secreting these substances: somatostatin by D cells (somaDosDaDin), CCK by I cells (cholecystokInIn), secretin by S cells (Secretin), gastrin by G cells (Gastrin), GIP by K cells (gluKose-dependent insulinotropic peptide/ gastriK inhibitory peptide), Ghrelin by stomach (Gastric), Leptin by adipose tissue (Lipids)Mnemonic
132394GastrointestinalPathologyColonic polypshttps://accesssurgery.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=853&sectionid=49662229In Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, a notable and often emphasized diagnostic feature, particularly in board exams, is the occurrence of adult-onset ileoileal or jejunojejunal intussusception. This is a distinctive finding due to both its unique location and the age at which it occurs.High-yield addition to next year
133395GastrointestinalPathologyMolecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancerhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089587/Chromosomal instability pathway is more common in left-sided CRC cases, not right-sided.Major erratum
134395GastrointestinalPathologyMolecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancerhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/molecular-genetics-of-colorectal-cancer?search=chromosomal%20instability%20pathway&source=search_result&selectedTitle=3%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H6A way to remember the order of the Chromosomal Instability Pathway: During Colonoscopy, "Always Kill Polyps.": APC, KRAS, p53Mnemonic
135401GastrointestinalPathologyHereditary hyperbilirubinemiasSelf-studyHello! To ease the recall of the sequence of hereditary hyperbilirubinemias we can use the mnemonic- Go Climb, Don't Run. Each word standing for the disease- Gilbert Crigler-Najjar, Dubin-Johnson Rotor. Hope it helps!Mnemonic
136405GastrointestinalPathologyPancreatic adenocarcinomaSelf-studyHello! For the picture reference of a tumor in the pancreatic head, It would be great if it could be enlarged and have arrow pointers similar to the ones on the Pancreatitis page to provide better understanding.Clarification to current text
137405GastrointestinalPathologyPancreatic adenocarcinomaUWorldHello again! The major genomic abnormality in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a KRAS-activating mutation. This is referenced in the oncogenes list, but it should also be specifically highlighted here.High-yield addition to next year
138411Hematology and OncologyEmbryologyHemolytic disease of the fetus and newbornNoneIt might make sense to switch ABO hemolytic disease and Rh hemolytic disease in the table to match the above Blood groups for the students.Spelling/formatting
139414Hematology and OncologyAnatomyEosinophilshttps://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1581&sectionid=108064598Eosinophils also produce IL-5 (which is not mentioned in the book), along with MBP, histaminase, etc. (which are already mentioned in the book). This addition will help connect the dots on IL-5 antagonist for Pharmacology section on page 706 as well.High-yield addition to next year
140417Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyThrombogenesisNot neededEpitiFIBatide and tiroFIBan both bind on the same place as FIBrinogen i.e. at GpIIb/IIIaMnemonic
141418Hematology and OncologySystemsComplementhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/epdf/10.3109/07853890.2016.1162909?needAccess=trueC1 inhibitor deficiency (previously called C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency) causes hereditary angioedema - UWorldClarification to current text
142419Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyVitamin K–dependent coagulationN/AVitamin K-dependent coagulation factors: 1972. 1(0) = Factor X, 9 = Factor IX, 7 = Factor XII, 2 = Factor IIMnemonic
143421Hematology and OncologyPathologyRBC inclusionsNot NeededAlthough the FA 2024 book divides them into bone marrow vs. peripheral smear findings. It would be great to a have a mnemonic to differentiate the findings of sideroblastic anemia as there are so many. Basophilic StiPPling - PeriPheral Smear, SideroBlasts in Bone, PaPPenHAMMER - Periphery, Iron containing (hammers are made of iron)Mnemonic
144422Hematology and OncologyPathologyAnemiasno neededAdd "Sideroblastic Anemia" to Microcytic anemia and make the mnemonics "TAILS"Clarification to current text
145423Hematology and OncologyPathologyMentzer indexhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4123424/...... between thalassemia and iron deficiency "anemia". (add anemia to iron deficiency). In the formula Mention: Mentzer Index = MCV/RBC "count in millions". Don't just mention RBC. Add Mnemonics of "I"ndex is "I"ncreased in "I"DA (highlight and bold all "I")Clarification to current text
146427Hematology and OncologyPathologyNonhemolytic, normocytic anemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/aplastic-anemia-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=fatty%20infiltration%20of%20hypocellular%20bone%20marrow%20aplastic%20anemia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Rule of A's for aplastic anemia causing fatty infiltration of hypocellular bone marrow: "A"dipose "Arrives" in "A"plastic "A"nemiaMnemonic
147429Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-aiha-in-adults?topicRef=7084&source=see_linkUnder AIHA, it is mentioned that both warm and cold AIHA are extravascular. However, both have an intravascular component in some cases as mentioned in the attached files.Clarification to current text
148429Hematology and OncologyPathologyExtrinsic hemolytic anemias1. Petz, L. D., & Garratty, G. (2004). *Immune Hemolytic Anemias*. Churchill Livingstone. 2. Hoffbrand, A. V., Higgs, D. R., Keeling, D. M., & Mehta, A. B. (2016). *Postgraduate Haematology*. 7th edition. Wiley-Blackwell.In Cold AIHA, extravascular hemolysis is listed. IgM binding primarily leads to intravascular hemolysis via complement activation and the formation of MAC.Minor erratum
149430Hematology and OncologyPathologyHeme synthesis, porphyrias, and lead poisoningSelf-studyHello! For Heme synthesis and its associated Porphyrias & Lead poisoning, I have created a simple diagram format for a more concise revisionClarification to current text
150432Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/immune-thrombocytopenia-itp-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?search=ITP&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Immune Thrombocytopenia is characterized by a production of Antibodies against any Platelet antigen. But the text makes it seem exclusively characterized by Anti GpIIb/IIIa antibodies. UpToDate quote "The principal mechanism is thought to involve specific autoantibodies (typically, IgG), most often directed against platelet membrane glycoproteins such as GPIIb/IIIa [3-7]"Minor erratum
151432Hematology and OncologyPathologyPlatelet disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/uremic-platelet-dysfunction#H73411787"In patients with renal failure, uremic toxins accumulate and interfere with platelet adhesion." add "and aggregation." --> "In patients with renal failure, uremic toxins accumulate and interfere with platelet adhesion and aggregation."Minor erratum
152437Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiashttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemiaCML: I met (Imatinib) the whole gang (all myeloid cells on smear) in Philadelphia (Philadelphia chromosome 9:22)Mnemonic
153440Hematology and OncologyPathologyLeukemiasnot neededTRAP = T: Tartare-resistant acid phosphotase, R: Red pulp, A: Absent lymphadenopathy, P: Purine analog treatment (cladribine, pentostatin)Mnemonic
154441Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyHeparin vs warfarinN/AHeparIN = INtrinsic pathway (PTT is used for monitoring)Mnemonic
155446Hematology and OncologyPharmacologyTamoxifenUWorld Q ID 581 and UptoDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-and-uterine-pathology-in-patients-on-tamoxifen-therapy/printAdverse effects of Tamoxifen include Uterine Sarcoma (in addition to endometrial cancer). This is extremely High yield.High-yield addition to next year
156452Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomy and PhysiologyBrachial plexus lesionsPrevious pageErb palsy.. deltoid, supraspinatus should be deltoid, axillaryMajor erratum
157462Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyOveruse injuries of the elbowN/Amnemonic "Mini Golf is Fun" . Medial, Golfer’s elbow, repeat FlexionMnemonic
158464Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueAnatomyCommon knee conditionshttps://www.physio-pedia.com/Valgus_Stress_TestUnhappy triad” - Valgus Force. The image is labeled correctly but the image of the leg could confuse and at first glance could be misconstrued to show a Varus force.Minor erratum
159466Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyChildhood musculoskeletal conditionsSelf-studyHello! The reduction technique for radial head subluxation- Hyperpronate or flex + supinate the forearm, is a frequently asked question. I have attached pictures for reference. Hope it helps!High-yield addition to next year
160475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritisnot neededReplace Inflammatory Bowel Disease with " Spondyloarthritis associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease" or "IBD associated spondyloarthritis"Minor erratum
161475Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySeronegative spondyloarthritisAmbossIn reactive arthritis , you can add a picture for keratoderma blennorrhagicaClarification to current text
162476Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologySystemic lupus erythematosus1. AMBOSS Library , 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36774306/As per recent data, the most common cause of death in SLE patients is due to cardiovascular diseases. (Actually the current advancements in treatment of kidney diseases have led to decreased mortality due to kidney failure among SLE patients and so now, cardiovascular diseases are most common cause of death in SLE.)Clarification to current text
163477Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPolymyositis/dermatomyositishttps://usmle-rx.scholarrx.com/first-aid?id=930&firstAidYear=2023Specific markers: Anti Jo-1, anti Mi-2, anti-SRP ; Ant Jo-1,Mi-2-ma's Syrup, Aunt Jemima's Syrup.Mnemonic
164477Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyPolymyositis/dermatomyositisNot neededPathophysiology of Polymyositis/ dermatomyositis: PDDP: Polymyositis= enDomysial inflammation vs Dermatomyositis= Perimysial inflammation. Polymyositis= muscular (8 letters) disease= CD8+ vs Dermatomyositis= skin (4 letters) disease= CD4+Mnemonic
165478Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologyNEW FACTNbme 26Craniosynostosis: premature fusion of cranial bone sutures. Premature closure of sagittal suture causes elongation of cranium in anteroposterior dimension. Bregma: point where sagittal and coronal suture meet. Premature closure of coronal suture= BrachycephalyHigh-yield addition to next year
166479Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyVasculitidesNot neddedDiseases with positive P-ANCA/MPO-ANCA: CoMPUterS (C: Churg strauss syndrome, M: Microscopic polyangiitis, P: P-ANCA (or MPU: MPO-ANCA), U: UC, S: 1• Sclerosing cholangitis.Mnemonic
167486Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePathologyNeuromuscular junction diseasesPage references refer to First Aid 2021Improving with muscle use is waxing (as opposed to Myestenia gravis which has a waning effect); So the mnemonic is "You WAX a LAMborghini"Mnemonic
168493Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissueDermatologySkin cancerN/AA mnemonic to remember the appearance of different skin cancers: Basal cell has Bright, Bulky Borders. Squamous cell has Senter (center) ulcers (and is the Second most common type plus associated with Scars).Mnemonic
169495Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyCelecoxibn/aCelecoxib selectively inhibits COX-2 and not COX-1. There are 2 C's in CeleCoxib, to remember this fact. 2 C's for COX-2.Mnemonic
170497Musculoskeletal, Skin, and Connective TissuePharmacologyPsoriasis biologicsFA 2024Mnemonic: United In Stopping Psoriasis Bothers: 12/23 and 17 are Great Relief TargetsMnemonic
171502Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologyPosterior fossa malformationsN/AA mnemonic to remember what Dandy-Walker is: Dandy-Walker malformation may cause patient to need a WALKER (No cerebellum for balance)Mnemonic
172502Neurology and Special SensesEmbryologySyringomyeliaPathoma 2023 (I’ll provide a screenshot from the book in the file attachments section)Most lesions occur between C8 and T1, but not to the extent of C2-T9!Minor erratum
173504Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySensory receptorsN/APacinian Corpuscle: play pacman: play under pressure and controller vibrates. Meissner: tapping on a “miss’s” shoulder who’s hairless, gentlyMnemonic
174507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyMeningesin the textbookThe image of the meninges doesnt have words written in English, instead it has boxes with x's in themSpelling/formatting
175512Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyBasal gangliaN/ARule of D's: Dopamine is Direct and wants to Dance: Dopamine stimulates direct pathway to increase motionMnemonic
176514Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCerebral arteries—cortical distributionhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559186/#:~:text=Man%20in%20a%20barrel%20syndrome%20is%20a%20neurological%20syndrome%20involving,cord%2C%20or%20bilateral%20brachial%20plexuses.ACA-MCA doesn’t involve lower extremity weaknessMajor erratum
177516Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerve nucleino neededRule of 4: Each of the 3 motor columns has 4 nuclei. From medial to lateral General somatic: Oculomotor nucleus (III), Trochlear nucleus (IV), Abducens nucleus (VI) and Hypoglossal nucleus (XII) General Visceral: Edinger-Westphal nucleus (III), superior salivatory nucleus (VII), inferior salivatory nucleus (IX) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (X). Special Visceral: Trigeminal motor nucleus (V), Facial nucleus (VII), Nucleus ambiguus (IX, X) and Spinal accessory nucleusMnemonic
178522Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyCranial nerves and arterieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534861/figure/article-19565.image.f2/?report=objectonlyIve attached the photo i'm referencing below, the diagram shows the brain, circle of willis and the cranial nerves; in the inferior to superior view, (caudal view). The grey matter in the spinal cord inidicates that the anterior spinal artery runs along the dorsal side of the spinal cord, which is not correct, its been confusing me for a while till I released it is a mistake. The gray matter should be flipped and the posterior horns should be facing the other side.Minor erratum
179522Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySpinal tract anatomy and functionsNo need (Mnemonic)Spinothalamic tract: “pino” = pain. Thalamic = thermal (temperature).Mnemonic
180523Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyNEW FACThttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546640/ and https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/gracile-fasciculusRule of G: The Gracile (Goll's) fasciculus carries sensory information from T6 and belowMnemonic
181524Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySpinal tract anatomy and functionsN/AA mnemonic to remember the ascending spinal tracts: *Spinothalamic tract – *Switches *Sides and *Synapses, then ascends. It triggers when getting *Stabbed – pain and temperature. It is affected in a *Syringomyelia. // *Dorsal Column – *Directly ascends. It is for *Drummers and *Dancers – pressure, vibration, fine touch, and proprioception.Mnemonic
182528Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyIntracranial hemorrhageN/A. This is an original mnemonic.Classically, it is said on head/brain CT that Epidural Hematoma appears biconvex (lentiform/lens-shaped) and that Subdural Hematoma appears crescent-shaped. This is even noted in the current First Aid version. However, I had the most trouble remembering these two high yield facts (until recently) and propose we include the following mnemonic I created (which has been a game-changer for me): [Epidural: Egg-shaped. Subdural: Sock-shaped. (Epidural is shaped like an Egg. Subdural is shaped like a Sock.)] We could even go farther to address whether each condition "crosses suture lines". For example... [Epidural. Egg. Exclusive. (does not cross suture lines). Subdural. Sock. Sailor (or Surfer). (crosses suture lines).] Thanks for your consideration and for all your help with preparation for Step 1!Mnemonic
183534Rapid ReviewNeuropathologyNeurodegenerative movement disordershttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature04533"Alzheimer disease β-amyloid protein Cleaved from amyloid precursor protein " the main paper published about this topic was retractedMajor erratum
184534Neurology and Special SensesPathologyDementiahttps://www-uptodate-com.ezproxy.ad.bcomnm.org/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-disease?search=alzheimer%20mri&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H406199175Under the Alzheimer photo of affected area in brain, the Amygdala is highlighted instead of the HippocampusMinor erratum
185537Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMultiple sclerosisUSMLE RxHello! I found Lhermittes sign being asked in a couple of questions regarding MS and thought it would be helpful to reference it there.Lhermittes sign- an electrical sensation that runs down the spine when the neck is flexed, leading to the extension of the spine.The most common condition that causes Lhermitte’s sign is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)High-yield addition to next year
186539Neurology and Special SensesPathologyMultiple sclerosisN/AMs. Snow White: MS is more common in SNOWY regions (away from equator) and a defect in WHITE matter.Mnemonic
187542Neurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyChildhood primary brain tumorsSelf-studyHello! For Pineal gland tumors, the text says 'most commonly extragonadal germ cell tumors.' It can be corrected to 'most commonly occurring' or 'most common.'Spelling/formatting
188555Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyHorner syndromenoneIt says anhidrosis is absent under horner syndrome, so does that mean no sweating is absent ? Because the word anhidrosis means little to no sweating.Minor erratum
189556MicrobiologyVirologyDNA viruseshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-parvovirus-b19-infectionFor Erythema infectiosum, also called fifth disease that presents with a slapped cheek appearance. My mnemonic is, "when you slap someone, how many fingers do you slap them with? 5"Mnemonic
190557Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyCavernous sinushttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459244/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/sella-turcica-tumorImage indicating structures of cavernous sinus includes the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Recommendation is to remove the ACA labelling, considering it is not clinically relevant here and can cause confusion. Instead, the Internal carotid branches can be labelled as intracranial ICA vs. cavernous ICA.Clarification to current text
191559Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyVisual field defectshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558982/ and https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-6-117In the 2023 version (since the 2024 hasn't been released yet), it says next to point 6 (on Rx diagram): "Dorsal optic radiation Right lower quadrantanopia (left temporal lesion)" but it should say "left parietal lesion" not temporalMinor erratum
192559Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyVisual field defectsN/ADiagram has (4) and (7) icons misplaced, and (7) icon is overlaid on top of text.Minor erratum
193559Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyVisual field defectsnoneNumbers on the right are unrelated to the numbers on the leftMinor erratum
194562Neurology and Special SensesOphthalmologyCavernous sinusMnemonic based solely on material in page 562 of First Aid 2022 Edition (i.e. the contents of the cavernous sinus).To recall the contents of the cavernous sinus, use the mnemonic "I, TOMATO." I: Internal carotid artery TOM: Trigeminal Nerve (Ophthalmic and Maxillary divisions) A: Abducens nerve T: Trochlear nerve O: Oculomotor nerveMnemonic
195563Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease therapyN/ABlocking MOA-“A”: “A”ntidepression. Blocking MOA-“B”: “B”arkinson’s treatment.Mnemonic
196564Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyNeurodegenerative disease therapyhttps://reference.medscape.com/drug/radicava-radicava-ors-edaravone-1000140#10A new agent Edaravone, was approved by FDA in 2017 for the use in the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. It is currently one of the only two main drugs available for the management of this condition.High-yield addition to next year
197565Neurology and Special SensesPharmacologyParkinson disease therapynot needed"dopAmine" is broken down by "mao-B" to "dopaC." (ABC)Mnemonic
198572PsychiatryPsychologyNormal infant and child developmenthttps://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-9mo.htmlpasses toys hand to hand (by 6 mo) - this is incorrect. Uptodate and CDC say that this happens at 9 months. So "6 mo" needs to be changed to "9 mo"Minor erratum
199572PsychiatryPsychologyNEW FACTSpelling Error, Provided in the PictureIn the page 572 of the latest edition, in child milestones ==> in toddler milestones (12-36 months) and in the second column there is "Recreation", "Rapproachment" "Realization" and it should be spelt "Reapproachment" not "Rapproachment"Minor erratum
200576PsychiatryPsychologyPsychosisn/a"Contrast with illusions, which are misperceptions of real external stimuli (eg, mistaking a shadow for a black cat)" is repeated twice in the same paragraph (2nd time "Contrast with misperceptions (eg, illusions) of real external stimuli")Minor erratum
201577PsychiatryPathologySchizophrenia spectrum disordershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/schizophrenia-in-adults-clinical-features-assessment-and-diagnosis?csi=abc96e6a-5766-47ad-a641-4050dad58f44&source=contentShareWhen listing Negative symtoms making the first letter "A" red and/or capital in affect, apathy, anhedonia, alogia and replacing "social withdrawal" by "asocial" will make it easy to learn since they are listed as 5 A's in AMBOSS library and mentioned in the UPTODATE attached article/table. I hope that someone benefits from this approach!High-yield addition to next year
202585PsychiatryPathologyNarcolepsyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-narcolepsy-in-adultsIf when you laugh you're still (cataplexy), take you some modafinilMnemonic
203587PsychiatryPathologyPsychiatric emergencies""https://www.uptodate.com/contents/second-generation-antipsychotic-medications-pharmacology-administration-and-side-effects?csi=78b65234-a12d-4440-9e61-20f419a713c9&source=contentShare"" AND "https://www.uptodate.com/contents/first-generation-antipsychotic-medications-pharmacology-administration-and-comparative-side-effects?csi=19d781af-0c3e-465c-9b31-e5fa376b33b8&source=contentShare"In the causes of acute dystonia stating "typical antipsychotics" isn't totally accurate. However, saying "Antipsychotics (Typical > Atypical)" is more accurate since BOTH generations can cause extra-pyramidal symptoms kindly refrence the UpToDate articles attached proving this fact.Minor erratum
204593PsychiatryPharmacologyAntipsychoticsSelf-studyHello! Within Ani-Psychotics, the part about extra-pyramidal symptoms feels very wordy. This picture helps understand the symptoms and their timeline better, I have also added in the pharmacology to make it complete.Clarification to current text
205599RenalPhysiologyFluid compartmentsn/aThe new mnemonic 'salty banana' is not helpful, because it doesn't distinguish intracellular from extracellular. The 2023 version 'HIKIN' was more useful.Mnemonic
206600RenalAnatomyRenal blood flowhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/anesthesia-for-living-kidney-donors?search=living+donor+renal+transplant+left+kidney+longer+renal+vein&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Rule of L's: "L"eft kidney is taken during "L"iving donor transp"L"antation because it has a "L"onger renal veinMnemonic
207602RenalPhysiologyCalculation of reabsorption and secretion ratehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/fractional-excretion-of-sodium-urea-and-other-molecules-in-acute-kidney-injury?search=fena&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E37&usage_type=default&display_rank=1FeNa us usually styled as FENaSpelling/formatting
208603RenalPhysiologyNephron transport physiologyhttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/5/10674 , https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.1998.275.3.F319The UT-A1 transporter is expressed on the apical membrane of terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, not in the collecting tubule located in the cortex. I suggest removing the receptors from the figure and adding a separate section for the collecting ducts. My students often confuse the collecting duct with the collecting tubule. The collecting duct has both cortical and medullary parts, which are incorrectly mixed with the collecting tubule in the figure.Minor erratum
209604RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular defectshttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000333.htmUnder Fanconi Syndrome, "Growth retardation" should be updated to "Growth failure" or "Growth restriction"Spelling/formatting
210605RenalPhysiologyRelative concentrations along proximal tubuleNot neededRelative concentrations along proximal tubule {Mnemonic - Paranoid Creature In Ur Claudia Klaudia, Nana By Car Am Going} Paranoid (PAH) > Creature (Creatinine) > In (Insulin) > UR (your)(Urea) > Claudia (Cl-) > Klaudia (K+) > Nana (Na+) > By car (Bicarbonate) > Am (I'm)(Amino acids) > Going (Glucose)Mnemonic
211606RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemN/AMacula densa is in the thick ascending limb (aka distal straight tubule) not the Distal convoluted tubuleMajor erratum
212606RenalPhysiologyRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system?search=renin%20angiotensin%20aldosterone%20system&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H7496555The effect of systemic ANGII is to constrict both afferent and efferent to lower RBF/GFR. This diagram is showing the effect of low dose ANGII in TG Feedback, which does not belong on this diagram.Major erratum
213607RenalPhysiologyJuxtaglomerular apparatusN/AMacula densa is in the thick ascending limb (aka distal straight tubule) not the Distal convoluted tubuleMinor erratum
214608RenalPhysiologyPotassium shiftssee attachmentThe transmembrane movement of K+ down its gradient is diffusion not solvent drag (which is a paracellular phenomenon unrelated to ion gradients)Clarification to current text
215608RenalPhysiologyPotassium shiftsN/ANo such thing as a H/K exchange (except for the ATPase). There is no electrochemical gradient that could support K+ uptake and H+ extrusion. This is just the appearance of H/K exchange due to alkali-stimulation of the Na/K ATPase as correctly noted in previous editions.Clarification to current text
216611RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosismnemonic.Type 1: H+ defect (+ = 1). Type 2: HCO3- Defect (3-1 = 2). Type 4: Aldosterone problem (Aldosterone has 4 effect = Na, Water, K, H) and low NH4+. Type 1 and 2 hate bananas, therefore will have low serum Potassium, while Type 4 loves bananas and will have high serum Potassium.Mnemonic
217611RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosismnemonic"TUBES HARD”: Type 1, 2 and 4, Bicarbonate, Stone risk, Hyperkalemia, Acidic blood, Renal tubules, Defect. T: Types (1, 2, 4). U: Urinary bicarbonate excretion issues. B: Bicarbonate (deficiency or reabsorption problem). E: Electrolyte imbalances (like potassium). S: Stone risk (especially in Type 1). H: Hyperkalemia (high potassium, common in Type 4). A: Acidic blood (metabolic acidosis). R: Renal tubules (the location of the defect). D: Defect in acid-base balance.Mnemonic
218612RenalPhysiologyAcid-base physiologyn/aThe acid-base physiology table on p612 is formatted with the compensatory response in red arrows. The majority of tables in First Aid instead format the causative change with a red arrow. It is confusing to read a table that is formatted differently, expecting the differently colored arrows to indicate the primary causative change per usual.Spelling/formatting
219613RenalPhysiologyRenal tubular acidosishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/etiology-and-diagnosis-of-distal-type-1-and-proximal-type-2-renal-tubular-acidosis?search=renal%20tubular%20acidosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Mutations in the Cl/HCO3 exchanger AE1 also cause RTA1. This is not shown in the cell model on the left.High-yield addition to next year
220620RenalPathologyAcute interstitial nephritis"There are theories that the immune response may be overactive or in some cases inappropriate, and that this results in ongoing inflammation, the formation of granulomas, and in some cases, for scarring or fibrosis to occur. There is some growing evidence that this sarcoidosis immune response may also include an “autoimmune” response, with some reaction to “self” proteins. However, at the current time we do NOT consider sarcoidosis for the most part to be an autoimmune disease, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosis (lupus)." https://www.stopsarcoidosis.org/what-is-sarcoidosis/causes-risk-factors/ .................... ClinicalKey article for Sarcoidosis doesn't list that it's autoimmune. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/clinical_overview/67-s2.0-c82bceae-8bdb-47ea-be2e-47472e8b0764#clinical-clarification-heading-6or autoimmune diseases (eg, Sjögren syndrome, SLE, sarcoidosis).Minor erratum
221621RenalPathologyConsequences of renal failurehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/growth-failure-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-treatment-with-growth-hormone"Growth retardation" should be updated to "Growth failure" or "Growth impairment"Spelling/formatting
222626RenalPathologyRenal oncocytomaN/AText indicates an arrow should exist in diagram A, but no arrow is shown.Spelling/formatting
223628RenalPharmacologyAngiotensin II receptor blockershttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/major-side-effects-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers?search=angiotensin%20converting%20enzyme%20inhibitors&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E145&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Angioedema is second on the list of examples of ACEi side effects. Angioedema is very rare and this listing gives the wrong impression.Minor erratum
224628RenalPharmacologyAngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/major-side-effects-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers?search=angiotensin%20converting%20enzyme%20inhibitors&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E145&usage_type=default&display_rank=1Angioedema is second on the list of ACEi side effects. Angioedema is very rare and this listing gives the wrong impression.Minor erratum
225632ReproductiveEmbryologyImportant genes of embryogenesisN/A"Head to Butt": HomeoBox genes control segmental organization of embryo in CRANIO-CAUDAL axisMnemonic
226634ReproductiveEmbryologyPlacentahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539704/#:~:text=HCG%20is%20vital%20in%20the,as%20the%20corpus%20luteum%20graviditatis."Hey Corpus luteum, Grow!": hCG: stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone (to grow CL lining)Mnemonic
227634ReproductiveEmbryologyTeratogensN/A"Can't go WARFARING without strong BONES to march and EYES to see the enemy": Warfarin caues bone deformities and optic nerve atrophyMnemonic
228637ReproductiveEmbryologyPharyngeal pouch derivativesKlm embryologyVentral wing give rises to superior parathyroidsClarification to current text
229640ReproductiveEmbryologyUterine (Müllerian duct) anomaliesno needincorrect hysterosalpigogram correct hysterosalpingogramSpelling/formatting
230642ReproductiveEmbryologyUterine (Müllerian duct) anomalieshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK572146/#:~:text=Hysterosalpingogram%20is%20an%20imaging%20procedure,%2C%20and%20partner%2Dbased%20approach.incorrect hysterosalpigogram correct hysterosalpingogramSpelling/formatting
231643ReproductiveEmbryologyCongenital penile abnormalitieshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hypospadias-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-evaluation?search=hypospadias%20and%20epispadias&topicRef=4984&source=see_link#H1646088235A mnemonic to remember the Congenital Penile Abnormalities: "Penises can be HUGE." Hypospadias - Urethral Folds, Genital tubercle - EpispadiasMnemonic
232660ReproductivePathologyChoriocarcinomahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499850/I was doing a question on TrueLearn regarding choriocarcinoma. I got it wrong, but when I went to look it up in First Aid, it said that the beta subunit of hCG is similar to the beta unit of TSH but it is the alpha subunit of hCG that is similar to alpha subunit of TSH (& LH, FSH) which is why patients with choriocarcinoma can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism and gynecomastia. It is a minor erratum but I thought it was worth mentioning. I attached a screenshot of my TrueLearn question where it states on the right side that it is the alpha subunit as well as linked an NCBI article about this. I love this book, thank you!Minor erratum
233664ReproductivePathologyCervical pathologyGeneral pathology chapter of first aid and pathomadysplasia & CIS: CIN3 “severe, irreversible dysplasia”, should be written as “less likely to regress to normal” because reversibility is a feature of dysplasia that differentiates it from neoplasiaMinor erratum
234665ReproductivePathologyFunctional hypothalamic amenorrheanoneI suggest adding a table or diagram mentioning the primary and secondary causes of amenorrhea, as it is not quite obvious for the readerClarification to current text
235667ReproductivePathologyOvarian tumorsN/AA mnemonic to remember parts of Dygerminoma: LDH - Large cells, Dysgerminoma, hCGMnemonic
236669ReproductivePathologyBenign breast diseasesN/AAn easy way for students to remember mastitis: mass tits (inflammation="mass" in the breast="tits"). I apologize in advance for the vulgar slang.Mnemonic
237670ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerinformation written in Robbin’s & the Pathoma book1- it would be a good idea to emphasize that lack of E-cadherin in lobular carcinoma results in loose cells, unlike ductal carcinoma. 2- add info about the comedo type in DCIS 3- add types of invasive ductal carcinoma: tubular and mucinous, and a little information about them 4- add histological photos differentiating between how ER/PR + look with staining, and HER2+ (the former have the nucleus stained while the latter has the cytoplasm stained, which reminds the reader that the former enter the nucleus while the latter works in the cytoplasm, related to signaling molecules in the endocrine chapter) 5- I would also add a table summarizing which conditions have a movable/solid tumor, bilateral or unilateral, multifocal, etc.High-yield addition to next year
238670ReproductivePathologyBreast cancerpreviousincorrect spelling in my previous suggestion above this, 3- add information about the comedo type of DCIS, which may also help the reader understand why calcifications are seen in this type.High-yield addition to next year
239673ReproductiveEmbryologyHuman chorionic gonadotropinpage 654 of 2023 edition; Medscape article oh hcG, PMID: 10548880, and many others.Under Choriocarcninoma, it states that hCG shares beta subunit with TSH, its actually alpha subunit that is in commonMajor erratum
240673ReproductivePathologyTesticular tumorshttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjUkYHO6vmEAxWp7LsIHZmUANMQFnoECCYQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Ftopics%2Fmedicine-and-dentistry%2Fchorionic-gonadotropin-alpha-subunit&usg=AOvVaw3KG5I7WIkG3gm_3Cpd4rnY&opi=89978449 + was mentioned in the beginning of the chapterlast line in choriocarcinoma is incorrect. It should be ALPHA is similar, not BETA!Major erratum
241676ReproductivePharmacologySelective estrogen receptor modulatorsSelf-studyHello! For Tamoxifen v/s Raloxifene I have put it in a simple table format for better understandingClarification to current text
242686RespiratoryPhysiologyPulmonary circulationnonedelta x in the fraction is too far offSpelling/formatting
243689RespiratoryPhysiologyOxyhemoglobin dissociation curvehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/hemoglobin-variants-that-alter-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity?search=p50%20dissociation&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1%7E150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1The graph displaying the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve correctly shows Hb saturation (%) on the y-axis and PO2 (mm Hg) on the x-axis. At the 50% mark, a dotted horizontal line spans the width of the graph with "P50" listed next to the dotted line. The "P50" label is in line with the 50% Hb saturation mark, implying that P50 represents a Hb saturation. Instead, it represents a pressure: specifically, the pressure at which Hb is 50% saturation. The P50 is a value of pressure, not of Hb saturation, and so should not be listed along the 50% sat. point of the y-axis, but rather along the corresponding pressure point of the x-axis.Minor erratum
244690RespiratoryPhysiologyResponse to high altitudeN/AShould be a colon after "Chronic ↑ in ventilation" indicating the following changes listed below this line only occur in the chronic hyperventilatory state. Currently reads "Chronic ↑ in ventilation." This does not intuitively appear to be a header for the information listed below.Spelling/formatting
245695RespiratoryPathologyObstructive lung diseasesnonemissing parenthesis at the end of emphysema notesSpelling/formatting
246704RespiratoryPathologyPancoast tumorhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482155/it is noteworthy to add that NSCLC is the most common cancer associated with Pancoast tumor.High-yield addition to next year
247704RespiratoryPathologySuperior vena cava syndromehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482155/Text says "Commonly caused by malignancy (Mediastinal mass, Pancoast tumor)" - Pancoast tumors are less common causes of SVC syndrome given their more peripheral location and cause ipsilateral facial flushing if the sympathetic/cervical ganglion is involved.Clarification to current text
248711Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid ReviewNot neededThe entry for "Euvolemic hyponatremia in SIADH" states increased "ANB" instead of "ANP" (atrial natriuretic peptide). ANP is mentioned on page 342.Spelling/formatting
249712RespiratoryPharmacologyPhosphodiesterase inhibitorshttps://www.daliresp.com/#:~:text=DALIRESP%20is%20not%20a%20bronchodilator,is%20not%20the%20effective%20dose.Roflumilast is stated to bronchodilate, but it is not a bronchodilatorMajor erratum
250713Rapid ReviewPathologyHypothyroidismN/AIn the factoid "Myxedema in hypothyroidism", "GAGs" is mistyped as "CAGs"Minor erratum
251713Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid Reviewself understoodSuperior Gluteal injury: hip that drops due to (remove) adductor weakness. Correction: ..... due to defective "ABDUCTOR MECHANISM"Minor erratum
252713Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid Reviewhttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123577-overview?form=fpf#a4Myxedema in Hypothyroidism, you wrote an increase in CAGs in interstitial space, it should be GAGsSpelling/formatting
253713EndocrineRapid ReviewNEW FACThttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123577-overview?form=fpfIncrease in CAG is mentioned instead of increase in GAG in myxedema in hypothyroidismSpelling/formatting
254717Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid ReviewnoneAging-related impaired accommodation, " likely due to primarily due to" decreasd lens elasticitySpelling/formatting
255717Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewNEW FACTOxford Practice Grammar"Presbyopia - Aging-related impaired accommodation, likely due to primarily due to decreased lens elasticity" This description should state either "likely due to" or "primarily due to".Spelling/formatting
256720Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewVitamin KFA 2024"Vitamin K deficiency - Hemorrhagic disease of newborn with aPTT, normal bleeding time" It states that bleeding time is normal, but just says aPTT. According to FA 2024 on p. 69 the aPTT would be elevated. Proposed correction would be to include an up arrow before aPTT.Spelling/formatting
257723Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewRapid Reviewhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/infections-due-to-streptococcus-bovis-streptococcus-equinus-complex-sbsec-formerly-group-d-streptococciFor "Colon cancer associated with infective endocarditis" entry, include "Streptococcus gallolyticus" as an alternative to "Streptococcus bovis" to keep the presentation consistent throughout the text.Clarification to current text
258725Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewDementiahttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementiaChorea, "dementia", caudate degeneration, "dementia" (The word dementia is entered twice in the same line)Spelling/formatting
259738Rapid ReviewRapid ReviewMisoprostolFormatting errorEvery two commonly mistaken drugs switches background color between blue and white. However, between the drugs fluphenazine and mifepristone, there is no change in background color which affects the rest of the background colors of the text.Spelling/formatting
260742Section IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesSection IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesNEW FACThttps://bootcamp.com/med-schoolAdditional high yield review resource that I was surprised not to see on the list - Med School Bootcamp. Many of the students in my class use Bootcamp extensively to learn material - it is more highly favored than B&B, plus it offers review questions after each video, in addition to USMLE-style questions.High-yield addition to next year
261748Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsCH50 stands for 50% Haemolytic Complement that's mentioned on page 104Clarification to current text
262748Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsCXCR/CCR stands for C-X-C chemokine receptor/C-C chemokine receptor that's mentioned on page 108Clarification to current text
263749Section IV Top-Rated Review ResourcesAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsSpellingEuChromatin (not euThromatin)Spelling/formatting
264749Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsFOXP3 stands for forkhead box p3 that is mentioned on page 100Clarification to current text
265750Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsHSL stands for hormone sensitive lipase that is mentioned on page 88Clarification to current text
266750Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsHib stands for Haemophilus influenzae type b that is mentioned on page 96Clarification to current text
267751Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsmyocardial VOLUME oxygen consumption (volume is missed)Minor erratum
268751Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsMCAD ( Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) should be added because of mentioning it on page 88Clarification to current text
269751Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsMBL-MASP stands for Mannose-binding lectin--MBL-associated serine protease that is mentioned on page 104Clarification to current text
270751Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsJC stands for John Cunningham that's mentioned on page 116Clarification to current text
271752Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAcetylcholine receptorsInternal inconsistencyThe "Nm" abbreviation in the Abbreviations and Symbols section says it stands for "muscarinic ACh receptor in neuromuscular junction", but on p235, it is defined as nicotinic: "Nicotinic ACh receptors...Two subtypes: NN...and NM (found in neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle)."Minor erratum
272753Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsRAG stands for recombination-activating gene that is mentioned on page 102Clarification to current text
273753Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsSRP stands for signal recognition particle that is mentioned on page 113Clarification to current text
274754Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsRepetitionVMAT was written twiceSpelling/formatting
275805BiochemistryGeneticsRett syndromehttps://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/rett-syndrome https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/rett-syndrome/On the reference page to look up MECP2 gene page 805 it has Rhett Syndrome spelled However, on the referenced page of 60 the disorder is spelled Rett Syndrome.Spelling/formatting
2762021 page 314CardiovascularPathologyECG localization of STEMIhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4040874/SALIC P, Easy way to remember ecg localizationMnemonic
277xxxNeurology and Special SensesNeuropathologyCranial nervesxLower Licks the Lesion (LMN lesions of tongue deviate towards the lesion)Mnemonic
278416Hematology and OncologyPhysiologyHemoglobin electrophoresisIt is a mneumonicAll For Science Club will the menmonic to remember the arrangement of the HbMnemonic
279666ReproductivePathologyOvarian tumorsBoard and Beyond, Lina Steinrud Mørch, Ellen Løkkegaard, Anne Helms Andreasen, Susanne Krüger-Kjaer, Ojvind Lidegaard JAMA 2009 July 16in ovarian tumors it says there is decrease risk of ovarian tumors with pregnancy, history of breastfeeding, OCPs and tubal ligations. As per Boards and Beyond these fall in low risk group, people with these aren't protected against these cancers they have a lower incidence to have these cancers. Hormone replacement therapy increases risk of ovarian epithelia. Please provide clarification for OCPs increase or decrease because as per referred study from eMedicine Regardless of the duration of use, the formulation, estrogen dose, regimen, progestin type, and route of administration, hormone therapy was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.Minor erratum
28092BiochemistryMetabolismFamilial dyslipidemiashttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519567Type III Dysbetalipoproteinaemia results mostly in increased Chylomicron Remnants, IDL and a remnant form of VLDL called beta-VLDL and the resulting rise in triglycerides and cholesterol. This is because it affects ApoE, hence the lipoproteins that enter the liver are the main ones affected.The mixed rise in TGs and cholesterol is a notable sign. (Original text has chylomicrons, VLDL and TGs)Major erratum
281585PsychiatryPathologyEnuresishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nocturnal-enuresis-in-children-etiology-and-evaluationIn the definition, "Nighttime urinery incontinence" should be replaced by "urinary incontinence during sleep" because the child may have urinery incontinence during daytime sleeping and still have enuresis.Minor erratum
282585PsychiatryPathologyEnuresishttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/nocturnal-enuresis-in-children-etiology-and-evaluationIn the definition, " > 5 years old" should be replaced by " ≥5 years old".Minor erratum
283547Neurology and Special SensesOtologyOtitis mediahttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/994656-overview#a4The most common bacterial pathogen in AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella. So, it's better to put Streptococcus pneumoniae the first causative organism in the text, given being most common.Spelling/formatting
284531Neurology and Special SensesPathologySeizureshttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/seizures-and-epilepsy-in-children-classification-etiology-and-clinical-featuresI think that at the beginning of the text the word "Affect" should be replaced by "Originate" because focal seizures can affect more than a single area of the brain after being originated by a single area of the brain.Minor erratum
285181MicrobiologySystemsTORCH infectionsuWorld Question Id: 12292Beside Sexual contact and organ transplants, body fluid exposure (eg, urine and saliva) is a major source of maternal CMV acquisition, which I think it's high-yield to add.High-yield addition to next year
286585PsychiatryPathologyNarcolepsyhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-narcolepsy-in-adults#:~:text=(See%20'Medication%20selection'%20above,and%20illicit%20use%20is%20rare.Modafinil is a first-line pharmacologic therapy for narcolepsy. So, I think in term of formatting, it should be before amphetamines.Spelling/formatting
287509Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologyDopaminergic pathwaysAnatomy booksThe ventral tegmental area is located in the midbrain. In the drawing, it seems to be drawn in the pons while it must be displaced quite cranially to be in its right location in the midbrain.Minor erratum
288402GastrointestinalPathologyBiliary tract diseasehttps://www.mdedge.com/gihepnews/article/140096/gastroenterology/sjogrens-syndrome-most-common-extrahepatic-pbcSjögren’s syndrome most common extrahepatic primary biliary cholangitis manifestation.High-yield addition to next year
289158MicrobiologyParasitologyEctoparasitesThis was simply a spelling error.In the 2022 Edition of First Aid USMLE Step 1, "Cimex Hemipterus" is misspelled "Climex Hemipterus."Spelling/formatting
290141MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyBordetella pertussisMnemonicTdap vaccine used in adulT and Dtap vaccine used in chilDMnemonic
291143MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyCampylobacter jejunihttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article%3Fid%3D10.1371/journal.ppat.1002420%23:~:text%3DCampylobacter%2520jejuni%2520produces%2520amphitrichous%2520It should be better to add "at each pole" after polar flagellaClarification to current text
29284BiochemistryMetabolismGlycogenFirst Aid pg 72 Summary of Pathways Glycogenesis/GlycogenolysisThere should be an additional arrow drawn from Glycogen to Glucose-1-P in the orange box to indicate the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase which is one of the Rate Limiting Steps. There should also be a star at step 3 to represent the other Rate limiting step.Clarification to current text
293145MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyLeptospira interrogansFormattingIn "the" tropics not in tropicsSpelling/formatting
294374GastrointestinalAnatomyLiver tissue architecturenot neededTo simplify the zones here's a useful mnemonic: "Zone III is FAR from the TRIad" [III equals TRI and FAR is three lettered. Can further add ''and close to the center".] Meaning that zone 3 of the hepatocyte is actually away from the portal triad and close to the center.Mnemonic
295148MicrobiologyClinical BacteriologyRickettsial diseases and vector-borne illnesseshttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/rickettsiae-and-related-organisms/q-fever%23:~:text%3D(See%2520also%2520Overview%2520of%2520Rickettsial,no%2520longer%2520classified%2520as%2520Rickettsia.&ved=2ahUKEwjxqJHsh6WHAxW29AIHHf4nChcQFnoECA0QBQ&usg=AOvVaw0_ngprvURVGNkZ3P1qZatuCoxiella burnetii is no longer classified as Rickettsia.Minor erratum
296395GastrointestinalPathologyColorectal cancerN/ACRC presentation in "Ascending colon causes iron deficiency Anemia"Mnemonic
297758Photo AcknowledgmentsPhoto AcknowledgmentsPhoto AcknowledgmentsContents of page 154Image A on page 154 depicted schuffner stippling in RBC.Minor erratum
298403GastrointestinalPathologyCholelithiasis and related pathologiesnot neededCan change it to 8 risk factors (8F's) and add 'Fibrates' to the original mnemonic.Mnemonic
299620RenalPathologyAcute interstitial nephritisNoticed it while readingThe DRAINS mnemonic listing has an erratic bracket next to Rifampin.Spelling/formatting
300161MicrobiologyVirologyDNA virusesMnemonicHepaDNAvirus is a DNA virus.Mnemonic
301164MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesMnemonicPicoRNAvirus is a RNA virus.Mnemonic
302164MicrobiologyVirologyRNA virusesMnemonicFlavus means yellow in Latin. (For remembering of yellow fever)Mnemonic
303620RenalPathologyAcute interstitial nephritisNBMEI recently solved an NBME and they referred to the 'auto-immune' disorders causing interstitial nephritis as 'systemic inflammatory' disorders, this way we can still mention Sarcoidosis.Clarification to current text
304164MicrobiologyVirologyRNA viruseshttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/marburg-virus-disease&ved=2ahUKEwj44MKV5K6HAxV0F1kFHYZBBi0QFnoECBkQAQ&usg=AOvVaw34eeFqv9Mn-unfZwOZYa01The name of Marbug hemorrhagic fever changed to "marburg virus disease".Minor erratum
305748Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsDMARD stands for disease-modifying antirheumatic drug that's mentioned on page 168Clarification to current text
306322CardiovascularPharmacologyVascular smooth muscle contraction and relaxationhttps://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/advan.00025.2003?rfr_dat=cr_pub++0pubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.orgIn the diagram "Cardiovascular agents and molecular targets," the cell is labeled as a smooth muscle cell. Because smooth muscle is phosphorylated when contracted, decreasing the intracellular calcium levels is not enough to cause muscle relaxation. Myosin-light chain phosphatase is needed to dephosphorylate myosin light chains. On the relaxation side of the cell, it would make more sense to show PKA inhibiting MLCK rather than PKA inhibiting PLB. For starters, not all smooth muscle cells have PLB. Secondly, the main process by which Gs coupled protein receptors cause smooth muscle relaxation is by the inhibition of MLCK. Showing PLB and SERCA makes more sense if you’re trying to demonstrate effects on cardiac contraction.Clarification to current text
307749Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsEnv stands for envelope that is mentioned on page 173Clarification to current text
308749Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsGag stands for group specific antigen that is mentioned on page 173Clarification to current text
309752Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsPol stands for polymerase that's mentioned on page 173Clarification to current text
310753Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsPrPc stands for cellular prion proteinClarification to current text
311753Abbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviations and SymbolsAbbreviationsPrPsc stands for scrapie prion protein that's mentioned on page 175Clarification to current text
312507Neurology and Special SensesAnatomy and PhysiologySleep physiologyNBMEREM Sleep behavior disorder- loss of muscle atonynia during REM sleep leads to patients violently acting out their dreamsHigh-yield addition to next year
313443Hematology and OncologyPathologyTumor lysis syndromehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/tumor-lysis-syndrome-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-definition-etiology-and-risk-factors?search=tumor%20lysis%20syndrome&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2%7E103&usage_type=default&display_rank=2To remember that in TLS you get hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia, I think "pour out the KUP." (KUP = cup)Mnemonic